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Smile pqm project - September 29th, 2007

Rajdeep Plastic Containers is one of the leading manufacturers of Plastic Blow Moulded HM- HDPE Containers. Rajdeep Plastics specializes in the design and manufacture of containers for the storage and overseas transportation of materials. This company was established in the year 1980. The Company is owned by: Harishbhai Nagda. Plastic Drums and Jerrycans are available in different sizes to their customers. The factory of the company is located in Wagle Estate, Thane(W). The area of the factory of the company is 15000 sq. ft. The company deals in manufacturing of High Molecular – High Density Polythylene plastic products like Wide Mouth Jars, Open Top Round drums, Narrow Mouth Jerrycans, Jars and other containers. The factory works for 24 hours x 7 days a week. Total numbers of workers in the factory are 180, of which 160 are unskilled workers and 20 are skilled workers. Skilled workers are required for looking after machines and setting various parameters in machines required for production of different containers whereas unskilled workers are helpful in production process and inspection process. The annual turnover of the company for last three years was as follows:
2003-2004 6.50crores
2004-2005 7.65crores
2005-2006 8.35crores
The factory is a medium scale factory, taking into account the area and annual turnover of the factory. The plastic containers of the company are for indigenous consumption as well as for exports. However the products of the company are mainly catered to Indian Companies. The raw-material suppliers for this company are companies like IPCL, EXXON MOBILE, MARLEX, SABIC, HALDIYA, etc.
About Products:
They manufacture different varieties of Drums: Full Open Top, Wide Mouth & Narrow Mouth Round Drum. They manufacture a variety of containers in various sizes which are made from the best quality, high grade plastic.
They offer Narrow Mouth, Wide Mouth, Full Open Top Round Drums, jars and jerrycans in the range from 5 ltrs. to 220 ltrs. The term open head or open top refers to the top of the drum being removable. The head or cover of the drum is secured to the drum body with a ring that has a nut and bolt or lever-lock mechanism. Containers come with well fitted lid that give protection & avoid spillage and pilferage of the material inside them. These are pilfer proof containers, available in all sizes
They claim that their drums are made with superior quality plastic that makes durable and useful for storing a variety of materials as they supply their goods to some well- known companies. Their client list includes HLL, RANBAXY, LUPIN, BASF, NALCO, NOVARTIS, etc.

Manufacturing Processes:
Following are the descriptions of the main manufacturing operations:


Injection moulding and extrusion (Fig. 1) are the processes that are used for making of accessory products like plug, cap, handle, pin, etc.
Pellets or powders of masterbatch and virgin, are loaded into a hopper which feeds it (by gravity) into the cylindrical barrel of the moulding machine. It is forced down the barrel by rotation of the spiral screw and becomes heated and "plasticized" (softened) in the process. The temperature is controlled by electrical heaters or water (or air) coolers round the barrel and it is forced, under high pressure, through a specially shaped nozzle into a strong, split, steel mould. The mould is kept cool so that the object quickly solidifies, the mould opens, the object is removed and the mould closes for the next shot. There are also machines that use pistons or plungers instead of screws.

FIGURE 1: The Injection moulding Machine.


Jerry cans, Drums and other hollow objects with a neck narrower than their body cannot be injection moulded without costly complications in the design of the mould. Blow moulding is used instead.
It takes place in two stages. First a parallel walled tube, called a parison, is extruded. It is then transferred to a split mould which has been shaped for the final object, whose two halves nip the end of the parison to close it. Air is blown into the open end to expand it to the shape of the mould. The mould is kept cool and the finished article solidifies and is removed when the mould opens again. The overall thickness of the article may be varied. Thus the cans are produced and this cans have unwanted excess waste plastic material attached to the can which is cut by the labourers.
Mould closes at second stage to nip end of tube shut.

FIGURE 2: Functioning of Blow moulding Machine


This is a form of blow moulding but the parison is continuously extruded from a ring-shaped die, usually vertically upwards. Air is blown through the centre of the blowpipe to expand it to a tube of thin film- As the tube rises it is cooled and solidifies and at the top is folded over and flattened between chilled rollers, thus preventing air from escaping out of the "bubble". After further cooling, the collapsed Air is wound on to produce sacks or bags, the coils are fed through a machine which seals the bottoms and chops them off in one operation.


This chops solid material into regular sized, irregular shaped pieces. This is performed by a simple machine called a granulator. One type comprises a rotating cutter mounted on a horizontal axle (not unlike the cutting cylinder of a grass mower, but with straight, not spiral, blades), which chops the material against fixed, stationary blades. (See Fig 3).
Usually there are three or four rotating blades and two fixed blades although other combinations are used. The blades are replaceable and can be reground. The rotating blades are bolted strongly to a solid rotor shaft, with a bearing at either end and a pulley, belt-driven from an electric motor. The fixed blades are bolted to the cutting chamber and have adjusting screws at either end, to move them in or out until the rotating blades just fail to touch them.
This machine is mainly used for recycling wastes known as Runners produced along with cans, drums, caps and other accessories. This is also used for converting waste plastic material into useful granules.

FIGURE 3: Granulator (horizontal axis)

ILO defines Productivity as the ratio between “Output of Work” and “Input of Resources” used in the process of creating wealth.

Productivity = Output
Productivity is simply the ratio between the amount produced and amounts of resources used in the course of productions.

The following table shows us the calculation of jerry cans produced per month:
Size of Jerrycans Cycle time for produc-ing one unit Production per hour Production per day Production per month
1.1 kg 122 seconds 32 779 23370
1.2 kg 093 seconds 46 1115 33445
1.7 kg 180 seconds 34 816 24480
2.0 kg 206 seconds 35 839 25165
50 kg 138 seconds 1304 31304 939130

Therefore total production of the company in the month of October is 1045590 units.

Productivity of Materials:

In Oct. ’06, Productivity = Output = 1045590 = 0.43
Input 2425550

In Nov. ’06 Productivity= Change in Output x 100 = 1153840 – 1045590 x 100
Input 2475550
= 0.04372 x 100 = 4.37%
Hence, the productivity has increased by 4.37% in November as increase in output is more than increase in input of raw materials.

In Dec. ’06 Productivity= Change in Output x 100 = 1212450 – 1045590 x 100
Input 2375450
= 0.0702 x 100 = 7.02%
Hence, the productivity has increased by 7.02% in December as increase in output is more than increase in input of raw materials.

Productivity of Labour:

In Oct. ’06, Productivity = Output = 1045590 = 9.08
Input 115200

In Nov. ’06 Productivity= Change in Output x 100 = 1153840 – 1045590 x 100
Input 115200
= 0.9397 x 100 = 93.97%
Hence, the productivity has increased by 93.97% in November as there is increase in output.

In Dec. ’06 Productivity= Change in Output x 100 = 1212450 – 1045590 x 100
Input 115200
= 1.44 x 100 = 144.84%
Hence, the productivity has increased by 144.84% in December as there is increase in output.

Productivity of Machinery:

In Oct. ’06, Productivity = Output = 1045590 = 3.03
Input 345600

In Nov. ’06 Productivity= Change in Output x 100 = 1153840 – 1045590 x 100
Input 345600
= 0.3132 x 100 = 31.32%
Hence, the productivity has increased by 31.32% in November as there is increase in output.

In Dec. ’06 Productivity= Change in Output x 100 = 1212450 – 1045590 x 100
Input 345600
= 0.4828 x 100 = 48.28%
Hence, the productivity has increased by 48.28% in December as there is increase in output.

Calculation of Partial and Total Productivity:

Amount of Inputs (In Rupees)
Months Men
Total Input Total Output

Oct. ‘06 115200 2425550 345600 2886350 10,45,590
Nov. ‘06 115200 2475550 345600 2936350 11,53,840
Dec. ‘06 115200 2375450 345600 2836250 12,12,450
Total 3,45,600 72,76,550 10,36,800 86,58,950 34,11,880

Total Productivity for the last quarter in 2006 = Total Output of a product
Total Input of a Product
= 3411880
= 0.39

Partial Productivity of Containers:

A) For Men :
Oct.: Output = 1045590 = 9.08
Input of Men 115200
Nov.: Output = 1153840 = 10.02
Input of Men 115200
Dec.: Output = 1212450 = 10.52
Input of Men 115200

B) For Material :

Oct.: Output = 1045590 = 0.43
Input of Material 2425550
Nov.: Output = 1153840 = 0.47
Input of Material 2475550
Dec.: Output = 1212450 = 0.51
Input of Material 2375450

C) For Machinery :

Oct.: Output = 1045590 = 3.03
Input of Machinery 345600
Nov.: Output = 1153840 = 3.34
Input of Machinery 345600
Dec.: Output = 1212450 = 3.51
Input of Machinery 345600

Total Productivity of Containers:

Total Productivity in Oct. 2006 = Total Output of a product = 1045590
Total Input of a Product 2886350
= 0.36
Total Productivity in Nov. 2006 = Total Output of a product = 1153840
Total Input of a Product 2936350
= 0.39
Total Productivity in Dec. 2006 = Total Output of a product = 1212450
Total Input of a Product 2836250
= 0.43


An incentive or reward is anything that attracts person’s attention and stimulates him to work. It is a payment plan related directly to the output of a workman. This plan is different from the normal wage plan. Incentives are normally monetary payments paid to the workers in recognition of their outstanding performance. Incentives act as motivation and inducement for the workmen to increase their productivity and efficiency.

Rajdeep Plastics Containers Pvt. Ltd. Implements the “Scanlon Plan” for giving incentives. In this plan workers’ participation is given more focus. This plan includes Group Incentive System that will involve workers in making suggestions for process improvement leading to cost reduction in labour and share the gains of increased productivity.

The plan focuses on following features:
(a) Financial incentives aimed at cutting costs and increasing efficiency.
(b) It assumes that increasing efficiency requires company wise co-operation.
(c) A network of departmental screening committees to evaluate suggestions.
(d) The scheme is open for all i.e. workers, supervisors and managers.

The suggestions made by senior labourers, supervisors are taken into consideration for making changes. Usually all employees participate in this plan.

When a suggestion is successfully implemented all the concerned employees get up to 75% of the savings made.


Work Study is an important tool used to improve productivity. It systematically examines two main aspects of an activity/job.
1) Method Study: It is used to simplify the job and develop more economical methods of doing it.
2) Work Measurement: It is used to determine how long it should take to carry out.

Method Study: Method study is the systematic recording and critical examination of ways of doing things in order to make improvements.
First the work content added by poor product design or Materials utilization is examined. It includes examining of design changes, waste of materials, quality standards. Then the second step is work content added by inefficient methods of manufacture or operation is checked. This includes checking of layout and utilization of space in factory, material handling, causes of stoppages, inventory control methods. The last step in evaluating in this is work content resulting mainly from the contribution. This includes workers’ absenteeism and lateness, accidents and occupational hazards.

Work Measurement: It is a technique used to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a task at a defined rate of working.

The principal techniques of Work Measurement are:
1. Time Study
2. Work Sampling
3. Structured Estimation
4. Predetermined Time Standards.

The Company follows all this method to improve its productivity.


The company’s objective is to produce reclaim to satisfy the customer's needs, and thereafter maintain both quality and quantity, at an economic cost. To achieve this they produce reclaim as near to the quality of virgin polymer as is consistent with low costs of production. The company's emphasis on quality assurance begins with the product's initial design, continues through the stages of procurement of materials and manufacturing, and concludes with product delivery. A high level of automation in the manufacturing process helps to ensure a uniform and quality product. All Rajdeep Plastic products are manufactured and tested in accordance with UN regulations.
Rajdeep Plastics is committed to environmental protection and invests great efforts in preventing air and water pollution, including the installation of advanced systems for treating pollutants. It also promotes the recovery and recycling of jerry cans, plastic drums, as well as other packaging containers.
The first essential is that the material be clearly defined, so that the customer quickly appreciates what uses it might have.
The company adheres to strict Quality control measures and therefore has inspection of finished product at every stage. Plastic products undergo following Quality check on the containers and then daily every labourer prepares Quality Control Report for each machine.

1} Particle size and shape:
Raw material when it is purchased from the suppliers it is seen that the pellets (Virgin polymer is normally sold either as pellet or as powder} are of uniform size and shape, about the size of maize grain. The powder is of consistent grain size. Consistency is important because it decides the density of the material in the moulding machine, which in turn determines the density and strength of the product. Particles of different sizes and shapes result in air spaces, gas bubbles or areas of incomplete fusion (due to unmelted material) in the product. Solid plastics scrap that has been passed through a granulator with a grid size of 4mm or 6mm will be equivalent to virgin pellet and will mix with it, even though the granules may be irregular in shape. .

2} Colour Variation:
When they are produced from raw materials, polymers are colourless or faintly yellow. Their final colour is obtained by mixing with heavily pigmented masterbatch which is expensive. The production manager of the Company compares container’s (finished product’s) colour with the required one to match the customer's needs. Jerry cans and Drums that are black, dark grey or dull green or brown are very likely to have been made from reclaim of mixed colours. Little dark or light variation in colour of plastic containers from the standard colour is rejected and used for recycling.

3} Blow/Pin Hole: This test is done to check the proper functioning of blow hole in the machines.

4} Opacity: The plastic containers are checked that they have opacity and are not transparent.

5} Surface Finishing: This test is done to check the smoothness on the surface of Jerrycans and Drums.

6} Cap Fitment: Cap fitment test is done by inserting caps produced by Injection Moulding Machines into Jerry Cans. It helps to check whether the caps produced are of the specific size required for fitting in the Jerrycans.

7} Stability: In this test; it is seen that whether the Containers are stable when they stand on the floor.

8} Air Pressure Test: As soon as the Jerrycans and Drums are produced they are placed in Pressure checking Machine to know its capability to withstand air pressure. Air pressure is inserted according to the size of the cans and drums. They are placed in that machine until other can or drum is produced.

9} Hammer Test: Hammer Test is conducted on some Sample size of containers, to check its capacity to carry the load. The rest of the containers other than the sample size are assumed that they will be of same features.

10} Thickness: The thickness required for each container varies depending on its size. Accordingly, the thickness of the cans and drums is checked.
11} Drop Test: The Plastic Blow moulded HM-HDPE(High Molecular- High Density Polythylene) containers also undergo Drop test. This test probes the containers ability to last after they are dropped from 1.2 metres. The containers which do not get affected by this test are passed through other Quality checking stages.

12} Packing:
Packing is one of the important aspects which are inspected for checking following attributes:

1. Handling Strength: The plastic containers (Drums and Jerry Cans) are inspected for its capacity to handle strength, so that it does not break open during transport or storage. The containers should be tough and stiffer.

2. Leakage Test: Drums are also inspected for its leakproof characteristic- so that no product is lost and water, dirt or other contaminants are kept out.

3. Weight: The weight of the containers is inspected and compared with standard weight, so that the customer has no argument about the quantity of material that has been delivered.

4. Stack Load Test: They also conduct Stack Load Test to check for its ease of storage and transport. Sacks are fairly flat so that they can be stacked ten or twenty high. Drums have flat lids for stacking.

5. Technical details: The Company also follows the technical specifications provided by UN and sees to it that all its plastic containers are according to this specification. The technical details followed by them are as follows:

Technical Specifications for Drums (UN Approved):

Drum Sizes:
100 Litre
A 772mm, B 465mm
60 Litre
A 653mm, B 390mm

50 Litre
A 535mm, B 390mm

Closure / Seal:
Material: HDPE
O Ring: Nitrile
Dimensions: 57mm

Technical Specifications for Jerrycans (1-10 Litres) – (UN Approved):

Moulding Process: Blow moulded
Material: FDA approved High Density Polyethylene.

Closure Seal:
Material: Polyproplene
Dimensions: 38mm.
Jerrycan Sizes

10 litre:
A: 360mm, B: 182mm, C: 240mm

5 litre:
A: 290mm, B: 190mm, C: 130mm

4 litre:
A: 240mm, B: 190mm, C: 130mm

2 litre:
A: 196mm, B: 110mm, C: 146mm

1 litre:
A: 155mm, B: 75mm, C: 132mm

NOTE: A heavy duty 5 litre Jerrycan is available. The cap is the same as used on the 15-25 litre range.

A: 235mm, B: 260mm, C: 140mm

Technical Specifications for Jerrycans (15-25 Litres) – (UN Approved):

Moulding Process: Blow moulded
Material: FDA approved High Density Polyethylene.

Closure Seal:
Material: Santoprene Wad and HDPE Cap
Dimensions: 55mm.
Jerrycan Sizes

15 litre: 72 per pallet
A: 310mm, B: 298mm, C: 298mm

20 litre: 60/96 per pallet
A: 355mm, B: 298mm, C: 298mm

25 litre: 48 per pallet
A: 430mm, B: 298mm, C: 298mm

Some of the above tests are done by sampling method and defectives are rejected and the quality of the products is thus ascertained.


Control Charts are used to investigate whether the manufacturing process is in stable condition or not and is used to maintain the manufacturing process in a stable condition. The Central Line (CL), Upper control Limit (UCL), and Lower Control Limit (LCL) are the main three lines which constitute a control chart.

P Chart:
For a sample size of 30, the number of defects found every month on the basis of data collected is:

Sub Group No. No. of Defectives

1 2
2 3
3 1
4 2
5 3
6 2
7 1
8 5
9 7
10 3
11 3
12 4
13 4
14 3
15 6
16 2
17 2
18 3
19 1
20 3
Total 60

P = Total number of defectives
Sample size x number of items.
= 60
30 x 20
= 0.10

Central line (np) = Sample size x p
= 30 x 0.10
= 3.0

Upper control limit (UCL) = np + 3 np(1-p)
= 3 + 3 3(1-0.10)
= 3 + 3 3(0.9)
= 3 + 3 x 1.64
= 3 + 4.92
= 7.92

Lower control limit (LCL) = np - 3 np(1-p)
= 3 - 3 3(1-0.10)
= 3 - 3 3(0.9)
= 3 - 3 x 1.64
= 3 - 4.92
= (1.92)
= 0

C chart:

For a sample size of 50, the number of defects found every month on the basis of data collected is:
Group No.
Sample Size
No. of Defects

1 1 4
2 1 4
3 1 11
4 1 5
5 1 16
6 1 9
7 1 6
8 1 5
9 1 12
10 1 10
Total = 82

Average defects (c) = Total number of defects
Total number of samples
= 82
= 8.2

Upper control limit (UCL) = c + 3 c
= 8.2 + 3 8.2
= 8.2 + 3 x 2.86
= 8.2 + 8.58
= 16.78

Lower control limit (LCL) = c – 3 c
= 8.2 - 3 8.2
= 8.2 -3 x 2.86
= 8.2 -8.58
= (0.38) = 0


The ILO defines Ergonomics as “Ergonomics is the application of the human biological sciences in conjunction with engineering sciences to the worker and his working environment, so as to obtain maximum satisfaction for the worker and at the same time enhance productivity.”
Thus, the objective of Ergonomics is two fold:
(a) Worker Satisfaction
(b) Enhanced Productivity.
It aims at making the environment synergtical to the human activities and thus improving overall labour productivity.

Rajdeep Plastics also implements Ergonomics to a certain extent in their workplace. It implements Ergonomics in following ways:
1) There is a definite and fixed place for all tools and materials required for production.
2) Tools, materials & machine controls are located close to the point of use.
3) Small mobile containers are used to deliver material close to the point of use.
4) Company has made provisions for good lighting facilities to work.
5) Proper sitting arrangements are made by the company for their employees.
6) They have taken safety precautions by making labourers work on totally safe machines (Machines of international standards).
7) The layout of the plant helps to easily transfer the materials or finished goods from one place to another.
8) Labourers are also not given burden to carry heavy goods.


The visit to plastic drums and HDPE Containers manufacturers was a very good learning experience. It explained me not only how it manufactures products but also how it functions considering other factors to improve its productivity and enhance its products’ quality.

The company manufactures very few defective pieces. This itself shows the efficiency in managing the production department. This not only leads to economies of scale but also goods are of high quality.

Quality of the Products manufactured by the company need not be spoken as they supply their goods to HLL, RANBAXY, LUPIN, BASF, NALCO, NOVARTIS, etc.

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Re: pqm project
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Bhavin Mehta
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Re: pqm project - September 29th, 2007

Good data on the project. Though i would like an word document to read rather than such long post. I would suggest you put the content on a doc file and upload the same..


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Rachit Dave
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Re: pqm project - December 30th, 2007

thanks a lot ....for d project yaar...!
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Re: pqm project - December 30th, 2007

thanks a lot 4 d info.........
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Sneh Gandhi
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Re: pqm project - January 6th, 2008

hey...does ny1 have any matter regarding 'Production Function' & 'Planning for Production Function' .....??

i m in a bad state , our Production mngmnt Prof has asked us to make this project ...n doesn't patronize or suggest any sources xcept for a vipul Prakashan book ...which is very silly....!
heres a FYBms student crying for help...plz lemme knw if u have some relevant matter.
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Navin Todi
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Re: pqm project - November 16th, 2010

Hey Tina

The data is tooo goood.... but its difficult to understand the manufacturing process withot the images.

Can you please send me the soft copy or the word doc on [email address]

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annual turnover, blow moulded, drum body, high grade plastic, indigenous consumption, lever mechanism, lock mechanism, material storage, overseas transportation, pilferage of material, plastic containers, polythylene plastic, pqm, product quality, project, project on management, project on tqm, quality management, quality plastic, skilled workers, total management, total quality, unskilled workers

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