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» Project Report on Metal Fabrication
Project Report on Metal Fabrication
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Project Report on Metal Fabrication
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5334 views, 0 comments, Last Update: May 4, 2011.
A REPORT OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING ON
Electronic Estate, G.I.D.C., Gandhinagar (Gujarat)
PREPARED BY: ? Mohammed Asif Khan S. Pathan
? Muhammad Anzar Z. Sareshwala
INDUS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING
The knowledge of Sheet Metal Fabrication is very useful in our day-today life and one needs to know at least the basics of the same. The content of this report includes an overview about the whole manufacturing fundamentals and the processes to be followed in this category in order to obtain the required final product. The report contains the description of various processes to be followed and their analysis for their better understanding. The various processes included in the report are the Shearing, Punching (CNC & LASER), Bending, Welding, Grinding and Powder Coating Processes. The operation study, machine study, and material information are clearly mentioned out there. At the end of the report, there is also a portion of future scope, in which some drawbacks and improvements needed, can be acknowledged. In last words, this report is all about the industrial aspect related to sheet metal fabrication.
Before initializing the industrial report, we want to accomplish a vital task. First of all, we would like to thank T. & P. department of Indus Institute to arrange such a beneficial industrial training for us. For our under graduate career, this is the second industrial training. It was really a fruitful campaign for us. And I would also like to thank the crew of Epsilon Engg. Pvt. Ltd. (Gandhinagar). The management members of the company and workers are really co-operative. They gave us each and every information that was needed and taught us the useful fundamentals. I would like to thank the director of the company (Mr. Urvin) to permit us to get involved in the daily routine of their production. As without their support this training won’t be such a productive one. On behalf of this whole session, we would also thank Mr. Sanjay (Design Dept.) and Mr. C.K. Gadhvi (Production Dept.) for their support. Finally I want to express that there is never one man crew, team work is always necessary.
M.A.K. Pathan M. Anzar Sareshwala
1 2 3 4
Name of Chapter
Introduction of Company Literature Survey Practical Sessions Conclusion
7 8 25 30
List of Figures
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14
Name of Figure
Shearing process Shearing machine Punching process CNC Turret machine Punched workpieces Blanking process Blanked workpieces Nibbling Laser punching machine Press brake machine Flange specimen Hydraulic press TIG Welding process TIG Weld joints
8 9 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 16 16 17 19 19
2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 3.1
MIG Welding gun MIG Welding process MIG Weld joints Portable grinder Grinding a bar Spray coating Bending specimen Work Flowchart
20 20 21 22 22 23 24 29
Nomenclature: M.S. – Mild Steel S.S. – Stainless Steel CNC – Computer Numerical Control TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas MIG – Metal Inert Gas
Introduction of Company
Epsilon Engineering Pvt. Ltd.
B. Address: A-37, Electronic Estate, G.I.D.C., Gandhinagar, Gujarat. C. Products: Enclosures, Panels, Components (Sheet metal) etc. D. Dealing: The company deals with many industries almost all over India viz. Electrotherm, Areva, Bombardier (Metro trains manufacturers), Amtech, BSNL, Roop Industries etc. E. Process sequence: The industry follows a fixed sequence in order to complete a job. There are some corresponding steps, as given below: ? Shearing process ? Punching (CNC or Laser cutting) ? Bending process ? Welding process ? Grinding process ? Finishing (Powder coating, Spray painting etc.) ? Packing and Dispatch.
Objective of Literature Survey: It is the detailed study of each process that comes under the sequential production. It is much needed to understand the manufacturing thoroughly. Various processes are as follows: ? SHEARING PROCESS: Shearing is a cutting force applied perpendicular to material causing the material to yield and break. Shearing is a process for cutting sheet metal to size out of a larger stock such as roll stock. Shears are used as the preliminary step in preparing stock for stamping processes, or smaller blanks for CNC presses. Material thickness ranges from 0.125 mm to 6.35 mm (0.005 to 0.250 in). The dimensional tolerance ranges from ±0.125 mm to ±1.5 mm (±0.005 to ±0.060 in). The shearing process produces a shear edge burr, which can be minimized to less than 10% of the material thickness. The burr is a function of clearance between the punch and the die (which is nominally designed to be the material thickness), and the sharpness of the punch and the die. The illustration shown provides a two-dimensional look at a typical metal shearing process. Note how the upper shear blade fractures the metal workpiece held in place by the workholding devices. The sheared piece drops away. Typically, the upper shear blade is mounted at an angle to the lower
blade that is normally mounted horizontally. The shearing process performs only fundamental straight-line cutting but any geometrical shape with a straight line cut can usually be produced on a shear. Metal shearing can be performed on sheet, strip, bar, plate, and even angle stock. Bar and angle materials can only be cut to length. However, many shapes can be produced by shearing sheet and plate. Fig. shows a shearing machine:
This is a modern shearing machine that can be used to cut the sheets with a smoother operation and high accuracy. The shearing tool imparts the force hydraulically and the operating pedal works pneumatically. The gauge size can be set with a program to cut bars of specific size from a larger sheet. There are supporting anvils for longer sheets. The shearing tool is mounted a bit inclined to x-axis, as to produce trimming effect and to avoid bending of sheet due to single stroke.
Generally this is used to get a blank sheet out of raw materials. It is also used to cut the scrap material and take out the productive portions.
The shearing process characteristics include:
? ? ? ?
Its ability to make straight-line cuts on flat sheet stock. Metal placement between upper and lower shear blades. Its trademark production of burred and slightly deformed metal edges. Its ability to cut relatively small lengths of material at any time since the shearing blades can be mounted at an angle to reduce the necessary shearing force required.
? PUNCHING PROCESS: Punching is a metal fabricating process that removes a scrap slug from the metal workpiece each time a punch enters the punching die. This process leaves a hole in the metal workpiece. CNC Punching and Blanking: Punching is the process of forming metal components using a punch. The punch is usually the upper member of the complete die assembly and is mounted on the slide or in a die set for alignment (except in the inverted die). The punching process forces a steel punch, made of hardened steel, into and through a workpiece. The punch diameter determines the size of the hole created in the workpiece. The illustration that follows provides a two-dimensional look at a typical punching process. Note how the workpiece remains and the punched part falls out as scrap as the punch enters the die. The scrap drops through the die and is normally collected for recycling.
Fig. shows a CNC turret machine used for punching purpose:
The Computer Numerical Control (CNC) fabrication process offers flexible manufacturing runs without high capital expenditure dies and stamping presses. High volumes are not required to justify the use of this equipment. Tooling is mounted on a turret which can be as little as 10 sets to as much as 100 sets. This turret is mounted on the upper part of the press, which can range in capacity from 10 tons to 100 tons in capacity. The turret travels on lead screws, which travel in the X and Y direction and are computer controlled. Alternatively, the workpiece can travel on the lead screws, and move relative to the fixed turret. The tooling is located over the sheet metal, the punch is activated, and performs the operation, and the turret is indexed to the next location of the workpiece. After the first stage of tooling is deployed over the entire workpiece, the second stage is rotated into place and the whole process is repeated. This entire process is repeated until all the tooling positions of the turret are deployed.
The illustration that follows shows a few common punches and die configurations and the workpieces that would be formed by this combination. Multiple punches can be used together to produce a complete part with just one stroke of the press. There are 20 different tool and die holders on which various tools with their specific dies can be mounted. There are certain dies for thin and thick sheets, depending upon sheet thickness. Mainly there are three stations, B, C and D depending on the tool and die size. Blanking is a metal fabricating process, during which a metal workpiece is removed from the primary metal strip or sheet when it is punched. The material that is removed is the new metal workpiece or blank. The blanking process forces a metal punch into a die that shears the part from the larger primary metal strip or sheet. A die cut edge normally has four attributes. These include:
? ? ? ?
burnish burr fracture roll-over
The illustration that follows provides a twodimensional look at a typical blanking process. Note how the primary metal workpiece remains and the punched part falls out as scrap as the punch enters the die. The scrap drops through the die and is normally collected for recycling.
Like many other metal fabricating processes, especially stamping, the waste can be minimized if the tools are designed to nest parts as closely together as possible. The illustration that follows shows the workpieces that could be created through the blanking process using either sheet or roll as the parent material. Quite often, curves and other difficult features are produced by punching out small sections at a time. This process is called nibbling. This leads to triangular shaped features. These triangular shaped features give the edge a scalloped look. This scalloping can be pronounced if the nibbling pitch is coarse. The amount of scalloping that can be accepted is a function of tooling and product cost. Clamp marks are cosmetic in nature, and if objectionable, can be so positioned to cut them away in subsequent processing.
The limitations for CNC turret: Maximum limit for various materials: Aluminium- 5mm, Mild steel- 3mm, Copper- 4mm and Brass- 3mm. Continuous cooling is required for proper and safe operation. An oil tank is also used to provide oil for extensive lubrication that is necessary to avoid wear of job and tool. Mostly all jobs can be done on CNC for punching purpose, but there are some limitations of it, due to which there arises the need of Laser CNC machine.
Laser Punching: Laser cutting machines can accurately produce complex exterior contours. The laser beam is typically 0.2 mm (0.008 in) diameter at the cutting surface with a power of 1000 to 2000 watts. Laser cutting can be complementary to the CNC/Turret process. The CNC/Turret process can produce internal features such as holes readily whereas the laser cutting process can produce external complex features easily. Laser cutting takes direct input in the form of electronic data from a CAD drawing to produce flat form parts of great complexity. With 3axis control, the laser cutting process can profile parts after they have been formed on the CNC/Turret process. Lasers work best on materials such as carbon steel or stainless steels. Metals such as aluminum and copper alloys are more difficult to cut due to their ability to reflect the light as well as absorb and conduct heat. This requires lasers that are more powerful. Lasers cut by melting the material in the beam path. Materials that are heat treatable will get case hardened at the cut edges. This may be beneficial if the hardened edges are functionally desirable in the finished parts. However, if further machining operations such as threading are required, then hardening is a problem.
A hole cut with a laser has an entry diameter larger than the exit diameter, creating a slightly tapered hole. The minimum radius for slot corners is 0.75 mm (0.030 in). Unlike blanking, piercing, and forming, the normal design rules regarding minimum wall thicknesses, minimum hole size (as a percent of stock thickness) do not apply. The minimum hole sizes are related to stock thickness and can be as low as 20% of the stock thickness, with a minimum of 0.25 mm (0.010 in) upto 1.9 mm (0.075 in). Contrast this with normal piercing operations with the recommended hole size 1.2 times the stock thickness. Burrs are quite small compared to blanking and shearing. They can be almost eliminated when 3D lasers are used and further, eliminate the need for secondary deburring operations. As in blanking and piercing, considerable economies can be obtained by nesting parts, and cutting along common lines. In addition, secondary deburring operations can be reduced or eliminated. The limits associated with laser cutting –Maximum sheet thickness preferred: Aluminium- 1 mm, Mild steel- 8mm, Stainless Steels- 6mm. The laser first penetrates the job at specific point, then moves to the boundary of loop and forms the cut as per design. The laser moves in X and Y direction to get desired job. This motion is called as interpolation. There is a cooling water system comprising of two heat exchangers that maintains the temperature of internal portion of machine where much heat is generated during laser emission. The main characteristic of Laser cutting is that no finishing operation is required on the job as directly finished job is obtained.
? BENDING PROCESS: Bending is a process by which metal can be deformed by plastically deforming the material and changing its shape. The material is stressed beyond the yield strength but below the ultimate tensile strength. The surface area of the material does not change much. Bending usually refers to deformation about one axis. Bending is a flexible process by which many different shapes can be produced. Standard die sets are used to produce a wide variety of shapes. The material is placed on the die, and positioned in place with stops and/or gauges. It is held in place with hold-downs. The upper part of the press, the ram with the appropriately shaped punch descends and forms the V-shaped bend. Bending is done using Press Brakes. Press Brakes normally have a capacity of 20 to 200 tons to accommodate stock from 1m to 4.5m (3 feet to 15 feet). Larger and smaller presses are used for specialized applications. Programmable back gauges, and multiple die sets available currently can make for a very economical process. The minimum flange width should be at least 4 times the stock thickness plus the bending radius. Violating this rule could cause distortions in the part or damage to tooling or operator due to slippage.
Fig. shows a hydraulic press (Bending machine):
The machine has a stationary bed or anvil and a slide (ram or hammer) which has a controlled reciprocating motion toward and away from the bed surface and at right angle to it. The slide is guided in the frame of the machine to give a definite path of motion. A form of open-frame single-action press that is comparatively wide between the housings, with a bed designed for holding long, narrow forming edges or dies. Used for bending and forming strip, plate, and sheet (into boxes, panels, roof decks, and so on). Dies used in presses for bending sheet metal or wire parts into various shapes. The work is done by the punch pushing the stock into cavities or depressions of similar shape in the die or by auxiliary attachments operated by the descending punch. Various types of machinery equipped with two or more rolls to form curved sheet and sections.
? WELDING PROCESS: Welding is the process of permanently joining two or more metal parts, by melting both materials. The molten materials quickly cool, and the two metals are permanently bonded. Mainly used welding types are Argon (TIG) welding and MIG welding. TIG welding: TIG welding is a slower process than MIG, but it produces a more precise weld and can be used at lower amperages for thinner metal and can even be used on exotic metals. TIG welding is a commonly used high quality welding process. TIG welding has become a popular choice of welding processes when high quality, precision welding is required. The TIG welding process requires more time to learn than MIG.
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode during the welding process, Uses a number of shielding gases including helium (He) and argon (Ar), Is easily applied to thin materials, Produces very high-quality, superior welds, Welds can be made with or without filler metal, Provides precise control of welding variables (i.e. heat), Welding yields low distortion, Leaves no slag or splatter.
In TIG welding, an arc is formed between a non-consumable tungsten electrode and the metal being welded. Gas is fed through the torch to shield the electrode and molten weld pool. If filler wire is used, it is added to the weld pool separately.
The illustration that follows provides a schematic showing how the TIG welding process works.
The following illustration shows the TIG-welded joints:
MIG welding: The "Metal" in Gas Metal Arc Welding refers to the wire that is used to start the arc. It is shielded by inert gas and the feeding wire also acts as the filler rod. MIG is fairly easy to learn and use as it is a semi-automatic welding process.
GMAW torch nozzle cutaway image: (1) Torch handle, (2) Molded phenolic dielectric (shown in white) and threaded metal nut insert (yellow), (3) Shielding gas diffuser, (4) Contact tip, (5) Nozzle output face
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Uses a consumable wire electrode during the welding process that is fed from a spool, Provides a uniform weld bead, Produces a slag-free weld bead, Uses a shielding gas, usually – argon, argon - 1 to 5% oxygen, argon - 3 to 25% CO2 and a combination argon/helium gas, Is considered a semi-automatic welding process, Allows welding in all positions, Requires less operator skill than TIG welding, Allows long welds to be made without starts or stops, Needs little cleanup.
The illustration that follows provides a look at a typical MIG welding process showing an arc that is formed between the wire electrode and the workpiece. During the MIG welding process, the electrode melts within the arc and becomes deposited as filler material. The shielding gas that is used prevents atmospheric contamination from atmospheric contamination and protects the weld during solidification. The shielding gas also assists with stabilizing the arc which provides a smooth transfer of metal from the weld wire to the molten weld pool. Versatility is the major benefit of the MIG welding
process. It is capable of joining most types of metals and it can be performed in most positions, even though flat horizontal is the optimum. The most common welds are illustrated below. They include the:
? ? ? ?
lap joint butt joint T-joint, and the edge joint
MIG is used to weld many materials, and different gases are used to form the arc depending on the materials to be welded together. An argon CO2 blend is normally used to weld mild steel, aluminum, titanium, and alloy metals. Helium is used to weld mild steel and titanium in high speed process and also copper and stainless steel. Carbon dioxide is most often used to weld carbon and low alloy steels. Magnesium and cast iron are other metals commonly welded used the MIG process.
? GRINDING PROCESS: Grinding is a finishing process used to improve surface finish, abrade hard materials, and tighten the tolerance on flat and cylindrical surfaces by removing a small amount of material. In grinding, an abrasive material rubs against the metal part and removes tiny pieces of material. The abrasive material is typically on the surface of a wheel or belt and abrades material in a way similar to sanding. On a microscopic scale, the chip formation in grinding is the same as that found in other machining processes. The abrasive action of grinding generates excessive heat so that flooding of the cutting area with fluid is necessary.
Machine tool uses a rotating abrasive grinding wheel to change the shape or dimensions of a hard, usually metallic, workpiece. Grinding is the most accurate of all the basic machining processes. All grinding machines use a wheel made from one of the manufactured abrasives, silicon carbide or aluminum oxide. To grind a cylindrical form, the workpiece rotates as it is fed against the grinding wheel. To grind an internal surface, a small wheel moves inside the hollow of the workpiece, which is gripped in a rotating chuck. On a surface grinder, the workpiece is held in place on a table that moves under the rotating abrasive wheel.
? POWDER COATING PROCESS: Powder coating is a dry finishing process, using finely ground particles of pigment and resin that are generally electrostatically charged and sprayed onto electrically grounded parts. The charged powder particles adhere to the parts and are held there until melted and fused into a smooth coating in a curing oven. Before coating, the parts to be coated are first pretreated similarly to conventional liquid coated parts. The pretreatment process is normally conducted in series with the coating and curing operations. There is essentially two common ways of applying powder coating: by electrostatic spray and by fluidized bed powder coating. There are several other processes that have been developed, but they are far less used. These
include flame spraying, spraying with a plasma gun, airless hot spray, and coating by electrophoretic deposition. Electrostatic spray powder coating uses a powder-air mixture from a small fluidized bed in a powder feed hopper. In some cases, the feed hoppers vibrate to help prevent clogging or clumping of powders prior to entry into the transport lines. The powder is supplied by a hose to the spray gun, which has a charged electrode in the nozzle fed by a high voltage dc power. Electrostatic powder spray guns direct the flow of powder; control the deposition rate; control the pattern size, shape, and density of the spray; and charge the powder being sprayed .The spray guns can be manual (hand-held) or automatic, fixed or reciprocating, and mounted on one or both sides of a conveyorized spray booth. Electrostatic spray powder coating operations use collectors to reclaim over-spray. This reclaimed powder is then reused, adding significantly to the powder coating's high transfer efficiency. The film thickness is dependent on the powder chemistry, preheat temperature, and dwell time. The different surface finishes obtained by powder coating include matt finish, texture finish, glossy finish, etc. Finally, the last step is the packing and despatch of the completed job which is done in a manner depending on the type and shape of the job made, its delicacy, etc.
? Analysis: Bending process: The bending force for sheet metal in Vdies,
Where, Su=ultimate tensile strength, psi W=width of metal at bend, in. t=metal thickness, in. L=length of span across die opening
Eg: ? For bending a 1 inch thick and 10 inch broad M.S. Sheet of 70 ksi. tensile strength is to be bend with a V-die of opening 3 inch then the bending force is : ? Su = 70 ksi. W= 10 in. t = 1 in. L = 3 in. As
? F = 310.33 KN
Our whole training session was divided in two Departments, half of which in Design Department and the other half in Production Department.
The ordered jobs to be made are received by the industry in the form of their drawings on paper or Adobe files. These drawings are firstly studied by the Design Department regarding the type of the material required by the ordering company, the possiblity of the job to be made well with that type of material, the amount of material required in accomplishing the task, the type operations to be performed on respective machines, etc. The industry follows the following fixed sequence for the completion of the task regarding the design part: Detailed study of the drawing Development of the drawing Part List
DXF file is made for RADAN software used for punching purpose
Tooling operations to be performed Notepad file is made for RADAN software A brief description of the above steps are given below, which may please be noted: In the first step, the drawing of the required job is studied taking in consideration, mainly the possibility of the job to be completed as per order.
For example, if the thickness of the sheet as per order is very small and the processes to be carried out on it are complex, then to produce such a job is very difficult or one can regret the order if the sufficient facilities are not available in the industry. Then the drawing is developed by unfolding it so that the quantity of the material or the size of the sheet can be known. An allowance is also considered in the development so as to get the exact size as required on order. The following are the allowances to be considered for the respective sheet thicknesses:
3.0 2.5 2.0 1.6 1.2 1.0 Table 3.1
2.5 2.0 1.6 1.3 1.1 ?1.0
A list of individual components or parts comprising the final job is made which is known as part-list. In this list, the dimensions of the parts and the operations to be performed on a particular machine is listed out. Afterwards a drawing is made in AutoCAD in the .dwg format showing all the dimensions of the complete job and the components comprising it alongwith all the bending lines. Then a .dxf file is made in which only the profile of the completed job and the components is shown which is used for the RADAN software for the purpose of punching operations. Afterwards a notepad file is made which is read by the CNC machine for carrying out the operations to be performed on the job and takes the job towards completion.
The designs dept. feed the input to the prod. dept. It provides the finalised drawing and the part list. This part list is then used to get the results for optimise use of available raw material with the help of a software, Plus 2D. It give the effective productivity on the basis of raw material and parts. Minimum criteria followed here is 92 % overall. According to mentioned sequence, the first stop is shearing. The operator is given a drawing or just the figure of final dimensional of sheet that is required of raw material for jobwork. The worker prepare the specific blank sheet for further processing. We saw the operation of the shearing machine and its observed the precautions to be taken. Also studied the mechanism of the mechanism just by observing as we were not authorized to operate it. But the presence of mind made it easier to grasp the process funda and the style of the operator. The sheet is then either fabricated under CNC turret or Laser machine under various circumstances. For CNC work, the CNC operator is given a notepad file via network. He manipulate various parameters and sets the tool and die combinations as per mentioned in the file. Then as the computer is connected to CNC, the CNC reads the required job file and the operator initiates the process of punchng in CNC. The accomplished job requires grinding and finishing. The CNC machine was the most fascinating machine to observe, the operator told us about the program manipulating and its relation to the tool sequence in turret of CNC. We saw the mounting of die and punch combinationsfor punching purpose. There is a neutral indicating point at whiah job is to be fixed, in order to get the perfect output. For Laser process, the operator is provided with a .dxf file that he used to generate a a program file for Laser input with a flopppy disk. The job is then fixed on the table at neautral point according to axes. The operator initiates the machine work, Laser automatically arrange the sequence of various
cuttings in job. The finishing of job is not required cause of good quality cutting and deburred edges. The job then moves to the bending shop. Here the operator understands the job and its diagram to carry on the required process. The symbols like BUP and BDN shows about the direction of bend to be applied on job. The operator sets the feed into CNC bending machine (Press Brake), and arrange the suitable punch and die for the required job. The job is then set onto the bolster against the gauge that maintains the simension of a portion of sheet to be bend. The final job is then proceeded for further operations. We acknowledged the importance of press brake.It was intresting to watch the operation of the bending machine as around 100 tons of force is applied to make the sheet at right angle or some specific angle. The job is taken to the welding area. The job and its edges are properly cleaned to avoid any inclusions at the time of welding. The job is then kept on an anvil or support frame to weld. The bend edges ar then welded by MIG or Argon welding.The job is then left idle to get cooler. The job is further proceeded for grinding process. Here the edges and the weld portioned is grinded with the help of grinder with abrasive wheel the remove the burr off the edges. Also the the weld foul appearance is improved a lot by this grinding processes. The job is then moved on for final coating. Generally the powder coating is done to give it durable outer membrane. This process increase the corrosion resistance and the life of the material. Mostly the various types of finish in powder coating are done on customer demands. It was great to watch the whole process of fabrication for a shhet material upto ready enclosure or panel (Job). The fixed sequence of observing helped us to uderstand the pros and cons of various process.
We conclude from this training that the various processes as applied are dependent on various parameters. A good co-ordination is the key to get best efficiency and high productivity. ? Each and every process depends on factors such as the method used to carry out the process, the type of the material used (whether Aluminium, Mild Steel, Brass, etc.) and the thickness of the material (or sheet). ? At the process of development of surfaces, the allowances are to be increased as per the thickness of metal. ? The bending force on the job increases with broadness and thickness of job but decreases with the length of die opening. In the technical aspect, we conclude that nothing can be understood thoroughly without practical knowledge and practice. We observed almost each process related to sheet metal fabrication that we had just studied in books. It was really a fruitful training for us to enhance our knowledge and confidence level.
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