MBA Project Report On Stress Management of Employees - Foreign direct investment(FDI)
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A PROJECT REPORT ON
STRESS MANAGEMENT OF EMPLOYEES
WITH REFERENCE TO
VISAKA INDUSTRIES. LTD. SECUNDERABAD.
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SUBMITTED
I, XXXX, here by declare that the project report entitled “STRESS MANAGEMENT OF EMPLOYEES” is original of mine, done from “VISAKA INDUSTRIES.Ltd.” submitted in partial fulfillment of Masters Degree in Business Administration of Osmania University.
At the outset, I wish to thank the management of Visaka Industries Limited. For their kind gesture of following me to undertake this project, and its various employees who lent their helping hand towards the completion of this study. The very high degree of informal co-operation received during my discussion on the topic has been one of the greatest pleasures of working in the organizations. The co-operation I received from the wide cross-section of employees of Visaka IndustriesLimited Makes it difficult to single out individuals for acknowledgement. However, I am particularly indebted to XXXX Sr.Vice President (MKTG) for allowing me to carryout my project work in the organization, XXXX Asst. Regional Manager and XXXX Sales Executive for apprising me of the situation with necessary background and helping me to complete this project work. I am also thankful to the staff of India Info Line Ltd.
I would like to thank XXXX, Principal of XXXX and also XXXX , HOD of our department for giving me the opportunity to carry out this project, I am thankful to XXXX faculty of our college for co-operation and their encouragement during the course of project work. I am thankful to my parents and all my friends who are co-operated to complete this project.
Scope of the Study objective of the study Limitations of the Study
Company Profile Company Products
Research Methodology III Source of Data Primary Data Secondary Data
INTRODUCTION OF STRESS MANAGEMENT
Data Analysis And Tabulation
Conclusion and Suggestions Summary of findings Bibliography
CHAPTER - I INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION TO AC SHEETS INDUSTRY : The desire for good, clothing, shelter, love and possession never end a human being. Human beings are called as the “creatures with never ending desires” But among these desires food, cloth and shelter are said to be the most basic need of human beings, which protect them from natural calamities. From the older days till the present time, there were number of changes in the method of consisting houses for having shelter. The name Asbestos derives from the Greek a-, “not”, asbestos-, “extinguishable “,. The term may refer to the everlasting wicks of the ‘Eternal Flame’ in the temple of the Vestal virgins, or possibly an alternate translation such as “indestructible” may bee appropriate, though it is difficult to admit that asbestos is a truly wondrous material. In a technological world it is a manufacture’s dream. It is strong yet flexible i.e., it has tensile strength far in excess of steel, it is resistant to chemical attack, it has amazing thermal and acoustic insulating properties, it is non conductive and above ad all it is amazing fire resistant. WHAT IS ASBESTOS: Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral found in underground rock formations. For commercial purposes, it is recovered by mining and rock crushing. Fine particles invisible to the eye, are present kin the air and water everywhere. All of us may be inhaling them and ingesting them through drinking water every day for our life times without any adverse effect on health. White asbestos (chrysotile variety) constitutes 98% of world production for its commercial use. Indian asbestos cement sheet and pipe manufactures import all their requirements of chrysotile fibers from Canada, Brazil, Russia, Zimbabwe and Kazakhstaaan for production of AC sheets and pipes. Asbestos is also mined in India but quantity and quality –wise it is of no relevance to our asbestos cement production. Asbestos fiber (composed mainly of magnesium and silica) is a great reinforcing agent. While its tensile strength is greater than steel, it has other rare and highly valued fire retardant, chemical resistant and heat insulating qualities. In fact it is a magic mineral and no other substitute can match its properties. COMMERCIAL UES OF ASBESTOS: In the year 1899 the first patent for the manufacture of Asbestos Cement sheet was done in Germany. Asbestos was mined and used
commercially in North America beginning in the late 1800s. Its use increased greatly during World War II. Since then, it has been used in many industries. For example, the building and construction industry has used it for strengthening cement and plastics as well as for insulation, fireproofing and sound absorption. The shipbuilding industry has used asbestos to insulate boilers steam, pipes and hot water pipes. The automotive industry uses asbestos in vehicle brake shoes and clutch pads. More than 5,000 products contain or have contained asbestos. Some of them are listed below: Asbestos cement sheet and pipe products used for water supply and sewage piping, roofing and siding, casings for electrical wires, fire protection material, electrical switchboards and components, residential and industrial building material, electrical switchboards and components, residential and industrial building materials, friction products, such s clutch facings, brake linings for automobiles, gaskets, and industrial friction materials, products containing asbestos paper such as table pads and heat protective amts, heat and electrical wire insulation, industrial filters for beverages and underlying material for sheet flooring, Asbestos textile products, such as packing components, roofing materials , and heat and fire-resistant fabrics (including blankets and curtain) and other products, including ceiling and floor tile; gaskets and packing , paints coatings and adhesive ,caulking and patching tape, Artificial ashes and embers for use in gas-fired fireplaces, caulking and patching tape, Artificial ashes and embers for use in gas-fired fireplaces; plastics; vermiculite containing consumer garden products; and some talccontaining crayons, Asbestos is currently used most frequently in gaskets and in roofing and friction products. Asbestos is the name for a group of naturally occurring silicate minerals that can be separated into fibers. The fibers are strong, durable and resistant to heat and fire Asbestos materials are also long, thin and flexible, so that they can even be woven into cloth. Because of these qualities, asbestos has been used in thousands of consumer, industrial, maritime, automotive, scientific and building products. During the twentieth century, some 30 million tons of asbestos were used in industrial sites, homes, schools, shipyards and commercial buildings in the United States.
WHAT ARE ASBESTOS CEMENT (AC) PRODUCTS: AC products are made with a mix of chrysotile fibers (about 8-9%) cement and other raw materials. Over 90% of asbestos fiber imports of India go into AC sheet and pipe production.
AC Sheets have been used In India for 70 years. Being weather – proof and Corrosion resistant, these sheets are practically ageless and maintenance free, whereas metal sheets corrode and deteriorate with age and exposure. AC Sheets have also proven to be the most cost effective easy- to – install, strong and durable roofing material for warehouses, factories, low –cost housing and practically, any structure needing a roof. Apart from India, Russia, China, Thailand, Brazil and Japan are some of the largest users of AC Sheets. AC shuts and pipes, being corrosion and erosion – free, once properly laid and jointed, need no maintenance or replacement. They are also very cost effective. AC products, which consume low energy in manufacture and do not in any way deplete the natural resources, meet the needs of the country in its developing economy in the context of rapidly rising population and limited resources. Ac products are manufactured under (ISI) license strictly conforming to the standards of bureau of Indian standards. IS 4559 / 1992 for Corrugated Roofing Sheets, IS 2098/1997 for Flat Sheets and IS 1626 (Part 111)/1994 for Roofing Accessories. WHAT IS THE SITUATION IN INDIA? In India, only the chsrysotile variety of asbestos, which is considered safe, is used in asbestos-cement products, anomaly sheets and pipes. The fibers are mixed and bonded with cement and other raw material, with no chance of escaping into the atmosphere. Asbestos cement products are being manufactured in India since 1934. Workers in asbestos cement product industry in India have not had any adverse health effects I spites of decades of services, there being no risk of exposure to asbestos dust because of pollution control measures installed in the factories. Health effects I spite of decades of services, there being no risk of exposure to asbestos dust because of pollution control measure installed in the factories. Health of the workers is closely monitored as per directives and regulations of the government agencies. There is no risk whatsoever in living or working under the AC roof, as asbestos fibers are bonded (locked in ) with cement and cannot get released in to the atmosphere. Transportation of drinking water in AC pipes is absolutely safe as confirmed by the World Health Organization, Ingested asbestos if any does not pose any health risk. Indian climatic conditions never required the type of asbestos spraying and insulation, at one time common in the West. Thus, the health hazards and risks associated with the past asbestos fiber usage in the western countries, have nothing to do with the asbestos products or application in India.
“ In India Asbestos Cement sheets have been extensively used by Indian Railways for the last 50 years to provide the safest form of roofing to the thousands of Railways Platforms across the country where over I crore people step every day. It is noteworthy that AC Sheets have not withstood the t4est of time with no reported risk/casualty to the Indian traveler nor has there been any adverse effect on the local environment. Another major Consumption of AC Sheets is in the roofing of Food Corporation of India Go downs, where millions of tons of food grains are stocked. The above two examples are testimony to the fact that Asbestos Sheets are absolutely safe to use. It is worth noting that India uses only about 6 to 7% of the asbestos produced in the world. (The rest is used in other countries, where odiously, it is accepted as safe).
POLICIES OF GOVERNMET OF INDIA ON ASBESTOS: The Government of India has constituted various expert committees to study the asbestos industry and having been satisfied that asbestos does not actually pose a health risk to the workers at the manufacturing plants so long as the work place pollution controls were in place, or to the public who use the asbestos-cement products, the Ministry of Industry, allowing any person to set up a factory without the need for an industrial license from ministry. The Ministry of Environment, Govt, of India, vide its Gazette Notification dated 20.01.2000 has deleted asbestos from the list of “Hazardous chemicals”. The Ministry of Industry, Ministry of Labour, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Bureau of Indian Standers, et al have laid-down regulations, standards, guidelines and recommendations specific to the asbestos industry, in line with those of international Labour Organization, world Health Organization and other bodies. The Central and State Pollution Control Boards, Labour and Factory Inspectors also regularly monitor the factories compliance with the mandatory safety standards and pollution control levels.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This particular study about Work Stress Management is restricted within the organization. The study is conducted on the employees of the organization. This is not because of non-availability of resources but the nature of the study itself restricts it. It studies the existence or non – existence of stress among the employees in the organization and identifies the factors which are contributing for stress (If any). It also provides the various steps adopted by the organization for managing the work stress of the employees, which can be used as future reference for decision-making and policy making with regard to the employees. This study reveals the morale of the employees.
? The objective of the study is to identify the existence of work stress in the organization. ? If YES, then to study the factors causing stress among the employees
? To study the impact and usefulness of Work Stress Management and also to suggest measures for coping with stress.
? Due to constraints of tie and many other resources this study is confines to manages and officers of patancheruvu plant medak (dist).
? The opinions, behavior and attitudes of the respondents reflected in this study are restricted to the duration of the research and are subject to change with the passage of time.
CHAPTER - II COMPANY PROFILE
BRIEF HISTORY OF THE COMPANY: The Company was incorporated under the Indian companies Act, 1956 on 8th June.1985 As Visaka Asbestos cement products Limited. With affect from 9th August 1990, the name of the company was changed to Visaka Industries Limited. The company is an Rs.135 Crores turnover, dividend paying Company engaged in the business of Building Products and Synthetic Blended Yearns. PROMOTERS: The company was jointly promoted by APIDC and Dr. G.Vivekananda to Manufacture Fiber Building Products. Dr. G.Vivekananda is a first generation entrepreneur. APIDC has since divested its entire stake. PROCESS AND TECHNOLOGY: The Company’s Spinning unit employs the latest spinning machines on the Air Jet Spinning Technology procured from Murata of Japan and Visaka is the biggest leader of Air Jet Spinning in the world with the highest Productivity and efficiency. The Company two Asbestos Cement Sheet Manufacturing Units operating at above 125% of capacity utilization with ISI aceditation.These units employ a continuous technology.
LOCATION : The Company’s Building Product plants are located at Yelumala village, R.C.Puram Mandal, Medak District, near Hyderabad (Andhra
Pradesh) and at Manickanatham Village, Paramati, Velur Tale, Namkal District, Tamilnadu.The Synthetic Blended yarn factory is located at Chiruva Village, Moudha Taluk, Nagpur District, I Manharastra RAW MATERIALS: The main raw materials for Building Products are Asbestos Fiber and Cement. The Former is imported amongst others from lab Chrysotile INC., of Canada and Sama Fibers of Brazil, whereas the later is manufactured indigenously and is procured amongst others from Orient Cement and India Cements Ltd. The main raw materials required for the Spinning Division are polyester, Acrylic and Viscose Fibers. The Company procures the polyesters staple Fiber from Reliance Industries Ltd., IPL, and IOCL etc. the Viscose Staple Fiber is procured from Grasim Industries Ltd. And South India Viscose Ltd. POWER : The power required for the Building products Division is 600 KVA and is being drawn from AP States Electricity board. The Company has installed stand-by generation facility for 10% requirement. In the Spinning Division, power requirement is 3000 KVA, which is met out of supply from Manharastra State Electricity Board and is satisfactory.
MARKETING : The Company has established, over the years, a vast and dependable dealership network of 950 dealers for marketing of Building Products and has 17 own depots in the important centers in Central and South India. The Company’s Spinning Division is manufacturing Polyster/Visscose blended yarn. The End uses of these Yarns are manifold, such as suiting, shirting’s and dress material. He Company’s major clients include Siyaram silk mills,
Grasims, Raynolds and Santogen Mills, Harry’s Collection, Pantaloon, Indian Rayon, Mikodo Mills etc. and the Bhilwara Group. In the Spinning Division, the Company has been making steady progress on the export Front since inception. The company participated in Yarn shows held in Chile. Argentina and Brazil during the period 21 st July to 1st August 2000. The response of the Company’s Yarn has been encouraging. The Company’s exports during 2002-03 were Rs.2036 Lacs.In the expansion unit, the Company has installed latest generation High Speed Twin Air-Jet Spinning Machines which had better maneuverability to manufacture Different varieties of Dyed Tarn, Harrow Shades, Harrow Milange and other Fancy Yarn. CREDIT RATING : The bankers of the Company, i.e. State Bank of India and State Bank of Hyderabad have Accorded a Credit rating of SB3 to the Company has been prompt in making payment of Interest and repayment of installments to all the Financial Institutions, Banks and other Creditors, thereby enjoying a good rating with them.
COMPANY PRODUCTS Visaka Industries a name that is Synonymous with quality and Strength.
A Company that prides itself on the excellence of its products, its superior technology. And most os all its professional exertise. All this combines to confirm the undisputed fact that Visaka products are highly appreciated for their economy and durability and protection for all kinds of seasons. They Manufacture Asbestos sheets to international standards at an affordable cost.
Sheet profile: ISI SPECIFICATION TECHNICAL DATA
Standard lengths (in Metres) : 3.00,2.75,2.50,2.25 2.00,1.75,1.50 Thickness :6 mm Toleran Maximum Unsupported ce Overhang :300 (in mm mm) +5 -10 +free Pitch :146 mm -0.5 +6 Depth :48 mm -2 +3 -5 Overall Width :1050 mm +10 -5 Effective Width :1010 mm +10 -5 Maximum Spacing for roofing Purling :1.4 M
Maximum Rail spacing for vertical cladding :1.7 M Selection Modulus :ZB :75 cm3 ZT 85 cm
Moment of Rupture : 200kg/cm
Running metres per tonne (approx) :78
Technology & Quality control :
Visaka’s high-tech Asbestos Cement plant is a fully automated factory incorporating the largest and most sophisticated tecjnology. Resulting in
consistency in physical properties and strength, which far exceeds the standards prescribed by I.S.I
Customer Service :
The Visaka personalised customer service is geared to ensure customer satisfication. The marketting and technical team works closely with the customer, identifying his needs, helping in Roof Design-Installation and keepin in close contact before and after he buys the products. Visaka’s customer service is further supported bytheir stockists who are selected for their integrity and repute. They are also trained to provide technical advice to clients, such as advice on Estimating, Installation etc., totally free of cost.
CHAPTER-3 SOURCE OF DATA
Under Research Methodology various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with logic Behind them is discussed. The researcher methodology has many dimensions and research methods to constitute a part of the research methodology. It is necessary for the researcher to design the methodology for his problem as it may differ from problem to problem. In the process of conduction the study, the researcher has followed the following methodology Field Study: The researcher has conducted the study among the executives and offices level employees in ASIAN PAINTS INDIA LTD. Since employees were operating, study on the whole system could not be undertaken as a whole and is restricted to with in the unit of the company. Collection Of Data Primary Data: Primary data was colleted within the employees of organization through survey and personnel interview. Secondary Data: Secondary data was collected from various published books, companies’ web sites and company old records. Research Design The research designs under taken for the study is in descriptive one. The methodology involved in this design is mostly qualitative in a nature. Types of Study • • The present study is partly exploratory, partly descriptive and partly causal. It is exploratory because it is concerned with identifying the existence and non-existence of stress.
It is descriptive as it aims to describe the various internal and external factors that contribute to stress. It is causal as it aims to analyze the causes for stress and the effect of stress in the performance of the employees.
Sample Design A sample of 80 employees is taken out of a total population of 250 employees (58%), based on judgment sampling. The sample is selected in such a way that it includes the employees of all ages, different designations from different educational streams with distinct experience from various departments. Hence the sample is a representative of the population and an unbiased mix of all factors. Sample Size Out of the total universe 250 employees a total of employees a total of 80 employees belonging to different units of APIL namely: Research Instrument The research instrument used for the survey is a structured undisguised questionnaire. The questionnaire has been framed in structures and undisguised form, with a total number of 20 questions. It has both open ended and closed ended questions. The information collected through personal interview is also being used. Pre-testing was conducted to find if there were any discrepancies in the questionnaire designed necessary changes were made after designing the questionnaire for which data was collected
• • Bar Charts Pie Charts
CHAPTER - IV INTRODUCTION TO STRESS MANAGEMENT
INTRODUCTION TO STRESS
Stress is a part of day-to-day living of every individual. The college students may experience stress in meeting the academic demands, people on the job, business men may suffer stress to reach office in time and to complete the projects on time and even the house hole ladies may experience stress in managing the home affairs and to look for the maid servant. The reasons for the stress differ from person to person. The stress people experience should not be necessarily treated as harmful. An optimum amount of stress can always act as an energizer or motivator and propel people to apply the efforts and complete the work. But a high level of stress can be serious threat to the personality trails of the individual and can cause physiological and social problems.
What is Stress?
Stress is the "wear and tear" our bodies experience as we adjust to our continually changing environment; it has physical and emotional effects on us and can create positive or negative feelings.
How can I eliminate stress from my life? As we have seen, positive stress adds anticipation and excitement to life, and we all thrive under a certain amount of stress. Deadlines, competitions, confrontations, and even our frustrations and sorrows add depth and enrichment to our lives. Our goal is not to eliminate stress but to learn how to manage it and how to use it to help us. Insufficient stress acts as a depressant and may leave us feeling bored or dejected; on the other hand, excessive stress may leave us feeling "tied up in knots." What we need to do is find the optimal level of stress, which will individually motivate but not overwhelm each of us.
How can I tell what is optimal stress for me?
There is no single level of stress that is optimal for all people. We are all individual creatures with unique requirements. As such, what is distressing to one may be a joy to another. And even when we agree that a particular event is distressing, we are likely to differ in our physiological and psychological responses to it.
How can I tell manage stress better? Identifying unrelieved stress and being aware of its effect on our lives is not sufficient for reducing its harmful effects. Just as there are many sources of stress, there are many possibilities for its management. However, all require work toward change: changing the source of stress and/or changing your reaction to it. How do you proceed?
The Nine Stress Management Tips:
1.Know what stresses you most. Not your co-worker, friend, husband, or wife. YOU!! Get your feelings out. Write them out and describe each situation. Share all bad feelings with a friend or in a journal. Before you can conquer your stresses you must know what is stressing you.
2.Say no. Focus on you own goals, not your spouse's or parents'. You must know yourself, your dreams, and your passions. If asked to chair another group or take on another responsibility, look at your mission statement or goals for the day. If it is does not fit it there say thank you but I just cannot. Saying no is one of the hardest things in life, but will help make you a success in your chosen field. 3.Learn to relax. Work hard but know when to take time off to be with the family, go to the beach, or read a book. Work all day if you must but when you get home play, watch cartoons, or tell your child a story. This allows stress tension to go away and helps you calm the heart's pace and digest food normally, and protect your immune system. Learn to meditate and take deep breaths to calm down.
4. Eat healthy. Eat less junk food and more fruit and vegetables for an amazing overall lowering of stress levels. We can actually lower the amount of
the bad stress hormone, Cortisol, by taking vitamins. Take those vitamin pills daily. 5. Keep laughing. Keep a sense of humor. Studies show a good attitude helps lower cancer rates, makes surgery more effective, and keeps a relationship together through hard times. 6. Ask yourself WHY. Why are you doing this? Write down your wants, needs, goals, hopes,and dreams. Does what you are doing now help you get fulfill any of these things? What is your motivation? The more you understand why you doing what you are doing the less stress you will have. If you cannot come up with a good reason, then stop doing it.
7. Stay active. Exercise is a great way to relive tension and gives you a great break from exams. A healthy body makes a happy body. Even a three-minute jog is helpful at taking your mind off your pressures. You'll come back with an acute focus and renewed energy. 8. Follow your bliss. Try to know which subjects and type of people you enjoy. Structure your life around activities that you love. Joseph Campbell, a wise philosopher, advises you to follow your bliss. The more you do in life that goes with your own flow, the more passion you'll have for what you do. 9. Organize and Prioritize. Do the worst and hardest tasks first. Keep a to-do list and calendar with you at all times. If you fail to plan, you plan to fail.
We generally believe that the stress is caused by the external events and the dynamics of the environment. But we need to emphasis the fact that the Stress is caused by our reaction to the external environment. The manner in which we perceive and understand the changes or the particular event creates same event can bring happiness and cause stress in two different people depending upon how they react to it. When students are asked to prepare a presentation, some may take it to the other students may be perturbed by it for the fear of his weakness. So, Stress is our reaction to external events and it can be positive or negative depending upon how we react, it is the general wear and tear of the body machine that takes place due to extra demands put on it. Stress is the biggest killer in the Western world and the cause of huge losses of production in industry. But the techniques to combat stress and
Increase well being in your daily life are within your reach –if you know how to go about them. REPLACING NEGATIVE WITH POSITIVE EMOTIONS The Successful Stress Management course gives you guidance on the changes necessary to overcome and reject negative emotions, and to replace them with positive ones that give you true quality of life. Your course will enable you to consider the causes and effects of the stress in today’s world, and help you plan strategies for managing and controlling stress to develop a healthy sense of self-esteem. This is a much-needed course in today’s world of increasing anxieties, and is invaluable whether you want to benefits yourself or make a career out of giving guidance to others. We can define stress as “body’s non-specific response to any demand made on it”. Stress is not by definition synonymous with nervous tension or
anxiety. On one side stress provides the means to express talents and energies and pursue happiness on the other side it can also cause exhaustion and illness, either physical or psychological.
Definition of stress
• • According to the father of stress of research, Hans Selye, “stress is the spice of life; the absence of stress in death. Stress is defined as an adaptive response to an external situation that results • • in physical, psychological and behavioral deviations for organizational participants. Stress is understood as an individual reaction to a disturbing factor in the environment. Ivancevich and matteson define stress simply as “ the interaction of the individual with the environment. Remember that our main definition of stress is that stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize. With this in mind, we can now look at how you can manage all of the stresses that your career will bring From our definition, you can see that there are three major approaches that we can use to manage stress; • • Action-oriented: In which we seek to confront the problem causing the stress, often changing the environment or the situation; Emotionally-oriented: In which we do not have the power to change the situation, but we can manage stress by changing our interpretation of the situation and the way we feel about it; and • Acceptance-oriented: Where something has happened over which we have no power and no emotional control, and where our focus is on surviving the stress.
Action-oriented approaches – best where you have some control
To be able to take an action-oriented approach, we must have some power in the situation. If we do, then action-oriented approaches are some of the most satisfying and rewarding ways of managing stress. These are techniques that we can use to manage and overcome stressful situations. Changing them to our advantage. The early selections on the title bar above focus on action-oriented coping. These selections introduce skills that help you to manage your job actively, work well with your boss and co-workers, and change your surroundings to eliminate environmental stress. Emotionally-oriented approaches-subtle but effective If you do not have the power o change a situation, then you may be able to improve things by changing he way you look at it, and feel about it, by using an emotionally oriented approach. These are often less attractive than actionoriented approaches in that the stresses can recur time and again; however, they are useful and effective in their place. The section on Reducing Stress With Rational Thinking explains powerful techniques for getting another perspective on difficult situations. Acceptance-oriented approaches-when there’s no valid alternative… Sometimes, we have so little power in a situation that it is all we can do to survive it. This is the case, for example, when loved-ones die. In these situations, often the first stage of coping with the stress is to accept one’s lack of power. The section on Building Defenses Against Stress looks at building the buffers against stress that helps you through these difficult periods. Arguably, the section on Useful Relaxation Techniques also fails in to this category. These different approaches to stress management address our definition of stress indifferent ways: the action-oriented techniques help us to manage the demands upon us and increase the resources we can mobilize; the emotionally oriented techniques help us to adjustor perceptions of the situation; and the
acceptance-oriented techniques help us survive the situations that we genuinely cannot change. took the relationship between stress and industry very seriously. Stress: What it is not ? Stress is not simply anxiety or nervous tension ? Stress need not necessarily be damaging ? Stress is not always due to over stimulation ? Stress cannot be avoided Levels of Stress Eustress: Eustress denotes the presence of optimum level of stress in an individual, which contributes positively to his performance. This may lead employees to new and better ways of doing their jobs. In certain jobs such as sales, creativity a mild level of stress contributes positively to productivity. Distress: Distress denotes the presence of high level of stress in an individual, which affects job performance adversely and creates many types of physical, psychological and behavioral problems. Symptoms of Stress As stated earlier Stress is caused by or reaction to the external events and bring about changes in our response and our general behavior. The presence of Stress can be estimated by the analysis of certain symptoms an individual shows. These symptoms can be divided into three different categories. They are Feelings, Behavior and Physiology. When the individual experience Stress, one or more of the following symptoms can be exhibited.
Feelings • The individual becomes anxious become anxious about the outcomes and is scared. The person feels that he has got something to loose or something wrong will take place. • In an anxious state the person does not want to be corrected or interrupted. He looks out for other areas where he can forget about the stress-causing event for a while . The person becomes irritable and moody. • During high level of Stress the individual develops a negative frame of mind and suffers from low self-esteem. The person loose faith in his capabilities and is afraid of the failures. The individual does not have a focused approach and is not able to concentrate and is involved in his own plans and thoughts. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Physiological and Behavioral Changes Speech problems Impulsive Behavior Crying for no apparent reason Laughing in a high pitch and nervous tone of voice. Grinding of teeth Increasing smoking and use of drugs and alcohol. Being accident-prone Perspiration/ sweaty hands Increased hear beat Trembling Nervous ticks Tiring easily Urinating frequently Sleeping problems Diarrhea / indigestion /vomiting /nausea Butterflies in stomach Headaches
Premenstrual tension Pain in the neck and or lower back
Causes of Stress Both positive and negative events in one’s life can be stressful. However major life changes are the greatest contributors of stress for most people. 1. If people have to travel a lot and have to move from place to place, it can cause stress. 2. Individual can also be under stress if they are about to enter some new environment. They may be going to new colony. To a new college or they may be joining a new organization. 3. Some events, which are generally once I a lifetime can also cause stress. The social institutions of marriage or divorcé can cause stress. Pregnancy can also generate Stress. They are: ? ? ? ? ? Time pressure Competition Financial problems Noise Disappointments
UNDERSTADING STRESS Three potential sources of stress: ? Environmental Factors ? Organizational Factors ? Individual Factors
Economic uncertainty is created when there is a change in the business cycle. That is when people become anxious about their security. This uncertainty not only affects the stress level of the organization but also to design of the organisation. By the coming up to the new innovations in the field of technology like computers, robotics, automation etc. It has become a threat to many people, which causes stress. This type of uncertainty is called Technology Uncertainty. Organizational Factors: There is no storage of factors within the organization that can cause stress. These are categorized into: ? ? ? ? ? ? Task Demands Role Demands Interpersonal demands Organizational Demands Organizational Leadership Organization’s Life Stage
Task Demands: Task demands are factors related to a person’s job. They include the design of the individual’s job (autonomy, task variety, degree of automation). Working conditions, and the physical work layout. Working in an overcrowded room or in a visible location where interruptions are constant can increase anxiety and stress Interpersonal Demands: Interpersonal demands are pressures created by other employees. Lack of social support from colleagues and poor interpersonal relationships can cause considerable stress, especially among employees with a high social need.
Organizational Structure: Organizational Structure defines the level of differentiation in the organization, the degree of rules and regulations, and where decisions are made.
CHAPTER - V DATA ANALYSIS
1. Perception of Employees of Different age groups about Stress
Perception of employees of different Ages about Stress
80% 70% 60%
Pe rce ntage
50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
30-39 40-49 50-59
INTERPREATION: From the above graphical representation it has been found that the age group of 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 (65%) are having more workload than the employees aged between 20-29. The employees with age group of 30-39 are having more stress on facing the Meeting targets than the other age group. Finally the performance anxiety is more to the 20-29 age group and it is negligible in 50-59 aged employees.
Problem areas identified by employees of different ages
Different Ages Vs Identified Problems
Percentage 80 60 40 20 0 Inteperson al Relationshi p Health
20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59
INTERPRETATION: The analysis shows that the employees grouped between 20-29 and 50-59 are facing more health problems (66%) than the other age group 30-39 and 40-49 and this is because of stress factors like performance anxiety, workload and meeting targets. It can be inferred that there is a strong correlation between health and psychology because the later as a direct impact on health. Problems like mental tension, anxiety, depression, loss of memory and concentration, which arise due to psychological problems. And finally it can be found that the age group 20-29 and 30-39 are having problem in their work itself (67%) as these are the up coming employees with new positions. It has been found that the employees though they are facing more stress they are still able to maintain better interpersonal relationship with their peers, subordinates and superiors this may be because to reduce the stress and to complete the task with their support.
Suggestions by employees of different ages for changes at work place
Ages Vs Changes at work place
Percentage 80 60 40 20 0 Timely targets Distributed work load Periodic Relaxation INTERPRETATION: From the above data we can analyze that the all the employees of different age groups wanted a few changes at work place like timely targets (33%). And distributed work load is more in age group of 4049 i.e., (56%) and finally 66% of the employees of age group 20-29 and 5059 want changes in periodic relaxation as these are people who feel more stress in handling the work than the others. 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59
Change at work place
Measures to reduce stress given by employees of different age groups
DIFFERENT AGES VS MEASURES TO REDUCE STRESS 120 PERCENTAGE 100 80 60 40 20 0 MEASURES 2 REDUCE STRESS TO 1 3 4 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59
1.Counselling 2.Job Rotation
3.Relations 4. Recognition
INTERPRETATION: It has been found that the employees of age group 4049 and 50-59 require counseling (66%) as they are undergoing more stress, where as employees the age group 20-29 and 30-39 do not feel the need for counseling (33%). It has been found that the age group of 30-39 and 40-49 (47%) feel more stress; they insist that job rotation can be used as one of the measures to reduce stress. From the above analysis we can say that the age group 40-49 feels that better interpersonal relationships (47%) can help reduce the stress level, which in turn will improve relationship between superior and subordinate. It has been found that the employees of all the different age group have felt recognition of good work (67%) can also be one of the measures to reduce stress and this is more in age group of 50-59.
Perception of employees about stress according to their designations
DESIGNATION vS STRESS FACTORS
100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 STRESS FACTORS PERCENTAGE MANAGERS(3) DY.MANAGERS(5) ASST.MANAGERS( 5) OFFICERS (17)
2.Meeting Targets 3. Performance Anxiety
INTERPRETATION: It has been found that 80% of officers face more stress than the other managers because these face more work load and performance anxiety in meeting the targets. From the above representation we can say that the Managers facing more stress in meeting their targets (71%) than the Dy. Managers and Asst. Managers.
6.Problems areas identified by employees with different designations
DESIGNATION VS IDENTIFIED PROBLEM AREAS 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 PROBLEM AREAS PERCENTAGE MANAGERS(3) DY.MANAGERS(5 ) ASST.MANAGER S(5) OFFICERS (17)
INTERPRETATION: It has been found that the Managers, Asst. Managers and Officers are having more health problems (65%) because there is a direct impact of stress factors like work load, performance anxiety and meeting targets on health. The Psychological problems are more marked among Officers and these are equal in Dy. Managers and Asst. Managers are equally facing same psychological problems It has been found that managers and officers 35% face fewer problems in interpersonal relationships than the others. And finally we can analyze that the Dy. Managers, Asst. Managers and officers are feeling more stress due to work itself i.e., 90% of problems are due to work itself according to officers and it 67% of it in Dy. Managers and Asst. Managers. And it is very little in Managers.
7. Suggestions by employees with different designation for changes at work place
DESIGNATION VS CHANGES AT WORK PLACE PERCENTAGE 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 CHANGES AT WORK PLACE dy.managers asst . managers officers managers
2.Distributed Work load 3.Periodic Relaxation
INTERPRETATION: It has been found that over all 60% Officers undergo more stress, hence they are desirous of changes at work place like timely targets, distributed workload and periodic relaxation where as 57% Managers prefer more distributed work load and more periodic relaxation &0%. And the Asst. Managers and Dy. Managers want changes in Periodic relaxation more and less in timely targets and distributed workload.
8. Measures to reduce stress given by employees with different designation
DESIGNATION VS MEASURES TO REDUCE STRESS
100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 MEASURES TO REDUCE STRESS PERCENTAGE
MANAGERS DY.MANAGE RS ASST MANAGERS OFFICERS
1.Counselling 2.Job Rotation
3.Relations 4. Recognition
INTERPRETATION: it has been found that 70% of those in Officers cadre feel the need for counseling, job rotation and recognitions they undergo major stress. On the other hand, Dy. Managers and Asst. Managers 80% feel that recognition of food work is a good measure of reducing the stress levels. When the good work is being recognized it provides them motivation, encouragement’s there by contributing to the high morale and indirectly reducing the stress level.
9. Perception of employees about stress at work place (Graduates & PostGraduates)
EDUCATION VS STRESS FACTORS
80 PECENTAGE 60 40 20 0 1 2 STRESS FACTORS 3 POST GRADUATES(14) GRADUATES(17)
2.Meeting Targets 3. Performance Anxiety
INTERPRETATION: It has been found that 60% of Graduates face more work load than post graduates 50%, where as 27% of Graduates face problems in meeting targets while it is more in post Graduates 60%, although there work load is comparatively lower than the graduates. It has been found that post graduates 675 face more performance anxiety than graduates 33%, this can be considered as a positive stress of the employees for the organization.
10. Problem areas identified by employees at work place (Graduates & Post-Graduates) EDUCATION VS IDENTIFIED PROBLEM AREAS 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 PROBLEM AREAS 4 PERCENTAGE
GRADUATES POST GRADUATES
INTEPRETATION: From the above we can analyze that postgraduates 33%, this can be attributed to more meeting targets and performance anxiety among postgraduates. It has been found that 65% of the postgraduates face more psychological problems tan the graduates 35% because of the health disorders among post graduates is high and 66% of the graduates face problems in work itself as compared to 20% of the post graduates. The interpersonal relationships problems are more seen more in postgraduates 30% than compared to 15% of the graduates.
11. Suggestions by employees for changes at work place (Graduates 7 post-Graduates) EDUCATION VS CHANGES AT WORK PLACE 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 CHANGES AT WORK PLACE PERCENTAGE
GRADUATES POST GRADUATES
2.Distributed Work load 3.Periodic Relaxation
INTERPRETATION: It has been analyzed that 24% of the gradates feel that there should be timely targets as compared to 18% of postgraduates and 53% of the graduates feel that workload should be distributed to reduce the stress whereas incase of postgraduates only 36% feel the need for distributed workload. And it has been found that 50% of postgraduates need more periodic relaxation compared to 36% of the graduates as the meeting targets is less compared to postgraduates.
12. Measures suggested by employees to reduce stress (Graduates & Post-Graduates) EDUCATION VS MEASURES TO REDUCE STRESS 60 50 40 GRADUATION 30 POST GRADUATES 20 10 0 MEASURES TO REDUCE 1 2 3 4 STRESS
1.Counselling 2.Job Rotation
3.Relations 4. Recognition
INTERPRETATION: It has been found that 30% of the graduates require less counseling when compared to 43% of the postgraduates. There is not a much significant difference between graduates 35% and postgraduates 36% who give equal importance to job rotation. And the interpersonal relationships are found more in postgraduates 29% than 29% the graduates 24% It has been found that 53% of graduates feel the need for recognition of god work where as 36% of the postgraduates feel less the necessity for recognition of good work as means to reduce the stress.
13. Perception of experienced employees about stress PERCEPTION OF EXPERIENCED EMPLOYEES
PERCENTAGE 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 STRESS FACTORS EX>10 YEARS 5-10 YEARS 1-5YEARS
2.Meeting Targets 3. Performance Anxiety
INTERPRETATION: It has been found that 88% of employees with more than 10 years of experience are facing more workload when compared to 71% of 5-10 years and 50% 1-5 years. But employees with more than 10 years of experience are facing less stress in meeting targets as that of 5-10 years the difference is very minute. It has been found that the 33% of those having more than 10 years and 1-5 years of experience face more performance anxiety.
14. Problem areas identified by experienced employees. EXPERIENCE VS PROBLEM AREAS 100 PERCENTAGE 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 PROBLEM AREAS 4
>10 YEARS 5-10 YEARS 1-5 YEARS
1.Health 2. Psychological 3.Interpersonal Relationship 4.Work Itself INTERPRETATION: It has been found that the employees having more than 10 years of experience (77%) are facing more health problems. And 33% of employees with experience 1-5 years are facing health problems less compare to employees of more than 10 years experience. It has been found that 28% of Psychological problems are same among the employees who are having experience of more than10 years and 5-10 years than those of 1-5 years experienced employees. They is not a much significant difference between the employees with more than 10 years experience 22% and 5-10 years experience 25% who are facing equal problems interpersonal relationships and there are no interpersonal relationships with 1-5 years experience of employees. 57% of employees with experience 5-10 years are facing problems in work itself and it is less in 10 years experienced employees 44%, and 50% in 1-5 years experienced employees due to more workload.
15.Suggestioons by experienced employees for Changes at their work place. EXPERIENCE VS CHANGES AT WORK PLACE 80 PERCENTAGE 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 CHANGESAT WORK PLACE 1.Timely Targets INTERPRETATION: 2.Distributed Work load 3.Periodic Relaxation From the above we can analyze that (33%) >10YEARS 5-10YEARS 1-5YEARS
employees of 1-5 years equally feel the need for distributed workload and periodic relaxation and these feel there should be 50% timely targets. It has been found that 58% employees of 5-10 years experience desired distributed workload and they want 43% periodic relaxation as they face more work load. 67% of more than 10 years experienced employees desire to distribute workload and 39% periodic relaxation and 22% feel to have timely targets.
16.Measures given by Experienced Employees to reduce work stress.
EXPERIENCE VS MESURES TO REDUCE 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 MEASURES TO REDUCE
3.Relations 4. Recognition
>10 YEARS 5-10 YEARS 1-5 YEARS
1.Counselling 2.Job Rotation
INTERPRETATION: It has been found than t55% of employees with 10 plus years of experience feel the acute need for counseling compared to those witless than 5-10 years and 1-5 years of experience. It has been analyzed that 57% of those with 5-10 years experience feel the need for job rotation than those with 10 plus years of Experience (44). It has been found that 39% of 10 plus experience employees maintain good relationship compare to those of 5-10 years of experience employees. It has been found that 85% of those with 5-10 years experience feel the need for recognition of good work compared to 66% of those with 10 plus years and 1-5 years of experience.
17. Perception of employees about HR dept in implementing work Stress Management techniques
HR DEPT. IN IMPLEMENTING WSM TECHNIQUES
10% PREPLANNED OPINION OF THE EMPLOYEES
INTERPRETATION: 90% of the analyses says that HR department must take the opinions of the employees regarding the implementation of work stress management techniques and 10% of the employees wants to be pre-planned by the HR department itself.
CHAPTER-5 Conclusion and Suggestions
? The employees of APIL are selected in a step by step procedure, only the best are selected and the rest are screened out, the usual working hours are 8 to 10 hours a day, depending upon the work load. The work is assigned on equitable basis. On achieving the targets, monetary incentives and perks are given. ? No medical camps are held, but medical reimbursement is given. The employees are satisfied with the working environment; a friendly environment usually prevails in the organization. The management maintains both formal and informal relationship with the employees. There is low particicpation of employees in the management decisions. The promotion policy and transfer policy is favorable to the employees. If an employee is unable to complete the job he is given constant back up’s. ? The management understands the various reasons for stress and plans different techniques and implements it to reduce stress and increase employee moral. The cost incurred on implementing the work stress management techniques is considered to be cost effective. APIL considers work stress as a management process. ? The different techniques are adopted to boost of the moral the employee and it is achieved. Work stress management is considered to be profitable to the organization. The employees have job satisfaction. The techniques adopted are usually preplanned but in unavoidable cases they are instant. While planning and implementing the different techniques the opinions of team leaders are also considered. The work stress management techniques have also proved to be effective in appraising the employee performance. The H.R department is Responsible for planning and implementing work stress management. ? APIL the work stress management is being implemented from the past 34 yrs and is successful in enhancing the employee morale. This can be seen in the employee performance; the employee avoids absenteeism and is satisfied with his job. The techniques so implemented have proved to be positive in nature. The employees are surely benefited from work stress management. The more the employee morale, the less the chances of leaving the organization, so this reduces chances of leaving the organization. Yes, the different techniques adopted boost up confidence of employee. The quality of performance is not considered for vertical up graduation. The different techniques used are innovative plans; they are not based on any set standards. The employees are satisfied with the remuneration what they are paid.
? It has recommended to the company that if stress management techniques are initiative then the average health of the employees will be better and he will be able to better cope with stress, then by the level and degree of performance of the employee will improve. ? It is recommended that the company should give one task at a time and give sufficient time in meeting the targets so that the employee performs his best without any stress. ? It is recommended that it should focus more in giving stress management techniques to the age group of 20-29 probably due to inexperience. ? It is recommended to the company to take appropriate measures in identifying and arresting the psychological problems, then the health related problems would also come down. As psychological has a direct impact on health, the performance of employee will improve. ? It is recommended to the company that it should conduct frequent health check ups gauges the health level of employees from time to time. If the health of the employee is fine then it can inferred that the degree of stress in the organizations less or negligible. ? It is recommended to the company to conduct frequent recreational programs like get together in departments concerned, parties on occasions like the birthdays of the employees, on the achievements of any particular department, cultural activites, sports pleasure trips etc. ? It is recommended to the company that bit should improve interpersonal relationships among the employees of different departments by bridging the gap between superiors and subordinates. These can a long way in reducing the degree stress to some extent.
It is recommended to the company to initiate a few changes at the work place such as timely targets, distributed workload, flexible work hours and periodic relaxation. It is recommended to the company to provide frequent counseling to the employees who are under stress. The counseling should be more focused on the employees in the age group between 20-29 they should also not ignore those with 10 plus years of experience as they are more vulnerable to stress. It is recommended to the company to employee job rotation since doing the same job again and again causes monotony therefore job rotation can be used as an effective tool to reduce stress by creating more interest in the work which will lead to better employee performance. It is recommended to the company to instantly recognize any good wok done by the employees however small it may be. They should regard then suitably and provide them constant encouragement and support. This will stand in good stead in the long run in sustaining the high morale of the employees and also enhancing it future. It is recommended that since psychological problem have a direct impact on health it also affect the interpersonal relationships and the quality of work performance among the employees. It is therefore recommended to the company that they try to reduce or eliminate the psychological problems by engaging or hiring well-trained psychiatrist. It is recommended that the more experienced employee should be given more work load than the in experienced employee shouldn’t be burdened with workload but initially they should be given distributed work and gradually the amount of workload can be increased with the passage of time as they gain more experience. It is recommended that the company should create a balance between timely targets and distributed workload by allotting a piece of work to be competed in a
specified time. The time limit be proportionate with the work given i.e. time limit should be neither too short not too long.
? It is recommended to the company to organize frequent camps or programs on meditation, yoga, transcendental meditation and stress management. ? It is recommended to the company that it compulsorily insist on the employees to mediate for 15 minutes after coming to the office and before starting their work. They should also similarly mediate for 10-15 minutes after their lunch break and once at the end of the day before they leave the office. This will help the employees to take the work on the next day with a fresh mind. ? It is recommended to the company to arrange for a special and separate room from noise and disturbance and which is quite and peaceful for meditation purposes.
? It has been found that 58% of the employees among the total employees in the organization are undergoing stress and these are officers and asst. Managers. ? It has been found that the employees in the age group of 20-29 are facing more health problems than the higher age headache. This is because the employees of this age are undergoing more stress compare to higher age group due to factors like work load, meeting targets and performance anxiety. ? It is observed that though the employees in the age group of 30-39 are facing stress than the employees in the age group 40-49. Still they are able to maintain better inter personal relationship with their peers, subordinates and superiors. ? It has been found that employees in the age group of 30-39 wanted a few changes at work place to reduce the stress like timely targets, distributed work load and periodic relaxation because they feel that it is too concentrated and the time to meet these targets is highly insufficient. ? It is observed that 95% of the employees are comfortable with the working environment in which they are working. ? It is observed that the 99% of employees agree that the work stress management techniques will improve the morale of the employees. ? It has been found that most of the organization has the opinion to take into consideration the employees while implementing the stress management techniques taken by the HR dept.
The objective of this study is to identify the existence of “WORK STRESS” in our Organization. Hence, I kindly request you to spend a little time in helping me know your views. Name : Age : Education :
Since how long have you been working in APIL? a) Less than 1 year c) 5-10 years b) 1-5 years d) More than 10 years
1. Do you think that you are undergoing any stress in your job? a) Yes b) No
2. If yes, according to you, which of the following do you think cause stress? a) Work load c) Meeting targets e) Interpersonal relationship b) Work timings d) Ventilation f) Performance anxiety
3. In which of the following areas do you face a problem due to stress in your job? a) Health c) Meeting targets b) Psychological d) Work itself
e) Others________________________ 4. Are you comfortable with the working environment in which you work? a) Yes b) No
5. Does Stress in the work place have an impact over your basic performance? a) Yes b) No
6. Do you get frustrated due to excessive stress in your job? a) Yes b) No
7. Does stress act you on a daily basis or it is encountered while meting targets? a) Daily basis b) Meeting targets c) Some times
8. Is all the stress generated having its origin in the work place or home place? a) Work place b) Home place Yes Yes No No
9. How do you think stress in the work place, which is internal in nature can be stopped? a) Flexible work hours c) Timely targets Others________________ b) Distributed work load d) Periodic relaxation
10. Do you thin work Stress Management improves the morale of the employees and employee Good Will? a) Yes b) No
11. What measures do you suggest in controlling the Stress causing factors? (Tick as many) a) Counseling c) Leisure breaks e) Sports activities b)Job rotation d Informal relationship f) Recognizing good work
g) any other specify___________________________ 12. If usage of work Stress Management techniques boost up confidence of the employees? a) Yes b) No
13. Do you feel using work Stress Management techniques will improve the working environment? a) Yes b) No
14. What are the Recreational Activities does your company provide to the employees to reduce the work stress? a) Recreational Tours c) Family Tours b) Sports Activities d) Honoring the hard working people
Others Specify ______________________ 15. How often does your company provide Recreational Activities to reduce the work stress of an employee? a) Yearly once b) Half-Yearly c) Quarterly
16. Do you think the performance of the employees have enhanced due to various techniques adopted by the management? a) Yes b) No
17. How do you want your HR department in implementing work stress management techniques? a) Pre-planned b) takes the opinion of the employees
18. Please give your valuable suggestions as to how stress can be effectively handled in your organization?
CHAPTER - VII Bibliography
Description: MBA Project Report On Stress Management of Employees
In this project it has been tried to provide a comprehensive picture about the foreign directinvestment ranging from its conception as a potent source of investment the world over, its varioustypes, the methodology adopted top FDI countries and agencies engaged and other important aspects.