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» Final Year MBA Project on Budgetary Control System Keshoram
Final Year MBA Project on Budgetary Control System Keshoram
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Final Year MBA Project on Budgetary Control System Keshoram
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4479 views, 1 comments, Last Update: Feb 19, 2013.
INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
BUDGET: Budget is essential in every walk of our life – national, domestic and Business. A budget is prepared to have effective utilization of funds and for the realization of objective as efficiently as possible. Budgeting is a powerful tool to the management for performing its functions i.e., formulation plans, coordination activities and controlling operations etc., efficiently. For efficient and effective management planning and control are tow highly essential functions. Budget and budgetary control provide a set of basic techniques for planning and control. A budget fixes a target in terms of rupees or quantities against which the actual performance is measured. A budget is closely related to both the management function as well as the accounting function of an organization. As the size of the organization increases, the need for budgeting is correspondingly more because a budget is an effective tool of planning and control. Budget is helpful in coordinating the various activities (such as production, sales, purchase etc) of the organization with result that all the activities precede according to the objective. Budgets are means of communication. Ideas of the top management are given the practical shape. As the activities of various department heads are coordinated at the much needed for the very success of an organization. Budget is necessary to future to motivate the staff associated, to coordinate the activities of different departments and to control the performance of various persons operating at different levels. Budgets may be divided into two basic classes. Capital and operating budgets. Capital budget are directed towards proposed expenditure for new projects and often require special financing. The operating budgets are directed towards achieving short-term operational goals of the organization for instance, production or profit goals in a business firm. Operating budgets may be sub-divided into various departmental of functional budgets.
OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
THE STUDY HAS THE FOLLOWING:
? To provide the material frame work of budget and budgetary control ? To describe the profit of the organization as a backdrop for undertaking a study of budgetary control system. ? To analyze the budgetary system in practice in Kesoram Cement Industries Limited with particular reference to their objectives and phases of organizational and re-appropriation. ? In addition to the analysis of the conventional budgetary system in practice in Kesoram Cement Industries Limited. The study aims at evaluation and modification to the current budgetary system with reference to the various types of budgets. The scope in the formulation of performance budget is also studied.
SOURCES OF DATA:
The data of Basanth Nagar Kesoram Cement Industries Limited, have been collected mainly from secondary sources viz., • • • • • • Form the concerned officers of the Kesoram Cement Industries Limited Kesoram Cement Industries Limited journals. Accounting books, records. Key books of concerned title. Statistical records Kesoram Cement Industries Limited library.
? Estimates are used as basis for budget plan and estimates are based mostly on available facts and best managerial judgment ? Budgetary control cannot reduce the managerial function to a formula. It is only a managerial. ? ? Tool which increase effectiveness of managerial control. The use of budget may be to restricted use of resources. Budgets an often taken as limits. ? Efforts may therefore not be made to exceed the performance beyond the budgeted targets. ? Frequent changes may be called for in budgets due to first changing industrial climate. ? In order that a system may be successful, adequate budgets education should be imparted at least through the formative period. Sufficient training programs should be arranged to make employees give positive response to budgetary activities. ? The study is the limited up to the date and information provided by Kesoram Cement Industries Limited and its annual reports.
PROFILE OF THE INDUSTRY
The 85-years old Indian cement industry is one of the cardinals and basic infrastructure which enjoys core sector status and play a crucial role in the economic development and growth of a country. Being a core sector this industry was subject to price and distribution controls almost uninterruptedly from world war-II when government of India announced the partial decontrol of price and distribution as the market price of cement began to raise response to decontrol manufacturing cement became increasingly attractive and the industry experienced substantial expansion. As the supply in response to the 1982 partial decontrol was significant in March 1989, price and distribution control were finally dispensed with it was one of the first major industries in the country to be so deregulated.
OVERVIEW OF THE INDUSTRY
The word cement means any substance applied for sticking things. But cement is the most vital and important material for modern construction as a binding agent. In the ancient times, clay, bricks and stones have been used for construction work. The Romans were using a binding or cementing Material that would harden under water. The first systematic effort was made by “SMEATION” who under took the erection of a new lighthouse in 1756. He observed that the production obtained by burning limestone was the best cementing material for work under water. After Fifty years UICAT a French Chemist, produced hydraulic cement by burning finely ground clay and clay and used it in the paste. Cement invented by JOSEPH ASPDIN in 1824. Since hardened cement paste resembled Portland stone found in England in color, he named it as “Portland Cement” a name, which has carried over the century. Portland cement was first manufactured in United States of America in 1975.
In India cement was produced for the first time in 1904 by South India Industries Limited in Madras. This Unit had capacity of 30 tons per day was based on lime from sea. By 1913, however three units started their operations with a combined installed capacity of 75,000 tons per annum. In 1914, indigenous production fees for short of domestic demand necessitating an import of 1,65,723 tones shipment difficulties and foreign trade relations during the first world war years acted as a catalyst for the development of indigenous industry, and by 1924 the total installed capacity grew to 5,59800 tons per annum. In 1963, all the Cement Companies with the exception of SONE VALLEY PROTLAND CEMENT COMPANY LIMITED merged to from the ASSOCIATED CEMENT COMPANIES LIMITED. This has more facilitated a cost reduction as well as uniformity in quality. By 1947 the installed capacity of the Industry raised to 2.2 million tones per annum. After partitions, five of the cement producing units in the country went to Pakistan and total installed capacity of the eighteen units that remained in India was 1.5 million tones per annum. This increased to 3.8 million tones by 1950-51. In the three decades 1950-80, the capacity expansion was between 7 to 8 million tones per decade. The targets set in respect of additional capacity generation was released with the impetus given by the partial decontrol announced in 1982, several units lockup project for expansions of capacity and modernization which contributed towards increased production.
DEFINITION OF CEMENT:
Cement may be defined as “it is a mixture of calcium silicate and aluminates”. Which have the property of setting and hardening under water. The amount of silica, Alumina who is present in each crust is sufficient to combine with calcium, oxide (Cao) to from the corresponding calcium silicate and aluminates.
CLASSIFICATION OF CEMENT:
Cement is 3 types.
It consists of mixture of silicate Calcium and Aluminum. Shows the hydraulic property when it is in the form of powder and being mixed with suitable proportion of lime. The rate of hardening is much slower and the comprehensive strength developed is about a half of Portland cement. It is found more resistant to the chemical action than others.
This is natural occurring material. It is obtained from cement rocks. These cement rocks are claying limestone containing solicits, aluminates of calcium. The selling property of this cement is more than the Portland cement but is comprehensive strength is half of its.
1. Ordinary Portland cement. 2. Repaid hardening Portland cement. 3. Lows heat cement. 4. White or colored cement. 5. Water proof Portland cement. 6. Portland slag cement. 7. Portland pozzolana cement. 8. Sulfate Resisting cement.
The proposed study is carried with the help of both primary and secondary sources of data.
The primary data is collected by interacting with the finance manager and other concerned executives at the administrative office of the company.
All the secondary data used for the study has been extracted from the annual reports, manuals and other published material of the company.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
Since it will not be possible to conduct a micro level study of all cement industries in Andhra Pradesh, the study is restricted to Kesoram Cement only.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:
The following are the limitations of the study 1. The study is limited based on data provided by the company’s financial statements. So the limitations of the statements are equally applicable of this study.
The study is limited for a period of 5 years i.e., from 2003-2008.
INDIAN CEMENT INDUSTRY – PRESENT STATU
After the declining of the industry in July 1991 it reacted positively to the policy changes. New capacities created and the volume of production increased. Form a situation of improving cement, the country started exporting due to high quality and cost effectiveness. After liberalization the black market in cement also disappeared. Currently India stands second largest in the cement production worldwide after China. On the other hand per capita consumption in India is only books as compared to the world average of 260kgs. The industry has S 9 companies owning 11 S plants. In the matters of exports the government considers cement as an extreme focus area. However Indian cement in the global market is not very competitive due to high power and full costs. In order to improve its position in the international market, technological up gradation is essential in terms of process, product diversification cost reduction, quality control and energy saving.
ABOUT THE INDUSTRY
These chapter examiners a profile of Kesoram Cement Industries Ltd.i.e., its history, location organization structure etc.,
Kesoram cement industry is one of the leading manufacturers of cement in India. It is a day process cement plant. The plant capacity is 8.26 lakhs tones per annum. It is located at Basanth Nagar in Karim Nagar district of Andhra Pradesh, Basanth Nagar is 8km away from the ramagundem railway station linking madras to New Delhi. The chairman of the company is sty. B.K Birla
The first unit at Basanth Nagar with a capacity or 2.1 lakhs tones per annum incorporating suspension-preheated system was commissioned during the year 1969. the second unit was setup in year 1971 with a capacity of 2.1 tens per annum and (he third unit with a capacity of 2.5 lakhs tons per annum went on stream in the year 1978. the coal for this company is being supplied iron Singareni collieries and the power is obtained from APSEB. The power demand for the factory is about 21 MW. Kesoram has got 2 DG, set of 4 MW each installed in the year 1987. Kesoram cement has set up a 15KW capacity power plant to facilitate for uninstall power supply for manufacturing of cement start at 24 August 2007 per hour 12MW, actual power is 15MW. Birla Supreme in popular brand of Kesoram Cement from its prestigious plant of Basanth Nagar in AP, which has out standing track record. In performance and productivity serving the nation for the last two and half decades. It has proved its distinction by bagging several national awards. It also has the distinction of achieving optimum capacity utilization.
Kesoram offers a choice of top quality portioned cement for light, heavy constructions and allied applications. Quality is built every fact of the operations.
The plant layout is rational to begin with. The limestone is rich in calcium carbonate a key factor that influences the quality of final product. The day process technology used in the latest computerized monitoring overseas the manufacturing process. Samples are sent regularly to the bureau of Indian standards. National council of construction and building material for certification of derived quality norms. The company has vigorously undertaking different promotional measures their product through different media which includes the use of newspapers, magazines, hoardings etc. Kesoram cement industry distinguished it self among all the cement factories in India by bagging the National productivity Award consecutively. For two years the year 1985-1987. the federation of Andhra Pradesh Chamber & commerce and industries (FAPPCCI) also conferred on Kesoram Cement. An award for the best industrial promotion expansion effort in the state for the year 1984. Kesoram also bagged FAPCCI awarded for “Best Family Planning Effort in the state” for the year 1987-1988. One among the industrial giants in the county today, serving the nation on the industrial front. Kesoram industries Ltd has a cheque red and eventful history dating back to the twenties when the industrial House of Birla’s acquired it. With only a textile mill under its banner 1924 it grew form strength to strength its activities 10 newer fields like transparent paper, spun pipes, refractories, tires and other products. Looking to wide gap between the demand and supply of a vital commodity cement, which plays, UI important role in national building activity the Government of India had de-licensed the cement industry in eh year 1966 with a view to attract private entrepreneurs to augment the cement production. Kesoram rose to the occasion and divided to set up a few cement plants in the country. Kesoram cement undertaking marketing activities extensively in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamilanadu, Kerala, Maharashtra and Gujarat. In AP sales depots are located in different areas like Karim Nagar, Warangal, Nizamabad, Vijayawada and Nell ore. In other states it has opened around 10 depots.
THE AWARD WON ARE:
Kesoram cement bagged prestigious awards like national awards for productivity and technology and conversation and several state awards for year 1984. Kesoram cement is best family planning effort “in the federation of Andhra Pradesh chamber of commerce and industry and also national award for two successive years 1985 and 1986. National award for mines safety for two years 1985-86 & 1986-1987. It has also bagged the national award for energy efficiency for the year 1989-1990 for the performance among all cement plants in India. Thus award stall by national council for cement and building material (NCCBM) in association with the government of India. Kesoram bagged the prestigious Andhra Pradesh state productivity award in 1987-1989 also annexed state award for industrial management in 1988-89 and also “Best industrial promotion expansion efforts” in the estate and Yajamanyza Ratna and best efforts of an industrial unit in the state to develop rural economy was bagged for its contribution towards the responsibility of rural and community development programmers of the year 1991. It also bagged the May Day award “of the government of Andhra Pradesh for the best management and the Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru silver rolling trophy for the industrial productivity effort in the state of Andhra Pradesh by FAPCCI and also the India Gandhi memorial national award for excellence. Best management award of the government of Andhra Pradesh for the year 1993. During the last 3 years the government of Andhra Pradesh has given the following awards Best awards for the year 1994. To keep the ecological balance they have also undertaken massive tree plantation in the factory and government of India has nominated township areas and them for VRIKSHMITRA award. Best effort of an industrial unit in the state for rural development 1944-95 presented by chief minister in March 1996. In the year March, 2009 “Best Management award 2009” for the best Management practices in Kesoram Cement, Presented by Chief Minister.
CEMENT PRODUCTION WORLDS WIDE
To day in India cement industry is producing 58.3 million tones per annum indication surplus conditions while its demand is 56.7 million tones lies, per annum. Now the cement market has become ‘buyer market’ which was a ‘selling marker’ till 1970’s and so the quality & brand taken an upper edge for cement marketing. To day installed at India cement industry is 771 lakhs tones. But in India 106 major plants are producing 583 lakhs tones while a India cement demand is 569 lakhs tones leaving the balance for exports.
INDIA’S LARGEST CEMENT COMPANIES POST ACQUISITION COMPANY LARSEN & TOURBO ACC GRASIM INDIAN CEMENT Cement capacity in TPA 12.0 11.3 9.7 6.6 Cement % of sales 20 93 28 92
a. The per capita consumption of the cement in India is very low. b. The transport costs in India are very high. c. The cement industry is facing with acute power shortage and raw material problem. d. The industry is also facing major packaging problems.
a. The industry has tremendous potential for growth in India. b. In near future cement is going to replace tar for the construction of roads. c. There are good prospects for export with cement export promotion council. d. The government polices of reduction in excise duty and exempting cement from the just packaging may act as boon to the industry.
? The surplus levels are increasing as the production of the cement is much greater than the consumption. ? In the present scenario of stiff competition there is a declining trend of price. ? The performance of the smaller unit is badly hit by major takeovers. ? The crisis situation in South East Asian countries may create problem to the exports of the industry.
? Continuous effort too improving productivity. ? Evaluating individual skill trough training and motivations. ? Total involvement through participant’s management activities. ? Creating healthy and safe environment. ? Social development.
STATE WISE CEMENT PLANTS
S.NO 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Assam Andhra Pradesh Bihar Delhi Gujarat Haryana
NO. OF CEMENT PLANTS(LARGE) 1 19 7 1 13 2 4 1 9 1 1 8 23 3 15 8 5 2
Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Karnataka Kerala Meghalaya Maharastra Madhya Pradesh Orissa Rajasthan Tamilnadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal
Directors of Kesoram industries limited Chairman
? Syt. B.K. Birla
? Smt. K.G. maheshwari ? Shri. Pramod Khaitan ? Shri. B.P. Bajoria ? Shri. P.K. Chokesy ? Smt. Neeta Mukerji ? (Nominee of I.C.I.C.I.) ? Shri. D.N Mishra ? (Nominee of L.I.C.) ? Shri Amitabha Ghosh ? (Nominee of U.T.I.) ? Shri P.K Malik ? Smt Manjushree Khaitan
? Shri S.K. Parilk
? Shri K.C.Jain (Manager of the company) ? Shri J.D. Poddar ? Shri O.P. Poddar ? Shri P.K. Goyenka ? Shri D.Tandon
? Messrs Price Waster house
Subsidiary Companies of Kesoram Industries
? Bharat General & Textile Industries Limited ? KICM Investment Limited ? Assam Cotton Mills Limited ? Softshree Estates Limited
INTRODUCTION OF BUDGET & BUDGETARY CONTROL
INTRODUCION T BUDGET BUDGETING BUDGETARY CONTROL The management is efficient if it is able to accomplish the objective of the enterprise. It is effective when it accomplishes the objectives with minimum effort and cost in order to attain long-range efficiency and effectiveness management must chat out its course in advance. A systematic approach to facilitate effective management performance is profit planning and control or budgeting. Budgeting is therefore an integral part of management in a way, a budgetary control system has been described as a historical combination of a “goal setting machine for increasing an enterprises profits and a goal achieving machine for facilitating organizational co ordination and planning while achieving the budgeted targets”.
MEANING OF BUDGET:
It is a financial and quantitative statement, prepared and approved prior to a defined period of time of policy to be pursued during that period for purpose of attaining a given objective. It may include income, expenditure and employment capital. In other words is a pre-determined detailed plan of action developed and distributed as a guide to current operations and as a partial basis for the subsequent evaluation of performance.
MEANING OF BUDGETING:
The process of planning all flows of financial resources into with in and from an entity during some specified future period. It includes providing for the detailed allocation of expected available future resources to projects, functions, responsibilities and time periods. From above definition it is clear that budgeting is the actual act of preparing the budget. It is the process of evolving the final statement. Budget is the end product of budgeting.
MEANING OF BUDGETORY CONTROL:
It is the process of establishing of departmental budgets relating the responsibilities of executives to the requirements of a policy, and the continuous comparison of actual with budgeted results, either to secure by individual action the objectives of the policy a firm basis for its revision. First of all budgets are prepared and then actual results are the comparison of budgeted and actual figures will enable the management to find out discrepancies and take remedial measures at a proper time. The budgetary control is continuous process, which helps in planning and co ordination. It provides a method of control too. A budget is a means and budgetary control is the end result. In the word of J.A Solt “budgetary control is the system of management control and accounting in which all operations are forecast and so as possible planned ahead and actual results compared with the forecast and the planned ones.
ESSENTIALS OF BUDGETARY CONTROL:
Budgeting, or the process of preparing the budget, is the starting point for budgetary control Distribution of budgets pertaining to each function to all the relevant section within organization. Collection of actual data pertaining to till budgeted activities. Continuous comparison of actual performance with budgeted performance. Initiation of corrective action to ensure that actual performance is in line with budgeted performance Revision of budgeted if it is felt that the budgets prepared are no longer relevant on account of unforeseen developments.
OBJECTIVES OF BUDGETARY CONTROL:
The primary objective of budgetary control’s to help the management is systematic planning and in controlling the operations of the enterprise. The primary objective can be met only of there is proper communication and coordination amongst different within the organization. Thus the objectives can be stated as:
Businesses require planning to ensure efficient and maximum use of their resources. The first step in planning is to define the broad aims and objectives of the business. Then, strategies to achieve the desired goals are formulated and tentative schedule of eh proposed combinations of the various factors of production, which is the most profitable for the defined period. Budget influences strategies that need to be followed by the originations. It cultivates forced planning aiming managers.
Co-ordination is managerial functions under which all factors of production and all departmental activities are balanced and integrated achieve the objectives of the organization. Budgeting provides the basis for individual in all department to exchange ides on how best the organizations objectives can be realized. Executives are forced ot think of the relationship between their department and the company as a whole. This removes unconscious bases against other departments. It also helps to identify weaknesses in the organization structure.
All people in the organization must know the objectives, policies and performances of the organizations. They must have a clear understanding of their part in the organizations goals. This is made possible by ensuring their participation in the budgeting process. 4. CONTROLS AND PERFORMANCE EVALUTION: Control ensures control by continuous comparison of actual performance with the budgeted performance. Variances are highlighted and corrective action can be
initiated. Budget’s also from the basis of performance evaluation in an organization as they reflect realistic estimates of acceptable and expected performance.
BUDGET, BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL:
A budget is BLUE PRINT of a plan expressed in a quantitative terms. Budgeting is a technique for formulating budgets. Budgetary control relates to the principles, procedures, and practice of achieving given objectives thorough budgets. From the above definitions we can differentiated the three terms as budgets are the individuals objectives of a department, etc, where as budgeting may be said to be the act of building budget. Budgetary control embraces all and in addition includes the science of planning the budgets to effect on overall management tool for the business planning and control.
ESSENTIALS OF BUDGETARY CONTROL:
The proper organization is essential for the successful preparation, maintenance and administration of budgets. A budgetary committee is formed which comprises the departmental heads of various departments. All the functional heads are entrusted with the responsibility if ensuring proper implementation of their respective departmental budgets. The chief executive is the overall in charge of budgetary system. He constitutes a budget committee for preparing realistic budgets. A budget officer is the convener of the budget committee who co-ordinates the budgets of different departments. The managers of different departments are made responsible for their departmental budgets.
The chief executive appoints budget officer. Such budget officer also called as “budget controller or budget director”. His rank should be equal to other functional managers. The budget officer does not have the direct responsibility of preparing the budgets. The various functional managers prepare the budgets. His role is that of a supervisor. The budget officer has the specific duty of administering the budget. He is responsible for timely completion of budgeting activity by various departments and for co-ordination between them so the t there is a proper link between them. He is empowered to scrutinize the budgets prepared by different functional heads and to make changes in them. If the situation so demands. The budget officer works as a coordinator among different department. He continuously monitors the actual performance of different departments. He determines the deviations in the budgets and takes necessary steps to rectify the deficiencies, if any. He also informs the top management about the performance of different department. The budget officer will be able to carry out his work only if is conversant with the working of all the departments he must have technical knowledge of the business and should also possess accounting knowledge.
3. BUDGET COMMITTEE:
A budget committee is formed to assist the budget officer. The heads of all the important department’s are made members of this committee. The committee is responsible for preparation and execution of budgets. The members of this committee put up the case of their respective departments and help the committee to take collective decisions, if necessary. The budget committee is responsible for reviewing the budgets prepared by various functional heads. Co ordinate all the budgets and approve the final budgets, the budget officer acts as coordinator of this committee. All
the functional heads are entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring proper of ensuring proper implementation of their respective final departmental budgets.
4. BUDGETS CENTERS:
A budget centers is that part of the organization for which the budget is prepared. A budget center may be a department, section of a department or any other part of the department. Ideally, the head of every center should be a member of the budget committee. However, it must be ensured that each budget center at least has an indirect representation in the budget committee. The establishment of budget centers is essential for covering all parts of the organization becomes easy. When different centers are establishment. The budget centers are also necessary for cost control purposes.
5. BUDGET MANUAL:
a) A budget manual is a document that spells out the duties and responsible of the various executives concerned it specifies among various functional areas. A budget manual covers the following matters. b) A budget manual clearly defines the objectives of budgetary control system. It also gives the benefits and principles of this system. c) The duties and responsibilities of various persons dealing with preparation and exec ton of budgets are also given in a budget manual. It enables the management to know the persons dealing with various aspects to budgets and provides clarity on their duties and responsibilities, d) It gives information about the sanctioning authorities of various budgets. The financial powers of different managers are given in the manual for enabling he spending amount on various expenses. e) A proper table for budgets including the sending of performance reports is drawn so that every work starts in time and systematic control is exercise. f) The specimen forms and number of copies to be listed for budget repots is also stated. Budget involved should be clearly stated. g) The length of various budget periods and control points is clearly given. h) The procedure to the followed in the entire system is clearly stated.
i) A method of accounting to be used for various expenditures is also stated in the manual. The budget manual helps in documentation the role of every employee, his duties, responsibilities the ways of undertaking various tasks etc. thus it also in reducing ambiguity at any point of time.
6. BUDGET PERIOD:
A budget period is the length of time for which a budget is prepared. It depends upon a number of factors. The choice of a budget period depends upon the following considerations. The types of budget (long/short) • • • The nature of demand for the products. The timings for the availability of the finance. The economic situations of the cycles. All the above mentioned factors are taken into account while fixing the period of budgets. In this budgeting process the financial manager has to take the financial decision on the budgets. The financial manager usually responsible for organizing this budget, he must perform the following functions. ? To decide the general policies and guidelines. ? To officer technical advice ? To suggest changes ? To receive and review individual budget estimates ? To reconcile divergent views ? To co-ordinate budgeting activities. ? To approve budgets with or without revisions. ? To scrutinize control reports later on ? To scrutinize budget repots later on ? To disseminate these guide lines.
CONTINUOUS BUDGETING SYSTEM:
A continuous budgeting system is a method of having two different budget periods with in the same budget. The purpose of having this system is to have greater control in terms of operational activities without losing sight is to have greater control in terms of it results in incorporating the effect of changes in the short term on the long-term targets of the organization.
DETERMINATION OF KEY FACTOR:
The budgets are prepared for all functional areas. These budgets are interring dependent and inter-related. A proper co-ordination among different budgets in necessary for budgetary control to be successful. The constraints on some budgets may have an effect on other budgets too. A factor which influences all other budgets is known as “key factor or principal factor”. The key factor may not necessity remain the same. The raw materials supply may be limited at one time but it may be easily available at another time. Similarly, other factors may also improve at different times. The key factor highlights are limitations of the enterprise. This will enable the management to improve the working of these departments where scope for improvement exists.
REQUISITES FOR A SUCCESSFUL BUDGETARY CONTROL SYSTEM
For making a budgetary control system successful requisites are required.
1. CLARIFYING OBJECTIVES:
The budgets are used to realize objectives of the business. The objective must be clearly spelt out to that budgets are properly prepared. In the absence of clear goals, the budgets will also be unrealistic.
2. PROPER DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY:
Budget preparation and control is done are every level of management. Even though budgets are finalized at top level but involvement of persons from lower levels of management is essential for their success. This necessitates proper delegation of authority and responsibility.
3. PROPER COMMUNICATION SYSTEM:
An effective system of communication is required for a successful budgetary control. The flow of information regarding budgets should be quick so that these are implemented. The upward communication will help in knowing the difficulties in implementation of budgets. The performance reports of various levels will help top management in budgetary control.
4. BUDGET EDUCATION:
The employees should be educated about the benefit of budgeting system. They should be the benefits of budgeting system they should be educating about their roles in the success of this system. Budgetary control may not be taken only as a control device by the employees but it should be used as a tool to improve their efficiency.
Flexibility in budgets is required to make them suitable under changed circumstances. Budgets are prepared for the future, which is always uncertain, even though budgets are prepared by considering the future possibilities but still some adjustment. Flexibility makes the budgets more appropriate and realistic.
Budgets are to be implemented by human beings. Their successful implementation will depend upon the interest shown by the employees. All persons should be motivated to improve their working so that budgeting is successful. A proper system of motivation should be introduced for making this system a success.
TYPES OF BUDGETS:
1. LONG -TERM BUDGETS:
The long-term budgets prepared for a long period of five to ten years. They are concerned with planning the operations of a firm over a considerably long period of time. The financial “controller” exclusively for the top management usually prepares long-term budgets. These budgets are very useful in terms of physical units (i.e. quantities) or percentages, since accrued values may be difficult to forecast over such long-period. Capital expenditure, research and development budgets, etc, are examples of long-term budgets.
2. SHORT TERM BUDGETS:
Short-term budgets are budgets prepared for a short period of one to two year. They are prepared for those activities the trend in which cannot be for seen easily over long periods. These budgets are very useful incase of consumer goods industries such as sugar, cotton, textiles, etc. they are generally prepared in terms of physical units (i.e.. quantities) as well as monetary units (i.e. values) materials budget. Each budget etc, are example of short-term budget. They are useful to lower level of management for control purpose.
3. CURRENT BUDGETS:
Current budget is a budget, which is established for use over a short period of time and is related to current conditions. Thus current budgets are essentially short term budgets adjusted to current (i.e., present or prevailing) condition or circumstances. They are prepared for a very short period. Say, a quarter or a month. They related to current activities of the budgets.
4. INTERIM BUDGETS:
Interim budgets are budgets, which are prepared in between two budget periods. These budgets may get integrated with the budget of the following period.
CLASSIFICATION OF BUDGETS ACCORDING TO CONTENT:
Budgets may be classified into budgets in physical terms and into budgets in monetary terms.
A) BUDGETS IN PHYSICAL TERMS:
Budgets in physical terms are budgeted that budget in terms quantities only. They do not include corresponding rupee value. Long-term budgets are usually prepared in physical terms. Examples of such budgets are production budgets, material budget etc…
B) BUDGETS IN MONETARY TERMS:
Budgets in monetary terms are budgets that budget in terms of quantities as well as their corresponding rupee value, sales budget, purchase budget, etc are example of such budgets. Budgets such as cash budget, capital expenditure budget, etc that may not have physical quantities also from part of budgets in monetary terms.
CLASSIFICATION OF BUDGETS ACCORDING TO FUNCTION:
Budgets can be classified into: 1. operating budgets 2. financial budgets 3. master budgets
1) OPERATING BUDGET:
These budgets relate to different activities or operations of a firm. The number of such budgets depends upon the size and nature of the business, the commonly used operating budgets are: 1) Sales budgets 2) Purchase budgets 3) Raw material budgets 4) Labour budgets 5) Factory utilization budget 6) Manufacturing expenses or works overhead budget 7) Administrative and selling expenses budget etc. The operating budget for a firm may be constructed in terms of programmes or responsibility areas, and hence may consist of: Programme budget Responsibility budget A) PROGRAMME BUDGET: It consists of expected revenues and costs of various products or projects that are Termed as the major programmes of the firm, such a budget can be prepared for each product line or project showing revenues, cost and the relative profitability of the various in locating areas where efforts may be required to reduce costs and increase revenues. They are also useful in determining imbalance and inadequacies in programmes so that corrective action may be taken in future. B) RESPONSIBILITY BUDGETS: Where the operating budget of a firm is constructed in terms of responsibility Areas, such a budget show the plan in terms of persons responsible for achieving them. It is used by the management as a control them. It is used by the management as a control device to evaluate the performance of executives who are in charge of various cost centers. Their performance is compared to the targets (budgets), set for them and proper action is taken for adverse results. Responsibility areas may be classified under three broad categories:
Cost /expense center Profit center Investment center
2) FINANACIAL BUDGETS:
Financial budgets are concerned with cash receipts and disbursements, working Capital, financial position and results of business operations. The commonly used financial budgets include cash budget, working capital budget and income statement budget, statement of retained earnings budget, budgeted balance sheet or position statement budget.
3) MASTER BUDGETS:
The master budget is the summary budget incorporating its functional budgets. All The operational and financial budgets are integrated into the master budget. The budget officer for the benefit of the top level management prepares this budget. This budget is used to coordinate the activities of various functional departments. It is also used as an effective control device.
CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF FLEXIBILITY:
A) FIXED BUDGET: According to ICMA London a fixed budget is a budget which is designed to Remain unchanged irrespective of the level of activity actually attained it is based on a fixed volume of activity and shows one volume of output and related cost. It is not adjusted according to the actual level of activity attained. A fixed budget is useful only when the actual level of activity corresponds with the budgeted level of activity. But this generally does not happen as such a fixed budgets is not useful for managerial purposes. B) FLEXIBILE VARIABLE SLIDING SCALE OR CONTROL TYPE BUDGETS: According to ICMA London a flexible budget is a budget which is designed to Change in accordance with the level of activity actually attained. Thus a flexible
budget changes according to the change in the level of activity. In other words it provides the budgeted costs at any level of activity. Business activity cannot be accurately predicted on account of uncertainties of Business environment. A flexible budget contains several estimates for different assumed circumstances instead of just one estimate, it provides for automatic adjustments with changes in the volume of activity. Hence, a situations operating in an unpredictable environment.
BUDGET AND BUDGETARY SYSTEM IN KESORAM CEMENT INDUSTRIES LTD.
ZERO BASED BUDGETING:
Zero-based budgeting is the latest technique of budgeting and it has increased use as a managerial tool. This technique was first used in America in 1962, by the former president America, Jimmy Carter. As the name suggests, it is starting from a “scratch”, the normal technique of budgeting is to use previous years cost levels as a base for preparing this year’s budget. This method carries previous years inefficiencies to the present year because we taken last year because we taken last year as a guide, and decide “what is to be done this year when this much was the performance of the last year”. In zero based budgeting every year is taken as a new year and previous year is not taken as a base, the budget for this year will have to be justified according to present situation, zero is taken as a base and likely future activities are decided according to present situations. In zero base budgeting a manager is to justify why he wants to spend. The performance of spending on various activities will depend upon their justification and priority for spending will have to be proved that an activity is essential and the amounts asked for are really reasonable taking into account the volume of activity.
BUDGET AND BUDGETARY SYSTEM IN KESORAM CEMENT INDUSTRIES LIMITED, BASANTH NAGAR, KARIM NAGAR
The budgeting process is used in the performance budgeting for the construction of phase. Which includes pre-commission activities. Besides meeting the essential requirements of managerial control. The budgeting exercise also covers the long-term capital budgeting, which is presented in the from of annual plan.
OBJECTIVES OF THE BUDGETARY SYSTEM:
? To prepare annual budgets in such a manner those managers at various levels in the organization carry out periodical exercise in respect of each contact or responsibility center for physical planning and matching resources broke up into monthly targets or cash flows. ? To introduce and operate responsible for achievement of specified targets with the resources allocated for the purpose. ? To bring about effective co-ordination of all activities of the organization of all activities of the organization and to gear up service divisions to meet effectively the requirement of projects.
BUDGET PERIOD AND PHASING:
The budget period or annual budgets should correspond with the financial year. The budget should be drawn up for the ensuring financial year in the form of budget estimates financial year in the form of Revised Estimates (R.E) in addition, the budget are to be reviewed on monthly basis by project review teams, in the light of actual expenditure and projections in the budget period. Budgets should indicate monthly phasing of expenditure and targets for the first and quarterly phasing for the second half of the year. At the time of review of the budget estimates to frame revised estimates the quarterly phasing should be broken up into monthly phasing.
While drawing up the actual budget in October every year, the long-term capital budget for ongoing and new schemes should be formulated as a part of the exercise for preparation of Annual plan. The long term capital budget should indicate for a period of six years following the budget period project wise annual phasing of the capital expenditure and physical schedules resource based network.
For uniform accounting, it is essential that costs are collected for each system of the factory tough this may involve splitting up of payments against contracts which embrace more than one system. Allocation of the cost as system wise affords a sound basis for cost accounting, inter-firm comparisons and provides valuable inputs to data bank. Budget provisions are related to project estimated and monitoring of actual expenditure where as control cables for part control and instrumentation system. Factory piping which include pipelines, for ash water mains, compressed air system and civil works piping. Auxiliary pumps for water treatment plant and civil works system. If there are, any contracts not covered in the budget heads provision for such contracts should be shown against the appropriate system head by adding code number.
5 TYPES OF BUDGETS IN KESORAM CEMENT INDUSTRIES LIMITED:
According to the nature expenditure budget are classified as under ? Direct capital outlay on works ? Technical consultancy ? Incident expenditure during construction ? Employee cost
Other establishment expenses:
? Training and recruitment ? Preliminary expenses ? Misc. brought-out assets ? Township budget
BRIEF EXPLANATION TO THE NATURE OF EXPENDITURE INCLUDED IN EACH BUDGET INDICATED BELOW: INCIDENTAL EXPENDITURE DURING CONSTRUCTION PERSNNEL PAYMENT:
These comprises of salaries, wages, allowance, contribution to PF and other funds and welfare expenses such as LIC, Medical reimbursement, canteen subsidy etc., and provision for areas of salary/D.A.
OFFICE AND OTHER EXPENSES:
Expenses incidental to construction and capital works not traceable directly to incidental expenditure, during contribution equipments, vehicle running expense, office rent. Cost of drawings, traveling expenses, printing & stationery, communication expenses, advertisement for tenders etc., are major items in this category.
TRIANING RECRUITMENT & OTHER DEFFERED REVENUE EXPENDITURE:
The first part of the budget consist of expenses for training executives, and non-executive trainees, rent for training halls and expenses for management development courses. The second part consists of expenses for recruitment such as advertisement for recruitment, interview expenses for to candidate etc., the third part combines preliminary expenses including share registration lees and research and development expenses.
MISCELLANEOUS BOUGHT OUT PASSESS:
Vehicles, furniture and fixtures equipments, hospital and medical equipment, miscellaneous assesses town ship figure in this budget.
REVIEW OF PROJECT BUDGET: MONTHLY REVIEW:
At monthly intervals, the budgets should be reviewed by project review committee (PRC). Project budget should report actual expenditure against budget heads. Works heads and corporate budget by the 7th of the month following the reporting month. The monthly review should be examined by project review team (PRT), who should record reasons for any aviations and action proposed for expending works in the minutes of the meetings reasons for any variations in the case of budget heads exceeding 10% of the budget estimates revised estimates or which ever is lower Rs.5 lakhs should be analyzed and reported upon.
PRT should conduct a quarterly budget review with a view to projecting anticipated expenditure during the year against approved budget estimates/ revised estimates. As time is essence of such review, only a quick estimate of anticipated expenditure for individual budget heads involving provisions exceeding for individual budget heads involving provisions exceeding Rs 50 lakhs in each case should be made and reported upon in minutes of PRT. For this purpose, project budget should furnish all the relevant data to general manager (project) and planning and systems by the 10th of the month following the quarter project budget committee should review the actual expenditure and assess anticipated expenditure contract co ordination/engineers in charge the assessments of anticipated expenditure should be furnished by the project budget committee to general manager (project) by the 30th of the month following the quarter under review.
BUDGET OF SERVICE DIVISION / CORPORATE BUDGETS:
A review of budgets of service and corporate divisions should be conducted at quarterly intervals by corporate budget committee (CS’C). for this purpose, corporate accounts should report actual expenditure up to the end of the quarter by the 10 th of the month following quarter to corporate budget and budget co-ordination of the remaining period of the year should be sent to corporate budget should be sent to corporate budget should put up a consolidated report division wise and project wise to corporate budget committee (CBC) by the 15th of the may, August, November and February every year.
OBJECTIVES OF THE CURRENT BUDGETARY CONTROL SYSTEM IN KESORAM CEMENT INDUSTRIES LIMITED.
In current to corporate budgetary control system – operating phase has been compiled to achieve the following objectives. ? To control actual performance with reference to standards / norms adopted in the budget, ascertain the deviations analyze and establish the reasons. ? To identify constraints in generation and tamely action for estimation of constraints. ? To monitor the generation of internal resources so as to ensure availability of adequate funds. ? To prepare revenue budget so as to forecasting the periodical profitability of the organization. ? To develop standards / norms of performance in the various areas of operation and maintenance based on the experience. ? To involve managers at various in the process of developing performance budget so as to introduce the concept of responsibility accounting and participate management. ? To ensure effective co-ordinate planning of all activities so the all the inputs and services necessary for achieving the physical targets are available at appropriate time.
? To create cost consciousness among the managers responsible for decision making. ? To provide data regarding operational norms and costs for the purpose of formulating tariff. ? To provide data a basis for assessment of working capital requirements. ? To control the working capital particularly book debts, spears and other items or inventory. ? To improve profitability and internal resources generation.
SCOPE OF THE PERFORMANCE BUDGET:
The budget for operation and maintenance activities will be called performance budget operation. This, in effect means that all financial targets in the budget will be based on performance targets in physical terms. The current budgetary control system operation phase envisages generation and transmission line projects as independents investment centers. It becomes applicable to a project in the year in which it plans to commercialize its first generation unit. However, the budgeting for expenses (net of revenue) from the date of synchronization to the date of commercial generation (i.e. during trail run) is to be taken case of in the capital budget of the respective project. Similarly, in the case of transmission line project, the system becomes applicable from the year in the date commercial generation of the first unit of generating project, with which this line is associated, which ever is later. For subsequent lines, the O & M will be prepared from the energisation. The sum totals of budgets of the cost centers will be the budget for the investment center. How ever, the budget for the profit center will be worked out by apportioning the revenue and cost of various cost centers to individual’s profits centers bases on specified norms.
The performance budget operation will consists of following budgets along with the supporting schedules A. Budget balance sheet B. Budget profit and loss account C. Revenue budget In addition, separate budgets for revenue activities other than operation for research and development consultancy contracts etc. The expenses in respect of developmental expenditure for improvements, additions, replacement, renewals, balancing facilities etc., are of capital nature and will be budgeted for in the construction budget of budgetary control system – construction phase. To facilitate management control the system also envisages, phasing of these budgets into monthly/quarterly targets. The actual performance then will be reasons for variations will be analyzed and established for taking corrective remedial actions. The scope also includes projections of internal resources for a period ranging from 5 to 15 years and updating of 5years plan as well as perspective plan of the company.
The system provides for a two stages formulation for “performance budgetoperation” the stages are given below.
In the initial proposal, the project is required to indicate yearly targets. In he addition, to furnishing basic information like synchronization and commercial generation dates
Constraints on coal operation at less than the designed specification, calorific value of raw material and lime stone, material consumption in physical terms for items whose consumption value in Rs.5 lakhs or more, planned shut down for a maintenance and overhauling and norm for various operation parameters provided for design specification and in the tariff agreements to the corporate budget committee. In the initial proposals is planned to be submitted after considering these factors and keeping in view the perspective plan of the organization, fixes as well as norms for various operating parameters. These targets and norms are then communicated to all stations and transmissions line offices in the last week of July to be used for formulating detailed budget in the firm of final proposal.
Budgeted balance sheet, budgeted profit & loss account and budgets in the form of cash budget along with the proposal will consist of detailed supporting schedules for each of the investment center / cost center. This final proposal needs to be submitted to corporate center with in 3 weeks of receiving approval for initial proposal. The final proposal, after approval by board, will become the basis of monitoring performance for cost centers and investment centers. The frequency and extent review and monitoring will be done is under: i. The monitoring of actual performance against budgeted targets for investment center / profit center on monthly basis and for cost centers on quarterly for remedial / corrective actions. ii. The review of performance budget on quarterly basis to assess the anticipated profitability. The first step in the preparation of performance budget, O & M is formulation of maintenance and overhauling schedules for Boiler and to which generation, then considering the grid demand, the availability or inputs and factory problems. The utilization of capacity will be worked out on month-month basis for the budget period the gross generation targets can be worked and accordingly.
The sales value will be determined from quantum of net generation (i.e. gross generation aux. Consumption)
AUXILIARY CONSUMPTION / CONSUMPTION BY UTILITES:
The cement consumption by each of the cost centers for individuals unit auxiliaries, station auxiliaries as well as transformer losses are to be estimated separately based on designed specifications and added in order to workout total auxiliary consumption rather than fixing a overall percentage. Similarly consumption by utilities will also need to be indicated by concerned cost centers / departments like township and construction department. This will be valued at cost net generation to arrive at the sales values for owns consumptions.
The chemical are used by many cost centers for treatment of water. The consumption of chemicals will be correlated with volume of water treated and certain norms will have to be developed for different type of chemicals and different types of treatment. Based on these norms, each of the cost centers will indicate consumption of chemical in quantitative as well as financial terms. The cost center wise requirement will be consolidated to arrive at total chemicals consumption to be charged to profit and loss account. The valuation of chemical will be done at current prices only.
The basis employee cost will be approved manpower budget effective for respective years of budget period. The estimation of employee cost is to be done for each grade considering mid-point of the scale as basis pay and after adding various allowance like D.A., H.R.A., C.C.A” project allowance etc., as admissible in respective grades. This is to be worked 49 out or each of the budget period based on existing strength (at the time of estimation) in each grade and additions during each quarter (taking 70% satisfaction for additions).
The provisions for LTC, medical reimbursement, PF and other welfare expenses are to be made based on trend of expenses in previous years and taking into account polices changes, if any. The details of welfare expenses like liveries and uniforms, safety expenses, accident compensation, games & sports, canteen subsidy etc., are to list out as per chart of account. The provisions for incentive, bonus and payments of one time nature are to be shown separately based on total employee cost for executives, supervisors and non-supervisors and total man power in these categories, separate rates of cost per employee will be worked out for each of these categories as under. 1. Salaries and allowance 2. Contribution to PF and other funds 3. Welfare expenses The cost center of employee cost will be worked out based on these rates separately for executives, supervisors and non-supervisors. This will again be consolidated separately for operations. Maintenance and common service function. The employee cost of common function will be appropriated between construction and O & M budgets in the ratio of capital expenditure and sales during the respective years.
REPAIRS & MAINTANANCE:
In line, with costing system following three activities can represent major classification of repairs and maintenance. 1. Major overhaul 2. Preventive maintenance 3. Break down maintenance Normally budgeting will be done for the former two: under each activity separate estimates will be prepared for consumption of materials and maintenance jobs. This estimation will be done at each of the sub cost center wise details are required to be mentioned.
The consumption material for repairs and maintenance will be classified into spares, lubricants, loose tools and plants, consumables and others. The cost center wise total separately for three activities will be added to arrive at summary of material consumption and maintenance jobs, which will be reflected in the profit & loss account. The material consumption especially of spares can be estimated based on the expected life of various consumption / spears in the installed equipment the frequency of breakdowns in the past and the requirement for prevented maintenance and major overhauls. The actual life of components may be different from that indicated in the manufacturer’s specification. Therefore, it is very difficult t estimate requirements of spares. But this new station it will be advisable to collect such information from old stations that have gained experience in this field. Normally maintenance of equipment through contractors should be avoided. But in certain areas, if the expertise and in house capability or sufficient man power is not available, maintenance jobs can be got done through contractors. Such contracts will need to be listed out separately. If any owner supply items are covered in such contracts the cost of these items will be included in the material cost.
FACTORY & GENERAL OVERHEADS:
All the items of expenditures under this head will be estimated based on past trend with due adjustment for policy changes. The estimates will be given by cost center needs for items identified with respective cost centers. The total administrative cost of service cost centers will be allocated between construction and O & M in the ration of capital expenditure and sales during the respective years.
This is to be charged as per ES act from the year following the year in which assets have been capitalized. This will be done separately by each of the cost centers on the basis of capitalized value and rates of depreciation furnished by site finance and account for different categories of assets. Cost center-wise depreciation will be added at total depreciation for the investment center.
INTEREST ON FIXED CAPITAL:
As per existing accounting policy, the interest is to be charged to profit & loss account based on the loan content in the capitalized assets restricted to total accrued interest on the actual loans. For budgeting purposes, interest will be worked on equated loan content or equated loan which ever is less.
EQUATED LOAN CONTENT:
Equated loan content is to taken as 50% if total capital cost and adjusted for number of operating months in respective years. In case of both generating factory and transmission lines with associated factory, the cost for each profit center will be taker as per actual or anticipated capital cost. The equated loan content is to be individual unit’s transmission lines separately for each of the phases / stages. The total capital cost will be taken as proposed in the performance budget construction.
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
THE KESORAM INDUSTRIES LIMITED REVENUE BUDGET TABLE-I
Budgeted estimated for the 2009-10
Actual for the year 2009-10
Sales Fixed cost recovery Variable cost recovery 724 840 72.4 84.0 618 740 61.8 74.0
Fuel price adjustment recovery
Own consumption Total of 1 2 3 Average intensives Other income GRAND TOTAL (1+2+3)
132 2516 102 56 2674
13.2 251.6 10.2 5.6 267.4
148 2369 98 49 2516
14.8 236.9 9.8 4.9 251.6
The data pertaining to the generation and consumption of cement at Kesoram Industries limited have been obtained from the year 2009-10 and represented in table -1. The aspect included are total generation of cement in (crores Rs) and utilization for auxiliary consumption, raw material consumption and line stone respectively. During the year 2009-10 the sales, fixed costs, variable cost, fuel price, own Consumption was decreased. When the estimated budgeted so sales consumption is 236.9% respectively. During the year 2009-10 the average intensive are decreased 9.8% the other Income also decreased 4.9% respectively. Finally with regard to the result in revenue budget of Kesoram cement industries limited totally decreased 251.6% in the year 2009-10 respectively.
THE KESORAM INDUSTRIES LIMITED
Operational Expenditure Budget for the Year 2009-10
TABLE – II
Rs in corers BUDGETED PARTICULAR ESTIMATED FOR THE 2009-10 AMOUNT 1 VARIABLE COST Raw Material Lime stone Total of 1 2 OPERATIVE MAINTENANCE COST Chemical water Repair & maintenance Employee cost Stationary general expenses Rebate Shareofoperating expenses Total -2 3 FINANCE CHARGES Deprecation Interest on fixed capital Total of – 3 GRAND TOTAL (1+2+3) 42 18 60 1744 4.2 1.8 6.0 17.44 15 20 35 1916 1.5 2.0 3.5 191.6 130 280 320 65 11 8 1684 13.0 28.0 32.0 6.5 1.1 0.8 168.4 150 300 350 80 13 10 903 15.0 30.0 35.0 8.0 1.3 1.0 90.3 420 450 870 42.0 45.0 87.0 450 470 920 45.0 47.0 92.0 RS/MT
ACTUAL FOR THE YEAR AMOUNT 2009-10 S/MT
Observed from the above table that the operational expenditure budget of Kesoram cement industries limited in the year 2009-10. In the year 2009-10 variable cost components the raw material consumption 45% increased and the line stone consumption 47% also increased. In operating & maintenances cost components chemical & water, repair & Maintenance, employee cost, stationary & general expenses, rebate and share of other expenses is all are fluctuating with the expenses of the year 2009-10. However the total operating maintenance costs are 90.3% decreasing respectively. In finance charges depreciation and interest on fixed capital, has been included The total finance charges recording decreasing of 3.5% in the year 2009-10 respectively. Finally with regard to the operational expenditure budget of Kesoram cement Industries limited the total profit has increase with 191.6% during the year 2009-10 The overall budgets results of Kesoram cement industries limited is earning More profits.
CASH FLOW STATEMENT
for the year ended 31st March, 2010 For the year ended 31 March 2010 A. Cash flow from Operating Activities Net Profit before Tax Adjustments for: Depreciation Loss /profit on fixed assets sold/ discarded Loss on sale of long term investment(other than trade) Income from long term investments(other than trade) Interest paid/payable on loans etc. Interest received/receivable on loans etc. Provision for doubtful debts / deposits(net) Debts / advances / deposits written off Long term investments(other than trade) written off Liabilities no longer required written back Unrealised loss/gain on foreign currency Provision for distribution in value of investments Operating profit before working capital changes Adjustments for: Inventories Trade and other receivables Trade payables Cash generated from operations Direct taxes (paid/ refund (net) Net cash from operating activities (1,21,69,75,334) (50,17,40,397) 65,61,02,594 2,91,87,29,240 (93,49,80,671) 1,98,37,48,569 (24,94,24,615) 2,92,62,268 (20,01,35,318) 1,04,10,43,693 6,31,57,979 1,10,42,01,672 58, 30, 54,022 5, 45, 85, 229 3,58,952 (4,91,46,581) 33,50,30,375 (2,50,55,563) ------5,34,50,670 7,700 (2, 09, 73,828) (2,95,96,073) --------4,28,13,42,377 51, 57, 16,762 (5, 76, 15, 772) -------(2,61,37,527) 32,75,37,771 (9,05,21,425) -------93,44,394 55,77,394 -----(4, 47,92,390) 19,15,075 1,10,09,232 1,46,13,41,338 3,41,78,32,892 80, 92, 92,132
for the year ended 31st March 2009
Provision for doubtful debts/advances/depostits written back (3,82,15,119)
CASH FLOW STATEMENT 56
for the year ended 31st March, 2010 For the year ended 31 March,2010 Rs B. Cash flow from investing activities Purchase of fixed assets Sale of fixed assets Proceeds from sales of refractory unit (Sold in 2004-05) Investments in shares Proceeds from sale of share etc. Income from long term investments Loans/ deposits given Revision of loans / deposits given Interest received on loans etc. Net cash used in investing activities C. Cash flow from financing activities Money refused (including securities premium) Proceeds from Long term borrowings Short term borrowings Payments for debentures Repayments of Long term borrowings Short term borrowings Increase in cash credit and overdrafts from banks Interest paid Dividends paid (including taxes) Net cash from financing activities Net increase in cash and cash equivalents Openings cash and cash equivalents Cash and cash equivalents taken over consequent Upon amalgamation Closing cash and cash equivalents ----------27,24,22,341 37,783 24,836,13,629 (70,31,00,557) 11,99,34,40,000 23,36,27,575 (48,27,22,502) (35,06,99,081) 1,70,53,90,985 2,41,08,712 24,83,13,629 (48,37,39,218) (5,91,42,30,841) 7,66,75,770 (33,84,31,360) (13,05,42,125) 67,42,71,694 5,04,39,979 19,78,35,867 3,47,00,00,000 11,53,25,82,966 (8,59,660) 1,93,00,00,000 5,53,69,08,223 (23,73,255) 3,150 4,500 1,50,00,000 (2,86,224) 13,42,476 4,91,45,881 (65,05,00,000) 1,00,80,00,000 2,13,22,677 (3,66,50,30,842) 60,00,000 (2,01,87,974) ----2,61,37,527 (1,15,90,00,000) 1,48,08,25,000 8,07,36,966 (1,72,80,33,387) (4,17,22,87,739) 6,22,31,087 (2,22,03,13,891) 6,83,68,985
for the year ended 31st March,2009 Rs
Profit and loss account for the year ended 31st March,2010
Schedule INCOME Sales Less: Excise duty Net sales
Rs 25,16,45,89,369 3,07,46,29,030
2008-2009 18,77,81,55,294 2,64,63,80,752
22,06,96,60,339 13 49,04,06,410 22,58,00,66,749
6,13,17,74,542 53,74,29,621 16,66,92,04,153 7,61,14,59,922 7,40,51,67,576 53,05,66,225 1,48,49,493
Other income EXPENDITURE Raw materials and finished goods Administration expenses Depreciation (note 1(c) and 16 on schedules17) Less: transfer from capital reserve Revaluation of fixed assets [Note 1(c) on schedule 17] Interest
14 15 59,52,38,509 1,21,74,487
58,30,64,022 16 33,50,30,487 19,16,22,33,857
51,57,16,762 32,75,37,771 15,85,99,12,031 80,92,92,132 34,00,00,000 1,22,00,000 45,70,92,132 45,70,92,132 13,72,29,954 1,92,46,501 --------50,00,00,000
PROFIT BEFORE TAXATION Provision for taxation [note 15 on schedule 17] Provision for benefit tax (excluding Rs 139797 Referred to the note 17 on schedule 17)
PROFIT AFTER TAXATION PROFIT AVAILABLE FOR APPROPRIATION
3,41,78,32,892 75,00,00,000 1,10,00,000 2,65,68,32,892 2,65,68,32,892 ------18,29,73,272 2,56,62,001 30,00,00,000 50,86,35,273 2,41,81,97,619 58.08
APPROPRIATIONS Proposed dividend Tax on proposed dividend Retain dividend Tax on remain dividend General reserve Balance carried to schedule 2 Earning per share Note on the accounts 17
20,64,70,455 25,06,15,677 9.99
The schedules referred to above from an integral part of the profit and loss account This is the profit and loss account referred to in out report of given data.
Balance sheet as at 31st March, 2010
Schedule 1. SOURCES OF FUNDS a) Capital b) Reserves and surplus 2) Loans funds A) Secured loans b) Unsecured loans 1 2
31.05.2009 45,74,15,840 3,70,80,84,300
45,74,16,365 6,08,69,28,276 6,54,43,44,641
4,16,05,00,140 4,13,36,83,590 2,07,98,60,994
6,43,19,70,165 2,29,60,29,565 8,72,79,99,730
6,21,35,44,584 1,07,19,11,120 11,44,59,55,844
Deferred tax liability
2. APPLICATION OF FUNDS 1) FIXED ASSETS 5 A) gross block 16,79,31,75,670 b) Less depreciation 7,21,93,42,588 C) net block 9,54,38,33,082 D) work-in-progress 1,50,80,68,195 11,05,19,01,277 2. Investment 6 3. Current loans and advance a) Inventories 7 b) Sundry debtors 8 c) Cash and bank 9 d) Other current asset 10 e) Loans and advance 11 28,87,27,907 3,76,53,27,777 2,45,94,52,581 27,24,22,341 11,81,99,412 2,06,22,47,261 8,68,11,49,372 Less: current liabilities and Provisions a) Current liabilities b) Provisions Net current assets 12 2,26,82,92,085 1,35,70,49,221 3,62,53,01,306 5,05,58,08,066 16,39,64,37,250
12,15,29,31,737 6,80,31,40,378 5,34,97,91,359 2,08,24,05,680 7,43,21,97,039 29,01,50,811 2,55,18,52,443 1,54,37,25,247 24,83,13,629 14,42,64,134 1,30,99,77,187 6,09,81,32,640
1,61,23,30,585 76,21,94,061 2,37,45,24,646 3,72,36,07,994 11,44,59,55,844
Note on the accounts 17 The schedules referred to above from an integral part of the balance sheet This is the balance sheet referred to in our even data
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
Every organization has pre-determined set of objectives and goals, but reaching those objectives and goals only by proper planning and executing of the plans economically. The Kesoram Cement Industries Limited is objectives of planning promoting and organizing an integrated development of Cement Company. The corporation mission of Kesoram Cement Industries is to make available and quality cement in increasingly large quantities, the company will spear head the process of accelerated development of cement sector by expeditiously. The organization needs the capable personalities as management to lead the organization successfully, the management makes the plans and implement of these plan are expressed in terms of budget and budgetary control. The Kesoram Cement Industries Limited has budget process in two stages. One is the capital expenditure budget and another is operating maintenance budget, the capital expenditure budget shows the list of capital projects selected for investment along with their estimated cost, operating & maintenance budget refers to the repairs & maintenance budgets, the special budgets are rarely used in the organization like long-term budgets, research & development budget and budget for consultancy. The Kesoram Cement Industries Ltd. Is to make available and quality cement efficient resources and implementation of sophisticated technology and cement generation and also creating ambience of collective working of its employees.
Planning has become the primary function of management most of the planning relates to individual and individual proposals. Budgets are nothing but his expressions, largely in financial terms, budgetary control has, therefore become and essential tool of management for controlling and maximizing profits. ? The company objectives of the organization and how they can be achieved through budgetary control ? Time tables for all stages of budgeting follow ? Reports, statements, forms and other record to be maintained ? Continuous comparison of actual performance with budgeted performance.
? FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING ? FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
RP TRIVEDI I.M. PANDEY
88TH ANNUAL REPORT OF KESORAM CEMENT INDUSTRIES LIMITED
? FUNDAMENTAL OF FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT PRASANNA CHANDRA
DETAILED PROJECT REPORT OF KESORAM CEMENT INDUSTRIES LIMITED www.google.com
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