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» Importance of Leadership Values
Importance of Leadership Values
This is a research report on
Importance of Leadership Values
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390 views, 0 comments, Last Update: Apr 29, 2012.
IMPORTANCE OF VALUES IN LEADERSHIP, HOW LEADERS / MANAGERS SHOULD RESPOND TO HUMAN VALUES:
Values express dharma or divine nature as understood in the east, particularly in the Indian ethos and insight and the ideas of integrity as understood in the west. Values creates invaluable credibility and goodwill of individuals. Leaders with values has state of mind, equanimity. Such a person can mobilize his and other?s energy and help accomplish wonders. Leaders having values develop themselves and help others to develop values in time. Further this makes leader a model to be emulated by others. The final proof of sincerity and seriousness in uncompromising emphasis on integrity of character in a job. For it is character through which leadership is exercised, it is character that sets the example and is imitated in turn. Leader lacking in character and integrity which are the part of values no matter how knowledgeable, how brilliant, how successful – he destroys people the valuable asset of company. He destroys spirit and he destroys performance. Leader having values will poise, wisdom, harmony and peace to manage effectively others and to assure enriched quality of mind as well as enriched quality of work. This would result in effectiveness of performance. Leaders are after all basically human being who can manage himself with the aim of reaching the perception the human spirit is capable proof value based leaders can easily purify hearts and minds of themselves decisions taken by such people would be unbiased one. Leaders effectiveness at work is tied to exercising intrinsic human values. These human values support established business values such as service, communication, excellence, creditability, innovation, creativity and co-ordination. Human values helps self development. Managerial functions such as direction, control, supervision and communication, integration and co-ordination are much easier. Human values help good interpersonal interactions. They reduce conflicts and disputes. They are part and parcel of achieving accelerated process improvement customer, workers and citizen satisfaction. Leaders through their values enhance reputation and goodwill of the organization.
People constitute the greatest dynamic inputs in any organization. They are the center or pivot and must be regard as the vital and integral part of organization and management. Every individual is the representation of a divine essence. The true leader has due regard for the divine, essence in every member of the organization and recognizes practically unlimited potential energy of a human being which can be tapped by any manager. Development of people not in skills but in normal, ethical and spiritual values now becomes the necessary end in itself. Human harmony and happiness are the main objectives of any enterprise to justify its survival and progress. Due overburden of science and technology at use has bought undesirable results such as unwanted stresses and strains unrest and loneliness in the human mind which has to be removed by adding values at quality of work towards which leaders must take the step. Leaders must start altering the old-man machine situation man must be given positions as masters and not a slave to machine or technology. Human values would honour the core humanness and bring about harmony and balance between values as means and values as ends.
The role of “leadership character” in management: Leaders influence many aspects of work, they : ? The chief communicator of the group; ? Affect motivation by their behaviour; ? Are responsible for the group?s objectives being understood and achieved. As leadership is a critical influence of group performance, it is worth understanding more about leadership and that makes an effective leader. Effective Leadership Contrary to popular belief, no one is a born leader. But some people do have certain abilities that predispose them to developing into a leader. Like public speaking, and many other skills, leadership can be learned and developed. While there is no agreed list of qualities that makes a good leader and different leadership styles suit different situations. It is widely agreed that leaders tend to have the following characteristics:
? ? ? ?
Intelligence academic achievement Social maturity – emotional maturity and a wide range of interests Self-motivation and an achievement orientation Self confidence and good communication skills.
“Leadership is the behavior of an individual when he is directing the activities of a group towards shared goals”. Leaders influence many aspects of work, they: ? are the chief communication of the group; ? affect motivation by their behaviour; ? are responsible for the group?s objective being understood and achieved. Leadership plays a significant role in the success of an organization, infact leadership transforms potential into reality. Leadership is a part of management and not full as management is getting things done by others by giving orders using authority etc. as leaders, guide, consult and depend on confidence. Without leadership, an organization would be what the same Valmiki wrote in Ramayana. “Like a herd of cattle without a keeper Like an army without a general Like a night without moon Like a group of cows without a bull Such would be a country When the king is not seen” Characteristics of a Leader: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. He He He He He He He should be innovative and creative should be original i.e. he should take initiative. should have good communication skills. should have decision-making skills. should have good human relation skills. should have conceptual skills. should be able to focus on people. He should be an inspire i.e. he should have motivation skill. H should have long-range perspective.
He should be able to develop his follower so that they can take initiative, which generates a sense of selfinvolvement, which is very much necessary in management. 2. He should always have his eye on the vision. 1. He should always be ready to accept interruptible challenges. 2. Leader is not like a soldier; he is a person in himself. He leads, everyone follows. 3. Intelligence academic achievement. 4. Social maturity 5. Self-motivation and an achievement orientation. 6. A wide range of interests.
The character of a leader is not one-dimensional: compromises spectrum of traits that include integrity and compassion in the yogic psychology. The trait of compassion is found at the fourth chakra, the subtle energy center of the heart. Leaders who are attached to third chakra the center of ambition and the will to power are unrealized as leaders dictators such as Napoleon,HitlerandStalinare deluded by dreams of glory. Those who have evolved to the higher fourth chakra will exhibit compassionate unity with their followers. Leaders construct and define their own value system, and they proceed with morality toward noble goals. In the final analysis good intentions are not enough. The quality of leadership should be judged also on the quality of the outcome or consequences of the leader?s actions and they must maintains moral symmetry as the deal with various stakeholders. Organizational and political success correlates significantly with fitness of character, thought. Great leaders are moral; they operate from a deep ethical platform that considers values such as justice and goodness, to be the guiding principle for organization decisions.
Are Leaders born or made? LEADERS ARE BORN & MADE….
Leadership is the ability to articulate a vision, embrace the values of the vision and nurture an environment where everyone can reach the organizations goal and their own personal needs. Leadership is an indescribable ability based on concrete principles and a tool that anyone can learn that helps guides an organization or group of people in a beneficial direction or to a valuable destination. The ability to get work done with and through others, while at the same time winning their confidence respect, loyalty and willing cooperation. Before we get started, let?s define leadership. Leadership is a complex process by which a person influences others to accomplish a mission, task, or objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. A person carries out this process by applying her leadership attributes (belief, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills). The complete definition highlights the difference between simply managing and being a leader. Good leaders are made not born. If you have the desire and will power, you can become an effective leader; Good leaders develop through a never-ending process of self-study, education, training and experience. There is very little evidence that the so-called “naturally born? leader really exists. Continuing and ongoing studies are showing that the concept of a “natural born” leader has little merit. One reason for this error may be that people often mistake “charisma” for leadership. It is true that some leaders possess a great amount of charisma. However, many leaders do not. In reality leaders are not born, they are forged by many factors. Some factors that often forge effective leadership traits are education, preparation, experience and opportunity. To inspire your people into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must know and, do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. The best leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills. Although your position as a manager, supervisor, lead, etc. gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the
organization this power does not make you a leader…. It simply makes you the boss. Leadership makes people want to achieve high goals and objectives, while on the other hand, bosses tell people to accomplish a task or objective. Bass?s theory of leadership states that there are three basic ways to explain how people become leaders. The first two explain the leadership development for a small number of people. These theories are: Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. This is the Trait Theory. A crisis of important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. This is the Great Events Theory. People can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills. This is the Transformational Leadership Theory. It holds that, contrary to popular belief, no one is born a leader but some people do have certain abilities that predispose them to developing into a leader like public speaking, and many other skills, leadership can be learned and developed. While there is no agreed list of qualities that make a good leader and different leadership styles suit different situations. It is the most widely accepted theory today. Born leaders are the ones who have inborn qualities of a leader. Where as, in case leader, it is often a mentor who shapes a leader. E.g. Born Leader: DhirubhaiAmbani, JRD Tata,BalThackeray, Dalai Lama,ShivajiMaharaj,IndiraGandhi, Gandhiji,Alexander, Shree Ram. Made Leader: KMBirla,IKGujral, the greatNarayanMurthy,SwamiVivekanand. Dhirubhai Ambani – Rely on him DhirajlalHirachandAmbanipopularly known asDhirubhaiAmbanihas become corporateIndia?s living legend. Ambani, a high school dropout from Chorwad inGujarat?s Junagadh district, has puzzled conformists and competitors with his brand of management where the only things that mattered were results and benefits for his shareholders. of made
Dhirubhai had been an opportunity right from his childhood. All he needed was a whiff of a business opportunity and he was to tap it. During the Mahashivratri festival, he would sell ganthia to the local community to earn money. Later, due to shortage of money, he left education after matriculation and went toAdento earn a living. He worked for almost 8 hours in a petrol pump where he learnt all about the oil business until a day came when he was bitten by the entrepreneurial bug. He came back toBombayto start his own business. With a loan, he started Reliance Commercial Corporation, involved in general merchandising. He then started his yarn business in the 60s followed by his own spinning mill in 1966 known as Reliance Textile Industries. He firmly believed that if a person wishes to succeed, then complete access to information is crucial. He always collected updated information on competitors, market size, government rules and regulations etc. He believed in „Simple living, modern thinking?. He was always a pioneer. He would act instantly and capitalize on market changes, new policies etc. and would implement his plans successfully. He did not believe in meeting demand but creating demand. He always produced in large quantities. He always aimed at providing best goods to the consumer at affordable prices. Moreover, he unlike other leaders, he was an expert in various fields. He was a manufacturing as well as marketing wiz. He knew how to offer the right product mix, identify markets and establish efficient distribution centers and structures, which holds true for one of his famous brands, Vimal. He is also referred to as the „Manchester of India?. He didn?t mind copying ideas, which he could implement better than his competitors. As in the case of copying the concept of selling through showrooms to counter the resistance from traditional markets from Bombay Dyeing. He always had the dynamism and confidence in future and was always ready to go against all odds. He always believed in himself.
He always believed in his responsibility towards stakeholders. He was also known as the „stock master messiah?. This is because once some marwari men were trying to bring down the price of his shares by short selling; he counter attacked them in turn earned a hefty sum from them. He always had a wide investor base and most of his subscriptions were always oversubscribed. An innovator in the financial market, he reintroduced concepts like partial convertible bonds, fully convertible bonds etc. he always believed in „think big, think fast, and think ahead?. Dhirubhai is one of the greatest leaders ofIndiawho had the zeal to achieve something big rather than just earning money. He worked till his death. As a true leader, Dhirubhai had once said, „People think I have finally arrived, but I think I have just begun?. In 20 years Dhirubhai?s Reliance empire has grossed sales of Rs.13,740 crore (Rs.67 crore in 1997) and made a net profit of Rs.1,653 crore for the year ended 1998. Its assets have grown to Rs.24,388 crore from Rs.33 crore in 1977. When most industry players went to the banks for money, Dhirubai went directly to the public. A fighter, Ambani always tried to safeguard the interests of his investors? along with his company?s. „If Reliance bets on the right people, it will always remain a company of entrepreneurs?. SaysMr.Ambani. Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam – The “Missile Man? of India He was born in Dhanushkodi in Rameswaram district of Tamil Nadu onOctober 15, 1931. His father rented out boats to payAbdulKalam?s school fees. The young man distributed newspapers to help and contribute towards the household and his school expenses. He did his B.Sc. atSt. Joseph?s College, Trichi, and DMIT in Aeronautical Engineering at MIT,Madras. AbdulKalamjoined the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) in 1958. Later he moved to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) where he succeeded in putting the 35-Kg Rohini-I satellite on a low-earth orbit with the help of the SLV-III (Satellite Launch Vehicle). After spending 19 prolific years in ISRO, he returned to DRDO to head the country?s missile development programme, which culminated in the successful launch of theAgniand the Prithvi.
He went on to be the Scientific Adviser to Defence Minister and Secretary, Department of Defence Research & Development, and has been appointed Principal Scientific Adviser to the Government of India. As chief ofIndia?s defence research and development programme, Kalam, transformed moribund government organizations into fighting machines that can deliver. The three underground nuclear tests in the Pokhran range of Rajasthan despite mounting pressure to abandon nuclear programme under his able guidance has made India reaffirm its nuclear preparedness. The only brief experience that he had abroad was in 1963-64 when he was invited by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to spend four months in theUSat the Wallops Island Rocketry Centre and the Langley Research Centre. He has been awarded with theIndia?s Highest Civilian Award the “BharatRatna” in 1998. Othe rprestigious awards include Dr. Biren Roy Space Award, Om Prakash Basin Award for Science and Technology, National Nehru Award, Arya Bhatta Award. He is also the author of “Wings of Fire” – an autobiography. The 66 year old, scientist leads an austere life and when he is not working his usual 18 hours a day, – he also writes poetry and plays the veena. Krishnawas a born leader to which the Indian community looks at. He is someone who is the best definition of successful leader. Similarity between Dhirubhai and Lord Krishna ? Holistic vision – both possessed it.Krishnaalways knew that was happening and developed timely strategies. ? Well networked – both had strong contacts with people, and knew how to get work done. ? Opportunist and shrewd. ? Aggressive, proactive and highly political. ? Very creative. ? People oriented leaders. ? Optimum utilization of all resources, also recognize and identify skills of people. ? Situational leaders. ? High level of confidence and self-belief.
Quick decision maker.
What is Karma? INTRODUCTION TO KARMA Throughout evolution, suffering has formed an integral part of human experience. Time and again, the question is raised: Why does suffering exist in a world created by an almighty and all-loving God? Allowing suffering he cannot be all loving. If suffering is outside his domain, he cannot be almighty. The question seems insoluble, but only as long as we maintain that suffering is bad. Could it be that suffering has a purpose, may be even a loving purpose? People from the east have long had an explanation for the cause of suffering and how to terminate it. EvenBuddhakeeps returning to this crucial problem. In his four truths and teachings about the noble eightfold path, he emphasizes that suffering is caused by earthly desires and that suffering only stops when a person has achieved complete awareness and has no desires at all. These thoughts seem odd to most Westerners. Let me therefore begin by describing the law that causes all this suffering. The initiates of the East call it the Law of Karma. In the West people call it the Law of Cause and Effect. WHAT IS KARMA? Karma is a Sanskrit word meaning “action”. According to the Law of Karma, you shall reap in this life or the next as you have sown in this and previous lives. Every thought, feeling and need impels a corresponding reaction. However, it is more the motive and intent behind a deep that impels a reaction rather than the deed itself. This is why a child only creates very little karma through his actions. This is also why deeds seeming good, but with an egoistic motive behind, only have a small positive effect. On the other hand, a police officer killing a potential evildoer to save a victim?s life will only face little karma. Krishnatells us is in theBhagvadGita: “One who acts by dedicating all activities to the Ultimate Truth, giving up attachment; is not affected by sin; just as a lotus leaf in water.” Ignorance is to a far greater extent than malice the cause of human suffering. As long as we are attached to transient earthly things, we shall experience suffering when we lose them. Therefore, all great and enlightened souls, who have taught us humans about eternal values,
first told us to seek the kingdom of God; then we shall be given all that we need. Still, we have a free will to choose and learn through our choices. It is important to emphasise that karma not only involves all the positive effects we have brought about through our many lives, but also the painful circumstances we have had to deal with and learn from. Bad Karma results in suffering and the purpose is to help man get back on the right path. Good karma on the other had opens up for possibilities, and the aim here is for man to use his good experience and qualities to help others. Thus he will help himself. THE LAW OF KARMA Learn to live according to spiritual rules of eternal life and improve the quality of your life. Your mind, emotions, speech and actions are affected by this law. Mankind sometimes gets struck by their “destiny?> Some suffer from illness, accidents, from being beaten half death or death and they most if not all the time claims others of being guilty. This of course is completely wrong. Mankind needs to learn to be fully responsible for all they do. The law of Karma explains why illness, accidents and disasters of any kind may occurs to some persons, and why others may enjoy a happy life, free, healthy and joyful. Learn to properly apply this law for your personal benefit – it will be at the same time for the benefit of all. By properly applying all spiritual principles of God?s Divine creation, your life will become instantly easier – provided you follow ALL rules exactly to the word. THE LAW OF KARMA – HOW IT WORKS Actually it is very simple and has been known for thousands of years. The law of Karma is known in Christian teachings, as well as in many other cultures. It says: Whatever you do to others – will be done to you, in this or any future incarnation of your soul. This law is so straightforward and logical, it sometimes is hard to believe, that some persons still think they may somehow get around it. If you knock your head against a wall, it is obvious – it may damage the wall and it may hurt your head. If you knock someone by physically fighting – you may cause harm, pain, injury to the person and the law of Karma requires you to experience the same pain. This is to have you
learn to behave in a way that accuses but pleasant experience to others and yourself alike. Whatever you do, you may attract persons around you, that have a same or similar Karma than you have. If you are of a physically fighting nature, you may attract such persons again and again. Until you start to become aware of your own behavior and start to be fed up with the result of your very own actions. Until you start to strive for a more peaceful environment. The only sure method of finding one is changing your very own behavior. This law applies for individuals as much as for families, groups, villages, cities, nations, cultures or even entire planets. WHERE DOES THIS LAW APPLY ? It applies for all you do toward any being including animals, plants, planets, beings of any nature beyond physical sphere, humans, including what some may consider “criminals” – remember: All are children of God – made out of his Holy Spirit, made to the image of God. This law is valid for ? all ? all ? all ? all of of of of your your your your actions words thoughts emotions
SCIENTIFIC APPPROACH TO KARMA Western scientists also see a relation between deeds and either well being or suffering. Current researchers of psychological and social issues are trying to uncover this relation. It is actually widely accepted that traumas may be traced back to childhood and early adolescence. It is further recognised that unfortunate decisions made by decisionmakers of previous generations contribute to social problems in later generations. All in all, it is acknowledged that suffering is an interaction between individual psychological dispositions, hereditary genetic factors and social circumstances. In short, individual problems are the result of both inner and outer circumstances having root in the past. The core issue separating Western belief from Eastern belief is whether the causes of suffering only may be ascribed to this life or whether they may also be ascribed to past lives. The latter belief is not accepted in academic circles today, even though the idea was widespread in ancient Greece, the cradle of modern science.
IS BUSINESS EXCELLENCE POSSIBLE WITHOUT According to me I do believe that business excellence is
COMPROMISING ON QUALITY ECONOMY / PROFITABILITY ? possible without compromising integrity quality and economy/profitability. In today?s world business is regarded as evil tainted and unethical but it is not so. Business is a sacred sadhana it is a matter of attitude approach and level of management consciousness. One can do business, make money, earn profit, build up property and even then it can be managed with due recognition to human and ethical values and respecting all persons in expertise and in the society as human beings. Let us first consider integrity. Integrity is wholeness, a goodness, courage and self discipline to live by your inner truth. Wholeness implies totality soundness perfection and completeness. It is our ego which has separated us from others by implementing the concept of wholeness. We can have a peace working environment which would lead to zero conflicts. Goodness covers all essential values such as honesty, morality, mindness, fairness, charity, truthfulness, generosity, etc. This would pure our thoughts and would be able to motivate our employees to work effectively. Courage points out acts of bravery the person with courage has guts to go ahead do something which is risky through courage. We can set up an open example to our followers. Self discipline means that we have control on mind and senses. Our quality of life changes with discipline and self control. The quality of life would give us greater harmony and happiness. We always need discipline and courage together to reach our objective in time. Living by inner truth: Inner mind or truth communicates through joint whispers intuitive thought feeling buried deep within us. To live by inner truth at work amounts to remain incorruptible, clean and inviolable which is the major crisis of today?s world. It would also be profitable to the organization since it will cultivate a good company?s image in the mind of the customers. Quality: It is one of the most important features of a product or services which every customer looks into a quality product or service gets very well distinguished from other product and service in the
market, it creates good brand image in the sight of the customers. In today?s competitive world quality s the only feature which can enable a company to the top position HOLISTIC APPROACH TO PERSONALITY Qualities required for development of a personality (SarvangiVikasorSarvatomukhiPratibha) are : Atmavishwas (self Confidence): Self-confidence is a must in each and every individual. “Can do” attitude must be developed in every individual. Para Samman (Reverence for all creation): An individual must have reverence for nature, man, animal, etc. Sahas (Daring): An individual must have the daring to face challenges and accept everything that is new and sudden whether it is a new thought or a sudden circumstance etc. Dhairya (Patience): „Slow and steady wins the race?. The attitude of “wait” must be developed. Results always take time. A person must have patience. He must not do things in a hurry, as „Haste is Waste?. Nischaytmakta (Decisiveness): An individual must be decisive and not indecisive. A person must have Nirnay Shakti andNischayatmakBuddhi. Abhyasu Vrutti (Readiness to learn): Readiness to learn and curiosity to learn go hand-in-hand. They help an individual gain knowledge, resulting in the development of the indivdual. Straightforwardness and simplicity: A person should be straightforward and simple in life if he wants to develop. A person must know how to adjust in any situation. Satata (Continuity): He must be a constant and consistent learner. Perseverance: He must have perseverance and deep-thinking. Sportsman spirit: He must learn to accept failures just as he accepts success. Audarya ()Generosity): A person must have a big heart and not a narrow one. Sahanshilta (Tolerance): He must have the quality of tolerating any human being and any situation. 1. Tyagi (sacrificing): He must be a tyagi. He must learn to sacrifice his personal interests for a cause. 2. Compassionate: He must have love and compassion for all. 3. Appreciation: A person must learn to appreciate others. 4. Alertness and Awareness: He must be alert about good and bad and must know how to carry his duties and responsibilities. 5. Tanmavta: He must be completely engrossed in his work.
In order to inculcate these values in an individual an ideal must be placed in front of them; from whom they can learn these qualities themselves. a. The ideal of Aristotal was Abraham Lincoln. b. Vivekanand?s ideal was his guru Ramkrishna Paramhansa. c. The ideal of Shankaracharya was his guru Gaudpad acharya. The developed the qualities of their ideals in themselves and build up their personality. Hence we can say that the above mentioned people are great examples of Holistic approach to personality since all the above mentioned values are imbibed in them. INDIAN ETHOS AND MOTIVATION Motivation is a general term applying to entire class of drivers, desires, needs, wishes, and similar forces. To say that managers motivate their subordinates is to say that they do those things, which they hope will satisfy these drivers and desires and induce the subordinate to act in a desired manner.
Q. HOW FAR IS IT IMPORTANT FOR MANAGERS TO SEARCH FOR INNER PEACE IN THE MIDST OF “HUSTLE AND BUSTLE” OF CORPORATE LIFE? Ans As stated in theBhagwadGita, the ultimate goal of life is not earning money and building up properties but to attain the state of ananda or bliss. To achieve this state, one has to have peace within is heart, mind and soul. Peace is the most covetable possession on the earth. It is the greatest treasure in the universe. Peace is the most important and indispensable factor for all growth and development. Peace is a state of quiet. It is freedom from disturbance, anxiety, agitation, riot or violence. it is harmony silence, response, rest. Peace is the natural state of mind. It is his birthright. In today?s world people have literally everything: a sweet home, car, sufficient money to survive, luxuries to fulfill their desire but still they do not have peace. Truly speaking, real, deeper peace is independent of external conditions. Money can?t give you peace.
You can purchase many things, but you cannot purchase peace. You can buy soft beds but you cannot buy sleep. You can buy good food, but cannot buy good appetite. You can buy good tonics but you cannot buy good health. You can buy good books, but you cannot buy wisdom. Through inner peace, a manager can have a healthy relation with his customers and suppliers since every person likes to interact with a happy go lucky person rather than a person who is mentally disturbed, the best and efficient decisions are made only when someone is at mental peace since such a person can analyze all the alternatives in effective manner. A manager can easily motivate his employees and workers as he will be loved by everyone through his peaceful nature and he can very well teach them the concept of Karma Yoga, which states “YogahKarmeshuKaushalamSamatvamYogahUdyate” i.e. he who works with calm and even mind achieves the most. Thus he can bring out higher productivity with effective use of resources. He would have good relations with his boss and colleagues. Most importantly, he would have great relations with his wife and other family members. He would have a good health since the basic root of all diseases is worry or tension. If a person inculcates Daivi sampati or divine qualities such as fearlessness, courage, purity of mind and heart, integration of thought, action and behaviour, straight forwardness, generosity, spirit of sacrifice for the sake of common good, inspired ideas, vision, creativity, empathy, love and affection, patience, forbearance, faith, friendship with all calmness, control of mind and restraint on senses and passions, non-violence, non-greediness, firm but fair, charity, steadfastness in devotion to knowledge, uprightness, harmlessness, modesty, humility, gentleness, truthfulness, loyalty, integrity, fortitude, vigour, cheerfulness, simplicity and regular practice of mediator would definitely help him to achieve inner peace.
IS IT POSSIBLE IN TODAY?S WORLD TO INTEGRTE VALUES AND MANAGEMENT: Ans. Values: To answer the following question let us know the core meaning of both values and management.
The mental contents of a good person are called ethical values. This is also called daivi sampati or divine qualities. Some fundamental values 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. which are universally applicable are: Cosmic unity – That the individuals? soul or jivatvam is linked to the universal soul/idea/energy or parmatman or Brahman. Ahimsa or non-violence, derived from this unity. Satya or truth Chit or consciousness Ananda or bliss, as a permanent state of mind. Management: Management is a process of designing and maintaining an environment in which people achieve common organizational goals in most effective and efficient manner. In short, management is getting things from others. Now if we coagulate both the meanings then we would realize that both are complimentary to each other than supplementary. Our effectiveness at work is tied to exercising intrinsic human values i.e. moral and ethical values such as communication excellence, credibility, innovation, creativity and co-ordination, the human values help self development managerial functions such as direction control, supervision, communication, integration, co-ordination are much easier, the human values help good inter personal interactions. They reduce conflicts and disputes. They are part and parcel of achieving accelerated process of improvement, customer, worker and citizen satisfaction they enhance the goodwill of the organization. We seek fulfillment, happiness and success it is achievement of inner and outer success needs holistic view. Inner spiritual, mental, emotional, physical, enrichment. The outer achievement is related to achieving set goals using one?s talents and experience for the benefit of others (Employees, customers, clients and public). Outer success fulfils social responsibilities and ecological balance. Outer success is related to all parts of our personality thus by analyzing the above points. I come to the conclusion that values and management can be integrated in every yug i.e. that is in Satyug,DwaparyugTartyugor Kaliyug as well.
Q. DISTINGUISH BETWEEN “ROLE PERSONALITY” AND “TRUE PERSONALITY”: Ans.Role Personality: We term role personality as our role model. Role personality has certain personality traits which we try to incorporate in our life. We try to create a SWOT analysis of Role personality and try to fit ourselves in that range. We always try to keep our role personality in focus and act accordingly to his role i.e. we try to fit ourselves in his/her role. Role personality continues to establish themselves a role model for others and thus hardly any scope for them to get manipulated. True Personality: True personality refers to what we are i.e. it indicates or own personality. We always try to manipulate our personality but in the end it is our personality which gets reflected. We always try to manipulate our pe3rsonality but in the end it is our personality which gets reflected. We always try to bridge the gap between our personality and role personality. True personality can be modified and can be improved. Sometimes our own personality keeps on changing due to external control, but in the end if leads us to confusion.
Q.“PERSONALITY IS THE PRODUCT OF HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT” EXPLAIN: Ans.Personality is the sum total of what we are. It reflects our views, characters, beliefs, attitude, knowledge, abilities, etc. We act/behave/think in a particular way because that is values ethics and cultures determine to a very large extent our personality. Heredity: The role of heredity in the development of personality is an old argument in the personality theory. Heredity refers to those factors which were determined at conception and reflexes, energy levels and biological rhythms are characteristics that are generally considered to be imported either completely or substantially by one?s parents. The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual?s personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes.
The following classification of characteristics is said to be inherited by all humans: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Physical structure Reflexes Innate drives Intelligence Temperament Nevertheless, the role of heredity on personality development cannot be minimized totally. Physical attributes for instance may be largely attributed to heredity. Thus heredity plays a very important part in shaping the personality. Environment: Personality development owes as much to environment as it does to heredity. Environment is a board term and includes such factors as culture. The methods by which an infant is fed and is toilet trained and makes transition from adolescence to adulthood are all culturally determined. While growing the child learns to behave in ways expected by the culture of the family to which the baby was born. One of those expectations has to do with sex roles. Most cultures expect different behaviour from males than from females. The cultural sub-groups exerts its influence on personality. Although culture has significant influence on personality development, linear relationship cannot be established between personality and given culture for 2 reasons. The cultural impacts upon an individual is not uniform, because they are transmitted by certain people, parents and others – who are not at all alike in their values and practices and The individual has some experience that is unique. Each individual reacts in his own way to social pressures, differences in behaviour being caused by biological factors.
PORTRAY SOME PERSONALITY TRAITS IN THE INDIAN BhagwadGita has identified different Personality Models /
CONTEXT: Traits / Behaviours in the Indian context: Tamasic: Living with the values which are utterly selfish, ego-centered motives, dull and meant to satisfy only personal interest. Rajasic: Living with tendencies which are extremely passionate and ambitious, dynamic in nature but centered to fulfilling selfish desires. Motives slightly nobler but centered on selfish etc. Sattvic: The attitude and motives are selfless, more balanced and discrimination based on higher values. The western view talks about various personality traits which are found in the Indian context: 1) Passive personality:
Eg: Bhisma, Vidur & Dhronacharya showed their behaviour duringDraupadiVastraharan. 2)Aggressive Personality: Eg: Duryodhana and Dushashan. 3)Manipulative personality: Eg: Shakuni. 4)Assertive Personality: Krishna. The other traits that are found in the Indian context are: 1) Respect The respect for others as well as elders and youngsters can be figured out as a distinct personality trait in the Indian context. 2)Trust: Indians do trust easily and very fast on others. 3)Emotion: Indians are very much emotional in nature and feelings affect them. 4)Straightforwardness and Simplicity: The straightforwardness and simplicity in the life of an Indian can be clearly seen as a special personality train in the Indian context. 5)Perseverance: This is a unique feature of a personality trait found in Indians and along with it. Indians have a sense of high and deep thinking.
Q.WHAT PERSONALITY TRAITS NEED TO BE DEVELOPED BY AN EFFECTIVE MANAGER ? Ans. Personality is the sum total of what we are. It reflects our views, characters, beliefs, attitude, knowledge, abilities etc. We act / behave /think in a particular way because values, ethics and cultures determine to a very large extent or personality. The following traits need to be developed are: 1Authoritarianism: Authoritarian tend to be rigid in their positions, place high moral value systems and are strongly oriented towards conformity to rules and regulations. They naturally prefer stable and structured work environments, which are governed by clean rules and procedures. 2. Locus of Control: Locus of control refers to an individual?s belief that events are their within one?s control or are determined by forces beyond ones control. These personality traits are manifested in different behaviours, which are significant to managers. 3.Machiavellianism: Machiavellianism, a term refers to an individual?s propensity to manipulate people. In jobs that require bargaining skills or where there are substantial rewards for winning, Machiavellianism perform better. 4.Achievement Orientation: Managers with a high need to achieve continually strive to doing things better. They want to overcome obstacles, but they want to feel their success or failure is due to their actions. 5.Self-Esteem: Managers should have a high self-esteem. People with high self-esteem believe that they have abilities to undertake challenging jobs. They tend to choose uncongenial jobs than those with low self-esteem. Highesteems are more satisfied with their jobs. 6.Risk Taking: High risk taking managers make more rapid decisions and use less information in making their choices. 7.Straightforwardness and simplicity: It refers to an individual?s ability to adjust his or her behaviour to external factors. The high self-monitor is capable of putting on different “faces” for different audiences. Managers high in self-monitoring can
show considerable adaptability in adjusting their behaviour to external situational factors. Managers should be emotionally stable: Managers should have a very cordial relation with others in the organization and he should build harmonious environment in the organization. He should have an excellent rapport with his superiors, peers as well as his subordinates in the organization. He should be stable enough i.e. instead of getting evaluated by others he should gain importance by his own views. The decisions taken by an emotionally stable managers are rational an anxiety levels are low. An emotionally stable manager has detached involvement towards his work and he is not worried about the consequences of actions i.e. his actions are rational.
WHAT IS SPIRITUALITY?
What is Spirituality? Is it something concerning „the intellect? or what is often thought of as „the better or higher part of mind?? Is it the moral aspect of life? Perhaps it may even mean a state of „being incorporeal?. Whatever way one may define, it may be termed as an ideal that reckons all reality in essence as spiritual. When simply stated, spirituality is one?s character or quality that makes one transcend the barriers of worldliness, caste, creed and sensuality; and realize one?s connection with the Truth. The etymology of the word „Spirituality? itself is “spiritus,” derived from the Hebrew word for breath. Spirituality thus came to mean “the energy or force or breath of God.” No one likes the word religion anymore as the word „spiritual? doesn?t have the baggage religion does. But it?s impossible to separate spirituality from organized religion. To define oneself as spiritual without being a part of a religion might simply be “justification” for not wanting to participate in organised religion and its practices. In many ways it doesn?t go beyond one?s own personal belief for it is like saying, „I?m going to find myself.? It is an individual
exploration of the inner world of the self, out of which ought to arise compassion and wisdom. Even an atheist could be spiritual. I define a spiritual person as one “who works to develop his full human potential and helps others to develop theirs, recognizing that we are all one. Spirituality has been defined in numerous ways – : A belief in a power operating in the universe that is greater than oneself. : A sense of interconnectedness with all living creatures. : An awareness of the purpose and meaning of life and the development of personal, absolute values. Although spirituality is often associated with religious life, many believe that personal spirituality can be developed outside of religion. Acts of compassion and selflessness, altruism, and the experience of inner peace are all characteristics of spirituality. Spirituality is the recognition and realization of the Being, the reality in oneself and all others. The integration of the body, mind and spirit in a human being, which results in facilitating the realization of a goal in life, makes him a spiritual being. In order to realize oneself, it becomes necessary to be aware of oneself. This awareness comes to us in various ways and forms and through various means, the significant ones being the scriptures and religious texts ofIndiaand the world. As an innate capacity that exists in every human being, psychologically healthy spirituality is not limited to any one set of doctrines or practices. From a psychological perspective, spirituality is a universal experience, not a universal theology. Spirituality is understood by many as the act of involvement or state of awareness or devotion to a higher being or life philosophy. It is not always related to conventional religious beliefs. A religion is a dogma or creed, a set of beliefs about the spiritual and a set of practices, which arise out of those beliefs. There are many religions, which arise out of those beliefs and they tend to be mutually exclusive. Religion is different from spirituality where the former is normally accepted as an institution with the organized doctrines, ethics, tenets and beliefs that relate everything to what is deemed as sacred. Religion is expressed with the help of socially approved and accepted rituals, practices, myths and social structures. Spirituality is, however, an expression of what is
sacred bringing with it an alignment with everything that is sacred. It is the experience of a reality that transforms every individual and inculcates in an individual, qualities such as love, compassion and ethical integrity, along with a sense of harmony and justice. A spiritual individual necessarily feels less bound and constrained, in a sense, more free than others, in a personal and social sense. It leads the individual to wisdom and a deep understanding of the essence of human condition. Spirituality is something that characterizes the relationship of an individual to all beings in the universe and does not necessarily require a formal structure, ritual, or mediation by an intercessor. Spirituality implies the inner human urge to seek and unite with a Reality beyond the fleeting, sensory world, fulfilling the need for a meaning. It is a search for whatever is generally beautiful and aweinspiring in nature; not always good by human standards; but generally kind and loving in human nature. Much of what people strive for, after satisfying the basic needs of life, has to do with enriching their higher spiritual nature, through music, art and poetry. Little acts of kindness, the attitude of forgiving, and the readiness to understand others is possible only by a spiritual being. The spiritual is all – inclusive. It is the deepest sense of belonging and participation. We all participate in the spiritual at all times, whether we know it or not…perhaps one might say that the „spiritual? is that realm of human experience which religion attempts to connect us to through rituals and dogma. Sometimes it succeeds and sometimes it fails. Religion may act as a bridge to the spiritual-but the spiritual lies beyond religion. Spirituality is subjectively experiencing life both inside and outside of oneself. Finally, spirituality is a conviction. Even atheists, who do not believe in a creator, have a belief in the spirit that needs to be tended to. They cannot prove their belief any more than a “true believer” can prove his or hers. This leads to the need to realise the intrinsic value of oneself (one?s spirit) and equally that of others. I would like to define „Spirituality?, in very simplistic terms, as „a connection, in some profound and elemental way, with something, which is both outside and within oneself, which gives one a sense of one?s essential nature?. Spirituality leads one to a feeling of having transcended time and gives
one a feeling of oneness with the entire universe. One begins to accept oneself as a part of everything and everything a part of oneself. The spiritual individual speaks more from the heart, operating on a level that is higher and totally different from the normal, rational, linear plane of human interaction. The world seems so fundamentally inseparable. The spiritual person transcends boundaries – boundaries of time and space, class and colour, race and species. The realisation that one is a part of the same natural world brings a shift in the conscious functioning and prepares one at a deeper level to recognise the temporariness and transparency of boundaries in all other aspects on one?s living. The spiritual dimension is that part of the person concerned with meaning, truth, purpose, or reality–the ultimate significance of things. It manifests itself as a sense that there is an ultimate reality, as a search for that reality, and in the prepotency of adherence to certain values which are held by the person to be absolutes. The spiritual dimension is fundamentally experiential and intuitive rather than conceptual. It comprises direct experiences of being and direct mental apprehensions rather than abstraction and reasoning, and is thus not an aspect of thought. This attribute is responsible for the ineffable and subjective qualities that have previously discouraged scientific inquiry. In philosophies and religions of Indian origin, the term „spirituality? is used in a specific sense, distinct from its many meanings in western dictionaries. In Indian tradition, the word „spirit? is used to refer to „atman?. Now the word „atman? is used to refer to „jivatman? and „paramatma?, i.e. Individual and Supreme Self. Divinity is thus, perceived in both Cosmic Reality and the individual self. Moreover, the Paramatma or Supreme Self is conceived as both transcendent and immanent in the phenomenal world. Hence, all creation is perceived as a manifestation of the Spirit. In addition to this, the Supreme self is conceived as Sat –Cit – Ananda, i.e. Being – Consciousness – Bliss and also as Satyam – Jnanam – Anantam – Shaantam – Poornam Brahman i.e. Brahman as Truth, Knowledge, Infinitude, Peace and Perfection. Thus, spiritualism in Indian parlance implies the endeavour of the individual self to realize and approximate the Supreme Spirit. The concept of Sat – Cit – Ananda is unique in Indian philosophy as it is symbolic of a complete, holistic
approach to Reality. Sat is Existence, the Being of an entity, which signifies metaphysics, Cit is Consciousness relating to cognition and knowledge (epistemology), and Ananda is Bliss that is determined by ethical living. Thus, Sat – Cit – Ananda represents the holism of Indian thought. It is the consciousness of the Conscious Spirit in the right perspective. Spirituality is that which comes from within, beyond the survival instincts of the mind. Each of us has a spiritual centre or core, which makes us conscious, purposive beings, in connection with the cosmic purpose. Every spiritual being lives with a divine purpose. Every being has the spiritual energy, beyond programmed beliefs and values, which is actually the fountainhead of all wisdom. The spirit in man makes him live life passionately with a purpose, with the right understanding of himself and his environment. He lives with humility, compassion, empathy and love, along with the others in the same environment, working towards common goals. Indian Management is primarily based on spiritual values and the inherent spirituality of the human is manifested in all his activities of life, whether it is a social, cultural, economic or religious activity. Hence the need to understand and accept Indian Management as holistic, complete and pragmatic and the need to learn the management styles of Indian industry to reiterate the spiritual essence of Indian Management.
Notes of Indian Management Thoughts and Practices- T.y.BMS -6th sem..
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