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» Advertising Management
This is a research report on
Mass Media and Communication
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3158 views, 0 comments, Last Update: Apr 16, 2011.
PROJECT ON ADVERTISING MANAGEMENT
Definition Of Advertising:
The American Marketing Association defines advertising as “Advertising is defined as any paid form of non-personal communication about an organization, product, service, or idea by an identified sponsor.”
The Five M’s Of Advertising:
The organizations handle their advertising in different ways. In small companies, advertising is handled by someone in the sales or marketing department, who works with an ad agency. A large company will often set up its own advertising department or else hire an ad agency to Message do the job of preparing advertising programmes. In developing a program, marketing managers must always start by identifying the target Message market and the buyer’s motives. Then they can make the five major decisions in developing generatio n an advertising program, known as the five M’s, viz, Message The above mentioned can be explained by the diagram given below evaluatio n& selection The 5Ms of Advertising Message execution Money a marketing or advertising campaign. Checklist for planning of Social responsibi ? What are the objectives? review lity Factors to Mission Measurement Mission consider: What is the key objective? ? Stage in Sales PLC ? How much is it worth to reach my objectives? Money Communic goals Market How much can be spent? ? ation Advt. share and impact ? What objectiv consumer message should be sent? Sales Message es base ? Is the message clear and easily understood? Media impact Competition ? What and clutter media vehicles are available? Media Advertising Reach, ? What media vehicles should be used? frequency frequency ? Product How should the results,be measured? impact Measurement substitutabi Major be evaluated and followed up? lity ? How should the resultsmedia types Specific 5 Ms OF ADVERTISING media vehicles Media timing Geographi cal media allocation
After the Target Market, market positioning and marketing mix decisions have been taken the First step in developing an Advertising Program is
1. MISSION OR SETTING THE ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES
Advertising Objectives can be classified as to whether their aim is: To inform: This aim of Advertising is generally true during the pioneering stage of a product category, where the objective is building a primary demand. This may include: • • • • • Telling the market about a new product Informing the market of a price change Informing how the product works Correcting false impressions Reducing buyers’ fears
To persuade: Most advertisements are made with the aim of persuasion. Such advertisements aim at building selective brand. To remind: Such advertisements are highly effective in the maturity stage of the product. The aim is to keep the consumer thinking about the product.
This M deals with deciding on the Advertising Budget The advertising budget can be allocated based on: • • • • Departments or product groups The calendar Media used Specific geographic market areas
There are five specific factors to be considered when setting the Advertising budget. • Stage in PLC: New products typically receive large advertising budgets to build awareness and to gain consumer trial. Established brands are usually supported with lower advertising budgets as a ratio to sales.
Market Share and Consumer base: high-market-share brands usually require less advertising expenditure as a percentage of sales to maintain their share. To build share by increasing market size requires larger advertising expenditures. Additionally, on a cost-per-impressions basis, it is less expensive to reach consumers of a widely used brand them to reach consumers of low-share brands.
Competition and clutter: In a market with a large number of competitors and high advertising spending, a brand must advertise more heavily to be heard above the noise in the market. Even simple clutter from advertisements not directly competitive to the brand creates the need for heavier advertising.
Advertising frequency: the number of repetitions needed to put across the brands message to consumers has an important impact on the advertising budget. Product substitutability: brands in the commodity class (example cigarettes, beer, soft drinks) require heavy advertising to establish a different image. Advertising is also important when a brand can offer unique physical benefits or features.
3. MESSAGE GENERATION
Message generation can be done in the following ways: Inductive: By talking to consumers, dealers, experts and competitors. Consumers are the major source of good ideas. Their feeling about the product, its strengths, and weaknesses gives enough information that could aid the Message generation process. Deductive: John C. Meloney proposed a framework for generating Advertising Messages. According to him, a buyer expects four types of rewards from a product: ? ? ? ? Rational Sensory Social Ego Satisfaction. Results-of-use Experience Product-in-use Experience Incidental-to-use Experience
Buyers might visualize these rewards from: ? ? ?
The Matrix formed by the intersection of these four types of rewards and the three types of experiences is given below. Potential Type of Reward (Sample Messages) Sensory Social Ego Satisfaction 2. Settles Stomach 3. When you care 4. For the skin you upset completely 6. Real gusto in a great light beer 10. The portable television that’s lighter in weight, easier to lift Message evaluation and selection The advertiser needs to evaluate the alternative messages. A good ad normally focuses on one core selling proposition. Messages can be rated on desirability, exclusiveness and believability. The message must first say something desirable or interesting about the product. The message must also say something exclusive or distinct that does not apply to every brand in the product category. Above all, the message must be believable or provable. Message execution. The message’s impact depends not only upon what is said but also on how it is said. Some ads aim for rational positioning and others for emotional positioning. While executing a message the style, tone, words, and format for executing the message should be kept in mind. Style. Any message can be presented in any of the following different execution styles, or a combination of them: enough to serve the best 7. A deodorant to guarantee social acceptance 11. The furniture that identifies the home of modern people deserve to have 8. The store for young executive 12. Stereo for the man with discriminating taste
Result-of-Use Experience Product-inUse Experience Incidental-toUse Experience
Rational 1. Gets Clothes Cleaner 5. The flour that needs no sifting 9. The plastic pack keeps the cigarette fresh
• Lifestyle: Emphasizes how a product fits in with a lifestyle. •Mood or image: Evokes a mood or image around the product, such as beauty, love, or serenity. No claim is made about the product except through suggestion. • Musical: Uses background music or shows one or more persons or cartoon characters singing a song involving the product. • Personality symbol: Creates a character that personifies the product. The character might be animated • Technical expertise: Shows the company’s expertise, experience, and pride in making the product. • Scientific evidence: Presents survey or scientific evidence that the brand is preferred over or outperforms other brands. This style is common in the over-the-counter drug category. Tone: The communicator must also choose an appropriate tone for the ad. Example: HLL is consistently positive in its tone—its ads say something superlatively positive about the product, and humor is almost always avoided so as not to take mention away from the message. Other companies use emotions to set the tone—particularly film, telephone, and insurance companies, which stress human connections and milestones. Words: Memorable and attention-getting words must be found. Format: Format elements such as ad size, color, and illustration will make a difference in an ad’s impact as well as its cost. A minor rearrangement of mechanical elements within the ad can improve its attention-getting power. Larger-size ads gain more attention, though not necessarily by as much as their difference in cost. Four-colour illustrations instead of black and white increase ad effectiveness and ad cost. By planning the relative dominance of different elements of the ad, optimal delivery can be achieved.
The next ‘M’ to be considered while making an Advertisement Program is the Media through which to communicate the Message generated during the previous stage. The steps to be considered are:
Deciding on Geographic media allocation Step V Deciding on media timing Step IV
Selecting specific media vehicles Step III
Choosing among major media types Step II
Deciding reach, frequency and impact Step I
Evaluating the effectiveness of the Advertisement Program is very important as it helps prevent further wastage of money and helps make corrections that are important for further advertisement campaigns. Researching the effectiveness of the advertisement is the most used method of evaluating the effectiveness of the Advertisement Program. Research can be in the form of: • • Communication-Effect Research Sales-Effect Research
There are two ways of measuring advertising effectives. They are: Pre-testing It is the assessment of an advertisement for its effectiveness before it is actually used. It is done through • • Concept testing – how well the concept of the advertisement is. This is be done by taking expert opinion on the concept of the ad. Test commercials - test trial of the advertisement to the sample of people
Post-testing It is the assessment of an advertisement’s effectiveness after it has been used. It is done in two ways • • Unaided recall - a research technique that asks how much of an ad a person remembers during a specific period of time Aided recall - a research technique that uses clues to prompt answers from people about ads they might have seen.
Advertising objectives can be classified according to whether their aim is to inform, persuade or remind.
Informative advertising figures heavily in the pioneering stage of a product category, where the objective is to build primary demand. Persuasive advertising Becomes important in the competitive stage, where a company’s objective is to build selective demand for a particular brand. Some persuasive ads use comparative advertising, which makes an explicit comparison of the attributes of two or more brands. Most detergent ads – Surf, etc. use persuasive advertising wherein one brand is shown as being superior to the others on various counts such as “more whiteness”, “your clothes wont stink after you use brand X”, “your clothes wont shrink…”, etc. Reminder advertising is important with mature products
Types of advertisements:
The types of advertisements can broadly be classified into three types:
1. Consumer advertising 2. Advertising to business and profession 3. Non- product advertising
Types of advertisements
Advertising to Business and profession
Non- product Advertising
These are basically nothing but product or service advertisements directed towards the consumer or the customer as such. Such advertisements can be in the form of national or local advertisements also. Such kind of advertisements uses emotional or rational appeal in their advertisement.
Advertising to business or profession:
This type of advertising is aimed at resellers and professionals. The media used here is direct mail or professional magazines. These are ads which are not directed towards the final consumers. Corporate ads are also a part of these types of ads. The target groups of corporate advertising are most often customers, stockholders, employees, financial institutions, political leaders and government. The objectives of the corporate or the institutional ads may be to establish or boost corporate identity and image, counter negative attitudes towards a company, industry or to promote and relate the company to some worthwhile social public interest cause.
Non- product advertising:
In this type of advertising advertisements depicting an idea, a social cause etc are included. Surrogate advertisements are also a part of such non- product advertisements.
“With realistic goals for advertising, you can satisfy both those who are investing in the advertising and those who are creating it.” Almost every person involved with advertising wants to measure their advertising’s results. Those who pay the bills want to know the return on their investment, and those creating the advertising want to demonstrate that their work is effective. Research efforts on the part of advertisers, ad agencies, and the media have helped quantify the results of advertising. But most continue to face basic questions such as: Does your Advertising work? How hard does it work? What specifically does it do for your business? Should I increase, maintain, or decrease spending? What’s the best message I can put in my advertising? There are no easy answers to these questions. Solutions are a mixture of science and art.
Marketing versus Advertising
Failure sometimes occurs even before the process starts because companies are confused by the apparent similarity between the purpose of advertising and marketing. Both are meant to encourage consumers to purchase products and services, however, there is a fundamental difference between the two. Advertising is only one part of the marketing process, and its job is to deliver messages that have a psychological effect on the consumer. While marketing, which also includes functions such as public relations, promotion, sales, packaging, and pricing, has the more inclusive job of moving products and services from the seller to the buyer. Companies when asked about advertising objectives almost always reply with marketing objectives. If they have a formal marketing plan, the advertising objectives are typically statements like: to increase sales, or to expand market share. These are too broad and general, making it almost impossible to measure success. More specific objectives such as increase sales by 15%, or expand market share by 5% aren’t much better because they are marketing goals, not advertising goals. Advertising cannot achieve marketing goals all by itself. If a company wants to measure the results of its advertising, it has to be more specific in the definition of what it expects to accomplish through the use of advertising.
The Job of Advertising
What part of the total marketing goal can we expect advertising to achieve? Since advertising is a communications tool, we must assign it a communications task. Its job is to deliver a message that is designed to stimulate specific consumer behavior. The message you want advertising to deliver must be specific. Keep in mind that at this stage you are defining what needs to be said, not how to say it—you’re not trying to write a headline. With a specific communications task that can be performed by advertising, independent of other marketing efforts, you can measure your advertising’s success.
Where does advertising objectives fall in the marketing plan
Advertising in the Marketing Plan: The Company’s overall marketing plan determines promotional objectives and from these objectives, advertising objectives are derived. Promotion objectives specify what is to be accomplished and where advertising fits in. The next step is to set specific ad objectives and goals.
Marketing Plan Marketing Objectives Sales Objectives
Advertising Tactics Promotions
Evolution Of Advertising
‘From a freelance activity to an integral component of the Marketing Plan’ As a business task, advertising has to meet certain clear-cut objectives. In the past, advertising often operated within organizations almost like a freelance activity. The creative nature of the job often gave it the image of an activity that could not be subjected to established management norms and controls. This position, however, has been undergoing changes over the years. The commercial world will not blindly accept costs that cannot yield measurable results. Since advertising involves heavy costs to the advertiser, it is only natural that advertising slowly got included in those management activities that are expected to yield results proportional to the effort and cost involved. The advertiser started asking: "Am I getting my money’s worth?" Advertising was slowly becoming a management task, well within the rules of the management process. People began to expect tangible results from Objective driven Activity advertising; and when such evaluation came, the role of objectives and goals in advertising became crucial. It came to be accepted that advertising had to operate with certain well-defined objectives against which the results of the programme can be later measured. Evolution of Advertising Freelance Activity
NEED FOR ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES
One of the reasons many companies fail to set specific objectives for their advertising and promotional programs are that they fail to recognize the value of doing so. There are several important reasons for setting advertising and promotional objectives: Direction: Advertisement objectives are essential because it helps the marketer to know in advance what they want to achieve and to ensure that they are preceding in the right direction. Pin pointing the ad objectives also helps in making one’s goals real and not
imaginary, so that effective ad programmes can be developed for meeting the objectives .it also guides and controls decision-making in each area and at each stage Communication: Objectives provide a communication platform for the client, the advertising agency account executive help coordinate the creative team members and the efforts of copywriters, media specialists, media buyers and professionals involved advertising research. The advertising programme must also be coordinated with other promotion mix elements within the company. In fact many problems may be avoided if all the concerned parties have written objectives to guide their actions and serve as a common base for discussing related issues Planning and Decision Making—Specific objectives can be useful as a guide or criterion for decision-making. Advertising and promotion planners are often faced with a number of strategic and tactical options in areas such as creative, media, budgeting and sales promotion. Choices among these options should be made on the basis of how well a strategy or tactic matches the promotional objective. Measurement and Evaluation of Results—A very important reason for setting specific objectives is that they provide a benchmark or standard against which success or failure of the campaign can be measured. When specific objectives are set it becomes easier for management to measure what has been accomplished by the campaign
Two Distinct Schools Of Thought
What should be or what could be the objectives for advertising? A controversy around this question is still running hot in the ad world. One school holds that ad has to necessarily bring in more sales and therefore ad objectives should certainly include sales growth. The second and diametrically opposite view is that ad is essentially a communication task and it should have only communication goals, or goals intended to shape the awareness and attitudes of consumers
Sales Oriented Objectives
Communicatio n Oriented Objectives
SALES AS AN ADVERTISING OBJECTIVE
Many marketing managers view their advertising and promotional programs from a sales perspective and argue that sales or some related measure such as market share is the only meaningful goal for advertising and thus should be the basis for setting objectives. They take the position that the basic reason a firm spends money on advertising and promotion is to sell its products or services. Thus they argue that any money spent on advertising should produce measurable sales results.
Often when we think of advertising, we just think of great ads that make us laugh or engage us in some manner. We tend to judge ads by these simple criteria. However, a far more powerful way to look at advertising is by understanding that advertising is a communication task, with specific communication objectives, and therefore we need to understand how communication works. The starting point is an audit of all the potential interactions target customers may have with the product and the company. For example, someone interested in purchasing a new computer would talk to others, see television ads, read articles, look for information on the intranet, and observe computers in a store. The marketer needs to assess which experiences and impressions will have the most influence at each stage of the buying process. This understanding will help marketers allocate their communication budget more efficiently. To communicate effectively, marketers need to understand the fundamental elements underlying effective communication. On the basis of the communication importance, there were eminent personalities who made the communication models, which help a marketer to understand, how he should go about communicating his product to the target audience.
MODELS BASED ON THE THREE STAGES OF BUYING BEHAVIOUR
AIDA Stages Cognitive Stage Model
Hierarchy of effects Model Awareness
Innovation – Adoption Model
Communications Model Exposure
Attention Knowledge Affective Stage Interest Preference Liking
Cognitive response Interest Attitude
Desire Behaviour stage Action
Trial Purchase Behaviour
The AIDA model was presented by Elmo Lewis to explain how personal selling works. It shows a set of stair-step stages, which describe the process leading a potential customer to purchase. The stages, Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action, form a linear hierarchy. It demonstrates that consumers must be aware of a product’s existence, be interested enough to pay attention to the product’s features/benefits, and have a desire to benefit from the product’s offerings. Action, the fourth stage, would come as a natural result of movement through the first three stages. Although this idea was rudimentary, it led to the later emerging field of consumer behavior research.
HIERARCHY OF EFFECTS MODEL
Hierarchy of effects Model can be explained with the help of a pyramid. First the lower level objectives such as awareness, knowledge or comprehension are accomplished. Subsequent objectives may focus on moving prospects to higher levels in the pyramid to elicit desired behavioral responses such as associating feelings with the brand, trial, or regular use etc. it is easier to accomplish ad objectives located at the base of the pyramid than the ones towards the top. The percentage of prospective customers will decline as they move up the pyramid toward more action oriented objectives, such as regular brand use.
Awareness: If most of the target audience is unaware of the object, the communicator’s task is to build awareness, perhaps just name recognition, with simple messages repeating the product name. Consumers must become aware of the brand. This isn’t as straightforward as it seems. Capturing someone’s attention doesn’t mean they will notice the brand name. Thus, the brand name needs to be made focal to get consumers to become aware. Magazines are full of ads that will capture our attention, but we have trouble seeing the brand name. Knowledge: The target audience might have product awareness but not know much more, hence this stage involves creating brand knowledge. This is where comprehension of the brand name and what it stands for become important. What are the brand’s specific appeals, its benefits? In what way is it different than competitor’s brands? Who is the target market? These are the types of questions that must be answered if consumers are to achieve the step of brand knowledge. Liking: If target members know the product, how do they feel about it? If the audience looks unfavourably towards the product to communicator has to find out why. If the unfavourable view is based on real problems, a communication campaigns alone cannot do the job. For product problem it is necessary to first fix the problem and only then can you communicate its renewed quality. Preference: The target audience might like the product but not prefer it to others. In this case, the communicator must try to build consumer preference by promoting quality, value, performance and other features. The communicator can check the campaigns success by measuring audience preference before and after the campaign.
Conviction: a target audience might prefer a particular product but not develop a conviction about buying it. The communicator’s job is to build conviction among the target audience. Purchase: finally, some members of the target audience might have conviction but not quite get around to making the purchase. They may wait for more information or plan to act later. The communicator must need these consumers to take the final step, perhaps by offering the product at a low price, offering a premium, or letting consumers tried out. This is where consumers make a move to actually search out information or purchase.
All these communication models are centered on the three stages of the buying behaviour of consumers.
The three stages are:
Cognitive Stage The cognitive component deals with cognition, or knowledge; it is the power of knowing, perceiving or conceiving ideas about the product. It is dealing with the basic information that a consumer needs to know. A customer needs to be exposed to the product and understand its usage before he actually purchases it. Affective Stage The effective component deals with the affections/emotions. For example, feelings of likes or dislike towards objects are dealt on the effective plane. It is at this stage that the consumer will either have preference or liking towards the product or he will develop a dislike. This stage shows his attitude towards the product, whether he is for or against the product. Behaviour Stage This is the stage when the consumer, after having the knowledge and developing the liking or disliking towards the product, will ultimately lead into a purchase of the product or rejection
of the product. He would first try the product and develop loyalty towards it or he is completely convinced that the product is good and would purchase the product. Attitude is the central theme in advertising management What is attitude? Attitudes are usually defined as a disposition or tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing (idea, object, person, and situation). They encompass, or are closely related to, our opinions and beliefs and are based upon our experiences. Since attitudes often relate in some way to interaction with others, they represent an important link between cognitive and social psychology. Attitude changed, main concern of communicators Attitude changed on the part of the target audience is the main concern of marketing communicators. People normally resist change and dislike someone trying to influence the attitudes, especially when those attitudes are strongly held and cherished by them. Still, attitude changes do take place perennially, because attitudes are not static. The advertising communicators know that attitudes are permeable and maneuverable through appropriate means. He does not venture to bluntly attack the strong held attitudes of its target audience. Instead his attempts are a persuasive process of communication, the process sometimes lasting for years, spread probably over several campaigns. But the fact remains that his job is audience persuasion, i.e. shaping the attitude of the audience in his favour. And the advertising message is his tool. How is attitude linked to advertising? Attitude is a very personal issue. Each individual’s attitude is different from others. When a product is introduced, the company needs to understand its target audience. The company needs to understand the attitude of the target audience towards its brand. If this attitude is negative, the company first needs to build a positive attitude towards its brand. Once the Affective
Realm of emotions. Ads change attitudes and feelings
The Three Stages
Realm of thoughts. Ads provide information and facts.
Realm of motives. Ads stimulate or direct desires.
attitude is favourable toward the product, the company needs to strengthen it and make its audience brand loyal.
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS IN ADVERTISING
for ads for different products will vary according to the position of the product category in the product life cycle.
DESIGNING THE AD
Art refers to a system of principles that guides us in creating beauty. In advertising, art shapes the message into a complete communication that appeal to the senses as well as the mind. So art refers to the whole presentation- visual, verbal and aural- of the ad. INTRODUCTION GROWTH Create product Maximise awareness and trial. market share. MATURITY Maximise profit defending ADVERTISING STRATEGY Build awareness dealers. product Build among awareness in the mass market. The term design refers to how the art director and graphic artist conceptually choose and structure the artistic elements that make up an ad’s appearance or set its tone. A layout is an overall orderly arrangement of all the format elements of an ad- headline, subheads, visual, copy, captions, trademarks, slogans and signature. A layout gives a physical presentation (look and feel) of what the ad will look like. It helps the creative team to DECLINE Reduce and milk the to needed
market share. brand. Stress brand Reduce differences level interest and benefits.
early adopters and and
to retain hardcore loyals.
develop the ad’s psychological elements- the nonverbal and symbolic components. It serves as a blueprint once the best design is chosen. There are two phases in the design process for advertising (print, television). In the conceptual phase, the designer uses thumbnails, roughs, dummies, and comprehensives- in other words, non final art - to establish the ad’s look and feel. In the pre press or production art phase, the artist prepares a mechanical – the final artwork with the actual type in place along with all the visuals the publisher or printer will need to reproduce or print the ad. • Thumbnail sketches It is a small, very rough, rapidly produced drawing used to try out ideas. The artist uses it to visualize a number of layout approaches without wasting time on details; the best sketches are then developed further. • Rough layout Here, the artist draws to the actual size of the ad. Headlines and subheads suggest the final type style, illustrations and photographs are sketched in, and body copy is simulated with lines. Roughs are presented to clients- particularly cost conscious ones. • Comprehensive: It is generally quite elaborated with colored photos, sub visuals, a glossy spray coat etc. • Dummy It is a form of rough design used to present the hand held feel of brochures, multi page materials, or point of purchase displays. Thumbnails / Rough Layouts The elements, faces, figures, groups, products, and places, must be well composed. Thus, these elements must have balance, proportion, perspective, contrast, and gaze motion. Various terms The optical center of a layout is the balance point always vertically centered and slightly above horizontal center of the layout around which element “weights” are placed. It is the focal point for the arrangement of art and copy elements in an ad.
Balance in visualization is concerned with visual weight. Large elements of copy and art weigh more than small units; black is heavier than gray; certain colours have more weight than others; asymmetrical outweigh symmetrical ones; even white space has weight. A layout can be formally or informally balanced. Formal balance is placing of the elements symmetrically with the left side the same as the right side. Informal balance places the elements in balance around the optical center asymmetrically but “equally” by considering their size, shape and “visual weight”. Proportion deals with size relationships. Certain unequal proportions of size to size are more exciting to the eye than are regular and predictable ones. The idea visualizer should experiment with different divisions of white space as well as the proportional relationships of the elements to the white space. Perspective deals with relationships that involve distance. It is a way o creating the illusion of moving into the distance. The visual illusion of distance is created by making objects smaller as they move away. Shapes can be made to look three-dimensional by the use of overlapping lines and converging lines. Contrast is the factor that provides emphasis and attention to various elements of the layout by rearranging and comparing their different intensities, proportions, and perspective. Contrast enables you to provide a unit of dominant interest – an optical focal point which needs attention. Gaze motion considers the layout arrangement of copy and art elements designed to lead the eye through the message of any advertisement. Certain motions are more dynamic and rapid, leading the eye differently and at a rate different from the more static and organized layout. The idea visualiser should decide which suits the message best. There are several basic formats and compositions of layout that can get you started. 1. The big picture uses a dominant visual in a formal balance with headline and body copy below. It is simple and direct and can be used for almost any kind of verbal/visual concept. 2. The big copy layout may have visuals, but they are supplemental to the body copy. An alternative use of the big copy layout is to make the type and typographical style so dramatic and appealing that they function as the visuals.
3. The omnibus layout uses many visuals in spatially divided sections each with its own headline and copy. The individual spaces are separated by a variety of visual and graphic devices. 4. The mortise layout either uses copy or visuals to form a border or frame, around the other. It is formal in nature but the verbal visual content can create the dynamics. 5. The free-form layout combines copy and visuals into irregularly aligned or superimposed relationships using combinations of each to cause perspectives and interesting divisions of white space. This provides dynamic movements and gaze motion through the elements of the advertisement. 6. The scatter layout abounds with many different movements, and while it may seem undisciplined and brash, it is produced from an organized plan designed to present a readable message. 7. The continuity strip uses many more elements of headline, text, and visuals than the average type of layout. It resembles a film or comic strip and is utilized for narrative messages, demonstrations of a process, or assortments of merchandise.
Implications for Marketing Strategy The following table shows how the components of attitude are focused on by marketers using various models to bring about a favourable change in customer attitude towards a brand/product. MODELS
AIDA MODEL HIERARCHY OF MODEL
PERSUAION MATRIX PRESENTATION ATTENTION COMPREHENSION YIELDING RETENTION
AWARENESS KNOWLEDGE LIKING PREFERENCE CONVICTION PURCHASE
INTEREST DESIRE ACTION
EVALUATION TRIAL ADOPTION
When marketers use the traditional models to create or change attitudes, they use the various components as follows: • • At the cognitive level with information. • At the affective level with emotionally toned messages
At the behavioral level with incentives (samples, coupons, rebates)
McGUIRES’ PERSUASION MATRIX Advertising is persuasive communication designed to create behavioral or attitudinal changes, usually culminating in the form of a purchase. When changing attitudes through advertising, there are many factors to consider. One must choose a source that is attractive to the target audience, a message that will break through the clutter, and a channel that will maximize comprehension. Advertisers keep the persuasion matrix in mind to persuade the customers to purchase products they advertise. This matrix brings together multiple elements to be considered in the construction and evaluation of persuasive messages. McGuire has provided a complete howto guide for the creation of persuasive messages aimed at inducing an attitude change and/or a purchase action. In this time of measuring advertising not just by sales but through brand preference and loyalty, a method of connecting with customers on many levels, such as this, is crucial.
The matrix consists of dependent and independent variables. The dependent variables are the elements that finally lead to persuasion. These elements are addressed using the independent variables (communication components) as shown in the figure above. The five classes include source; message; channel (medium); receiver (audience); and destination (response target). Destination has to do with the type of target behavior desired. What is extent of the behavior desired? What is it that we really want people to do? How can we get them to do it? What messages (verbal and visual) will resonate with the intended audience and help them to perform the desired behavior? The dependent variables can be explained as: 1. Message presentation This includes deciding what information to give the audience, how to give it and through what medium. 2. Attention
Even with exposure to message, attention is not guaranteed. In this world of sensory overload, it is necessary for the human mind to accept only a small portion of the deluge of information it receives. Selective perception helps the mind bring information into manageable portions. This involves attracting the attention of the target audience i.e. the source and message elements come into play. 3. Comprehension The step in the attitude change process requires the receiver to grasp the full meaning and implications of the message. It must not only be heard, but also understood and contemplated. 4. Agreement/ yielding After comprehension, an opinion must arise about the believability and validity of the persuasive message. Agreement with the message can be influenced by a number of factors, both internal (such as previously held beliefs) and external (the perception of the source as being credible or the type of appeal used, for examples). Retention Remembering the accepted information is the fifth step in the process. A substantial amount of time may pass between the conveyance of the message and the actual moment a purchase decision is made, as in the grocery or department store. The placement of this information into memory does not mean that it is not susceptible to decay. Delayed processing also affects the storage and reprocessing of information. 5. Behaviour This step is especially important to those measuring advertising's effectiveness through increased sales. Behaviour here means the actual process of purchase. Despite the fact that an individual alone can experience the entire process as he or she goes through it, research has shown that actions do not necessarily follow attitudes. In other words, people often don't know why they do the things they do That is why further investigation into attitude change is necessary.
THE CONCEPT OF ADVERTISING MEDIA
The range of advertising media is so wide that it is not possible to attempt a definition other than in the broadest terms. An advertising medium is any means by which an advertiser may decide to spend the money he has allocated to advertising.
IMPORTANCE OF MEDIA IN ADVERTISING Effective advertising refers to informing the public about the right product at the right time through the right medium. Conveying a right message through a wrong medium at the wrong time would definitely a waste of resources. For e.g. cigarette advertising. The target market for this is man in the age group of 25-60 years. The advertiser would consider placing ads in magazine having a predominantly male readership. Advertising in magazines having a predominantly female readership would be mostly wasteful for this product. It may be true that rarely does any magazine have a 100 % male readership. Therefore, the right media selection is the crux of the success of the entire advertising campaign. The effectiveness of a well-designed advertising message depends upon “when” &”where” it is realized. There are “time” &”place” decisions. In short we may say that the success of advertising depends upon the right selection of media, the timely release of the advertisement message, its frequency and continuity, and the place of its release. TYPES OF MEDIA The media are classified into two categories: ? Above-the-line media : press, TV, outdoor, posters, cinema and radio. The recognized agencies get commission from these media. ? Below the line media: those who do not give commission to the ad agency. Examples are direct mail, exhibitions and sales literature.
Advertising in the print media is the oldest and largest in terms of advertising billing. More than 50% of the space is devoted to the print ads. The print media has two sources of income: ? Circulation and subscription and ? Advertising revenue. Newspapers There are several types of newspapers:
Newspapers can also be classified as regional, local, national, etc. Each newspaper has its target audience. For example ECONOMIC TIMES targets businessmen and the student community, INDIAN EXPRESS targets people who want quality news, MID-DAY targets people with funky attitude, etc.The marketers need to identify various target audiences and then use it as a medium of communication. Magazines Most magazines are weekly or fortnightly or monthly. They are in many ways different from newspapers. The major difference being the class of people catered to. While newspapers cater to the mass, magazines have a niche audience. For example TOINS is circulated to 10 lakh people daily, while a magazine like BUSINESS WORLD has an audience that has interest in knowing about the current business happenings. A newspaper is read daily or on the day it appears while the magazine is read over a long period of time. ELECTRONIC MEDIA Television: Television was introduced in India on September 15, 1959. Previously only Delhi had TV transmission center but later the centers spread across India. Now a days more and more companies prefer to advertise on television because it creates a visual appeal and also television enables demonstrative effect. It is because of television that the MNCs have been successful. After LPG the reach of television has increased tremendously. It has changed the way the rural people perceive things. The rural people have also started using the new tech products and this has really led to the growth in the GDP. Radio
Till recently, the importance of radio was not realized in a country like India. In fact Radio as a medium has far greater importance than TV. It is the “real” mass medium. Radio is very easy to use and does not require technical abilities. It is the least cost form of communication. Radio was the medium that helped in spreading the messages of various freedom fighters during independence. 90% of the rural India has access to Radio.
OUTDOOR AND TRANSIT MEDIA
Outdoor advertising is the oldest form of advertising. The modern outdoor media include outdoor advertising in several form such as posters, billboards, hoarding, roadside signs, highway advertising; and transit advertising placed on vehicles and rail, bus and air terminals. Advantages of outdoor media: • • The outdoor offers long life. It offers geographic selectivity. The marketer can vary the ad message according to the particular segment of the market. The ads can be local, regional, national and even international. • • The advertiser can incorporate the names and addresses of his local dealers or agents at the bottom of the poster. These dealer imprint strips are called snipes. The outdoor ads offer impact. Shoppers are exposed to last minute reminder by the stores when they drive down the lane where the store is located. Since the display is huge it creates an impact on the prospective consumer. SHOPPERS STOP generally follows this type of advertising. • • Disadvantages of outdoor media: • Outdoor advertising when employed on a national basis proves to be expensive. Outdoor ad allows displaying the slogan, product name and logo properly which are an integral part of the product.
Outdoor advertising is not selective in the sense that once the outdoor ad is put it is seen even by people who are not the target audience.
Blind spot is the most dangerous thing marketer’s fear. The term is used to refer to a campaign that is sustained for a long time. The audience gets bored seeing at the same hoardings. Advantages of transit advertising: • • • • Low cost medium. It offers a sure exposure and repetitiveness Reaches a large population Cannot reach the rich urbanites who move about in their own automobiles.
Disadvantages: Direct marketing, cinema and miscellaneous media Direct marketing is defined as any activity whereby you reach your prospect or customer directly as an individual – or they respond to you directly. Advertising can initiate a sale but it is only through DM that the sale is finally made. DM also helps in maintaining customer relationships. One time communication does not built a relationship. We have to get married to our customers. This is possible largely due to DM. DM is affordable only when the margins in the business can afford the cost of sustained contact. DM helps in long term. There is a huge opportunity for DM in India. DM may exploit new technologies like E-mail, TV, etc. For DM to be successful the customer database has to be really good. The pharmaceutical industry is most acquainted with this type of marketing. Cinema advertising is when the ads are shown in the movie theatres before the start of the movie, interval and at the end. The following are the merits of cinema advertising: • Cinema ensures captive audience: The people coming into cinema halls come with their own wish and their enthusiasm to see a movie is very high. They are very engrossed into the screen as soon as they arrive. • Cinema is ideal media for niche marketing: The advertiser reaches the audience of his choice.
Economical: the cost is very negligible.
Miscellaneous media: Video and cable TV, Point of Purchase advertising, window display, trade shows, exhibitions and fairs, etc.
Innovative media focuses on alternative platforms of advertising which open up new avenues for advertisers. As technological breakthroughs facilitate better modes of communication, the emergence of new media have enhanced reach on several levels. The result is new advertising vehicles which are wider in reach, specific in targeting and most of all lower in cost. Voice Reach : Voice Reach advertising is an exciting new medium for advertisers which enables them to broadcast audio messages to a precisely defined target audience. The idea behind this service is simple and powerful. It allows people to communicate with each other within and across cities, at the cost of a local telephone call. How it works is as follows. A person in Mumbai can call up a local number and leave a message for his friend, relative or business associate in Mumbai and Delhi. The system will deliver the message to the recipient's mailbox or voice box, which can be accessed by calling a local number in Delhi. Thus, it provides the convenience of listening to a familiar voice, which otherwise is a rare occasion and expensive. It is cheaper than long distance calling, more convenient than e-mail and requires no knowledge of the Internet or PC. To hear/access the messages posted in their inbox, users have to hear a commercial announcement. These announcements are targeted according to the profile submitted by users at the time of registration. This service is not just convenient, but also completely free. Moreover, all the technology required to use this service is a telephone. All these factors promise to make the Voice Reach service immensely popular. Advertising & Promotions Voice Reach is undoubtedly an advertising platform with massive potential. As expected, this enormously valuable service is drawing users across all ages, occupations, socio economic classes and geographical areas of India. Advertisers, in effect, not only have an ever-growing user base to target, they also have the advantage of reaching out to their specific target group.
Voice Reach advertising promises:
Better one-to-one marketing capabilities than the Internet Guaranteed ad consumption : The advertisement comes before a user hears or sends messages Target-based advertising Interactive Advertising
Commercial announcements are just the beginning of a strong line-up of services which Voice Reach offers. Customized Promotions & Contests Everybody runs contests. But are these contests really effective? How many people do they reach? How many people respond? How many people actually remember to fill up a postcard, or send a fax (if they can), or remember to send an e-mail. The fact is - very few do. Geography is no longer a limiting factor, your audience can now be an active part of your contests just by dialing a local number. Make your television programs more interactive, let your viewers talk to you. Your viewers, anywhere in India, can call a local number and leave a message for you. These messages in turn will be delivered at your doorstep. A very valuable service for any broadcaster on television or radio. Voice Reach, thus, is the perfect medium to carry messages from the viewer to the broadcaster, enabling your audience to enter your contests with a simple phone call. Highlights
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Customised contests - National Participation through local calls. Making TV shows more interactive Messages transferred over a local telephone could be • • • •
Requests Feedback Queries Opinion polls
The Vidiwall: The Vidiwall is an intensely captivating advertising medium which truly represents the best of today's technology. The Vidiwall is essentially a mega screen capable of broadcasting high quality audio-visuals, banners, logos & slides of stunning size, resolution and picture quality.
Placed at Mumbai's premier shopping plaza, Crossroads, the Vidiwall is fast being recognized as a medium that grabs attention like nothing else. Vidiwalls, a trademarked Philips solution, have been adapted for dedicated Point-Of-Sale and Point-Of-Information usage. Known to have a tremendous impact on people, the Vidwall is a highly effective tool to maximise brand recall.
INNOVATIVE RURAL MEDIA
In addition to the conventional media vehicles, a lot of innovative mediums are used in rural advertising and marketing. Some of the most striking ones are: Puppetry Puppetry is the indigenous theatre of India. From time immortal it has been the most popular form and well-appreciated form of entertainment available to the village people. It is an inexpensive activity. The manipulator uses the puppets as a medium to express and communicate ideas, values and social messages. Life Insurance Corporation of India used puppets to educate rural masses about Life Insurance; enlisting the help of the literacy house in Luck now. These plays were shown to the audience in villages in UP, Bihar, & MP. The number of inquires at local Life Insurance Companies during the period immediately following the performance was compared with normal frequency and found to be considerable higher. The field staff of the corporation also reported a definite impact on the business. Folk Theater Folk theaters are mainly short and rhythmic in form. The simple tunes help in informing and educating the people in informal and interesting manner. It has been used as an effective medium for social protest against injustice, exploitation and oppression. Government has used this media for popularizing improved variety of seeds, agricultural implements, fertilizer etc. Punjab Agricultural University produced Two Audio Cassettes. A) Balliye Kanak Biye - Wheat Cultivation. B) Khiran Kepah Narme - Cotton Cultivation. Both were well received by farmers. BBLIL used Magician quite effectively for launch of Kadak Chhap Tea in Etawah. Demonstration:
"Direct Contact" is a face-to-face relationship with people individually and with groups such as the Panchayats and other village groups. Such contact helps in arousing the villager's interest in their own problem and motivating them towards self-development. Demonstration may be A. B. i. Method demonstration i. Simple Demonstration ii. Result demonstration ii. Composite Demonstration In result demonstration, help of audio -visual media can add value. Asian Paints launched Utsav range by painting Mukhiya's house or Post office to demonstrate that paint does not peel off. Wall Paintings Wall Paintings are an effective and economical medium for advertising in rural areas. They are silent unlike traditional theatre .A speech or film comes to an end, but wall painting stays as long as the weather allows it to. Retailer normally welcomes paintings of their shops, walls, and name boards. Since it makes the shop look cleaner and better. Their shops look alluring and stand out among other outlets. Besides rural households shopkeepers and panchayats do not except any payment, for their wall to be painted with product messages. To get one's wall painted with the product messages is seemed as a status symbol. The greatest advantage of the medium is the power of the picture completed with its local touch. The images used have a strong emotional association with the surrounding, a feet impossible for even a moving visual medium like television, which must use general image to cater to greatest number of viewers.
An advertising agency is an independent organization that provides one or more specialized advertising and promotion related services to assist companies in developing, preparing and executing their advertising and other promotional programmes. Its acts as a consultant to its client, the advertiser, in formulating the advertising plans and translating them into advertising campaigns. It is the media, which provides basic sustenance to the advertising agency by allowing 15% commission (as in India) on the billing of advertisers. The system obviously has its origin in free-market operations arising from competition within the media. There are a number of reasons for having an advertising agency, which has resulted in the growth of the advertising profession and business. ? An advertising agency will be in a position to take an objective view of the advertiser’s plans and proposals and thus venture to put forward its opinions and comments. ? The type of training and talent that is required for conceiving and executing advertising is likely to be available with an advertising agency. ? An advertising agency will have regular contacts with various support systems required for the production of advertising material. A major advantage of the agency is its regular dealing with the media and the expertise it develops in the process. ? It can performance is specially relevant to those advertisers who may not have the necessary expertise in the use of advertising. A potential advertiser will need to formulate and analyse his marketing plans in order to examine the potential contribution of advertising from amongst the relevant marketing inputs. In case of doubt concerning the decision of whether to advertise or not, an agency may be asked to render advice. If the decision is in favour of advertising, the services of an advertising agency will be required.
Location of Agency Office
A major consideration in the choice of an advertising agency, particularly in a country like India, is the location of the office of the agency. A considerable amount of communication, including personal meetings, is required at various stages of decision making in the development of advertising plans and material. Therefore, it becomes rather essential for the potential advertiser to have ready access to the agency and preferably one, which has an
office in the same town or city. Some agencies allow a certain periodicity of visits to their clients as a part of their normal service. This arrangement is convenient and also economical in terms of time and expenses for the agency, as long as it is in the same location as that of the client.
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Levers - Lintas (previously) RAMMS INDIA Pvt. Ltd.an agency in Andheri
Graph classifying the relation of profits to advertising expenditures: The following graph speaks about the expenses incurred
"Advertising is a splendid device for helping to keep the money going round in a free enterprise society. The product is made ,then advertise and then people buy it. The greater proportion of all sales comes about because advertising has influenced the buyers. A lesser proportion of sales come about via word of mouth or because the product happens to be in the same place as the buyer at the point of sale - when he feels the impulse to buy. So advertising plays a very important part in shifting of product. The basic standard ad contains the following elements: 1. The headline: This features the main product benefit. 2. The illustration: This demonstrates the product in relation to the headline benefit 3. The body copy: An opening paragraph enlarging on this benefit. To communicate a message in the smallest space, via the least number of words, in the shortest possible time. 4. Further paragraphs of facts to support the benefit claim 5. Penultimate paragraph warning the reader of what he will miss if he doesn't buy the product. 6. Final paragraph as a call to action. (Get in touch right away) 7. The company logo: A symbolic device whose function is to give immediate identity to the company 8. Tag line: A phrase designed to leave the reader with a comfortable impression of the company
? Advertising Management - Manendra Mohan ? Business Today
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