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Total Productive Maintenance.

Total Productive Maintenance.

Discuss Total Productive Maintenance. within the Productivity and Quality Management [T.P.Q.M] forums, part of the PUBLISH / UPLOAD PROJECT OR DOWNLOAD REFERENCE PROJECT category; Small Theory on Total Productive Maintenance: Topic Total Productive Maintenance. TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE  INTRODUCTION: We expect our machines to ...

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Shashank Savla
shaashank is an unknown quantity at this point
 
shaashank
Student of BMS at Smt. K.G. Mittal College
Mumbai, Maharashtra
 
Status: Offline
Posts: 89
Join Date: Feb 2008
Location: Mumbai, Maharashtra
Total Productive Maintenance. - September 22nd, 2008

Small Theory on Total Productive Maintenance:



Topic




Total Productive Maintenance.









TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE

 INTRODUCTION:

We expect our machines to work without failures, produce high quality output, at the same time consume very less manpower, raw materials, electrical energy, tools/ consumables etc, but this is highly difficult to realize in practice unless they approach is towards identifying the losses and eliminating them. Total productive maintenance, shortly termed as TPM, provides means to achieve and maintain high levels of productivity.
TPM is based on zero loss concept, viz. zero accidents, zero defects and zero breakdowns, which render equipment “effective”.
TPM focuses on improving the Planned Loading Time. The gap (losses) between 100% and actual efficiency can be categorized into 3 categories:

- Availability

- Performance

- Yield (Quality Rate)
Availability losses:
Breakdowns and changeovers indicate situations where the line is not running while it should be.

Performance losses:
Speed losses and small stops/idling/empty positions indicate the line is running, but is not providing the quantity it should.

Yield losses:
Additionally, when the line producing products, there are losses due to rejects and start-up quality losses.


Total productive maintenance:



 Aims at getting the most efficient use of equipment.

 Establish a total PM system encompassing maintenance prevention, preventive maintenance and improvement-related maintenance.

 Involves every employer in the company. It requires the co-operation of equipment designer and engineers, equipment operators and maintenance workers.

 Promotes and implements PM small through small-group or team activities.














BRIEF ON 8 PILLARS














AUTONOMOUS MAINTENANCE: (JISHU HOZEN)

Autonomous maintenance is the cleaning, checking, discovering hidden faults and undertaking simple adjustments by the operators, systematically trained through a step by step program. Autonomous management is to prevent reoccurrence of the defects by taking pre-emptive action by the operator. “This is my machine and I must maintain it” is the underlying philosophy of autonomous maintenance.


o A typical autonomous maintenance follows step-by-step process as under:

1. Training to create awareness for equipment cleaning among the circle members.
2. Preparation of cleaning schedule.
3. Model equipment cleaning by section manager.
4. Elimination of dirt, dust and oil spillage.
5. establishing basic equipment condition-
(i) cleaning
(ii) tightening
(iii) lubrication

6. Improving hard to clean, hard to inspect and hard to lubricate.
7. Counter message to avoid reoccurrence.
8. Preparation of cleaning standard.
9. Preparation of lubrication standard.
10. Preparation of general inspection check list.
11. Preparation of process inspection check list.
12. Preparation of autonomous maintenance check list.
13. Auditing of JISHU-HOZEN activities at every step
14. Motivation by reward schemes.

KOBETSU-KAIZEN
Kobetsu-kaizen is to continuously improve utilization of workers, equipment and material through continuous improvement in the process and procedures etc.

o It analyses the various causes of time losses and evolve solution to the chronic problems.

1. Break down losses
2. Setup and adjustment losses
3. Idling and minor stoppage losses
4. Speed losses.
5. Quality defect and rework loss
6. Start up losses.

o Step involved to develop kobetsu kaizen are:

a) Select equipment/line/process
b) Organize project teams
c) Collect loss data summaries present losses
d) Draw kaizen themes
e) Set targets
f) Analysis and recommendation by the team
g) Display result

o Benefits of kobetsu kaizen are reflected in reduced

1. equipment failures
2. equipment breakdowns
3. job change time
4. toll change time
5. minor stops
6. management losses
7. manufacturing cost


PLANNED MAINTENANCE



Planned maintenance is to achieve “zero breakdowns” by improving the efficiency of traditional preventive maintenance activities.


o Planned maintenance encompasses three forms of maintenance:

(i) Corrective maintenance to repair, adjust or replace unsatisfactory equipment operation.
(ii) Preventive maintenance to repair, adjust or replace unsatisfactory equipment to prevent future occurrence of breakdowns.
(iii) Predictive maintenance to replace fault Paris prior to failure without affecting production by predicting a failure before it occurs with enough time to be able to make arrangement. Predictive maintenance makes use of different condition monitoring techniques.


o Planned maintenance aim at-

 Focusing “planned maintenance” rather than “break down”.
 Achieving stable production by eliminating
Equipment Failure.
 Supporting autonomous maintenance.
 Increasing mean time between failure (MTBF)
 Reducing maintenance cost.

Activities involved are-

1. Maintenance of equipment condition
 Product leakage
 Lubricant leakage
 Nut/bolt tightening and small fixing.
2. Maintenance of operating condition
 Set design capacity
 Standardize operating method
 Set environmental condition
3. Restoring deterioration
 Daily check points
 Calendar based check points
 Shutdown based check points
4. Improving design weakness
5. Skill improvement
6. Reliability based maintenance
 Review of equipment maintenance
 Failure pattern and failure analysis
 Reliability based assessment
7. Maintenance cost control
 Improving life of equipment
 Material substitution
 Change of supplier
 Rebuilding and reconditioning
 Improving maintenance practices
 Spare part control
 Inventory reduction.


o Benefits of planned maintenance are:

 Zero equipment failures and break downs
 Improved reliability
 Reduced maintenance cost.


QUALITY MAINTENANCE



QM is to prevent quality defect by

a) Incorporating quality into product through process and equipment rather than controlling quality by inspecting products and taking action against defects after they have occurred.
b) Maintaining perfect machine and tooling condition so that defective are not produced.
c) Setting and maintaining optimal process condition to get quality product.
d) Preventing occurrence of defect by periodic measurements and verification of standards.
e) Taking counter measurement.



Quality maintenance pillar focuses on four production inputs:

(i) Men
(ii) Materials
(iii) Machinery
(iv) Methods











o Activities under quality maintenance embraces following activities:

1) Preparation of quality assurance matrix
2) Identifying co-relation between quality variation and conditions
3) Implementation of quality maintenance systems
4) Preparation of quality charts
5) Evaluation of problems severity by using failure mode and effect analysis
6) Using team approach to track down root causes of the problem
7) Assessing the impact of the proposed counter measures
8) Implementing of the improvements in the current process technology
9) Training of customer for right product application.




o Benefits of this pillar are-

 Reduction in customer quality complaint
 Reduction in inspection time
 Reduction in process defects











M.P.DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT CONTROL


Maintenance prevention design and initial equipment control is designed to facilitate

a) Most efficient investment aimed at achieving vertical start upon full production
b) Design of equipment which is highly functional, easy to maintain and which does not fail.
c) Shorten the period of development.
d) Achieve low life cycle of equipment.




o Activities involved

1. Initial investment control by preparing block sanction report effective equipment investment along with scheme for early start up.
2. activities to study weakness of present equipments.
3. preparation of MP design sheets for feeding the information design to enhance the equipment reliability and maintainability.
4. feed MP design information to sister units.
5. life value analysis for costly spares/equipments.








EDUCATION AND TRANING

Since success of all other pillars of TPM depends opon the success of education and training, this is one of the pillars which has direct linkages to other pillars. The aim of education and training under TPM is-

1. To develop talent in equipment maintenance and
operation.
2. To develop skills for zero defects, zero breakdowns and
zero accidents.
3. to develop abilities to discover and analyze malfunctions
and improve equipment functioning
4. to have multi-skilled employees in all departments



Activities involved

The following activities can be placed under this pillar:
1. workers skill level assessment in 4 categories to identify
their class room as well as ‘on the job (ojt) training’
needs:
-cannot do
-can do
-can do well
-can teach
2. setting training targets
3. preparing annual training calendar
4. development of in-house training facilities
5. development of on-the-job training workshops
6. depute employees to outside training programmes on
special subjects
7. post training evaluation to access effectiveness.

OFFICE TPM

Office TPM is to eliminate problems in the non-shop floor areas so that offices are oriented for excellent support for manufacturing. Typical office problems analyzed under office .TPM are: non availability of files / documents in time, lengthy meetings without agenda, poor house keeping, insufficient storage, high inventory, slow manual working, duplicate work, etc.TPM aims at :
Improvement in filing system.
Paperless working.
Office automation.
Reduction in product inventory.
Increase in office productivity.
Speedy communication.



Activities involved

1: 5 ‘S’ Implementation.
2: Improved filing system for easy accessibility and quick retrieval within X (say 45) seconds.
3: Building up a system of administrative autonomous maintenance.
4: Improving administrative capacity through education and training.
5: Creating an efficient staffing system.
6: Office automation and computerization to achieve paper-less office.
7: Establishing inventory standards and control system.
8: Speedy communication system.

Safety, hygiene and environment control
Safety, hygiene and environment control is to identify and eliminate all hazards by adopting safety, hygiene and environment friendly activities to prevent death, disability, injuries and occupational diseases at work.

TPM is one of the best tools to enhance safety at work place through small group activities and involvement at all levels of organization for common goal of “zero activities” and “zero pollution”

TPM aims at –
Zero accidents.
Zero occupational disease.
Zero pollution

Activities involved:
Following activities can be placed under this pillar :
1. Safety and environment policy.
2. Safety related activities.
- preparation of safety manual
- safety audits
- implementation of safety work permit system
- introducing safety award scheme
- display safety poster and slogan
- regular monitoring and analyses of accident cases

3. Pollution control related activities.
- initial environmental review
- elimination of leakage ,spills, dust etc
- up gradation of existing pollution control equipments
- tree plantation
- creating awareness of environmental control through classroom lectures
- regular environmental audits.

4. Detection of problems that may affect safety
or environment.

5. Hygiene audits.



STEPS PROCEDURE FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF TPM


STEP 1: Declaration by top management to introduce TPM

STEP 2: Introductory education and campaign for TPM.

STEP 3: Create organization to promote TPM

STEP 4: Setting basic policy and targets for TPM

STEP 5: Preparation of master plans for implementation TPM

STEP 6: TPM kick-off

STEP 7:Total application of TPM and raising its level




IMPLEMENTATION DIFFICULTIES.


 Lack of knowledge of the TPM.
 Low education level of Indian workers
 Resistance to change
 Apathy towards “Jishu –Hozen” which involves initial
cleaning up by senior staff.
 Fear of loss of job.
 Fear of extra work load.




BENEFITS OF TPM

TPM can result in following benefits to the organization

 Greater equipments availability
 Low production cost
 Development of employees
 Greater employee involvement due to small group activities
 Improved quality
 Few customers complaints
 Few industrial accident
 Improved workers morale
 Clear distinction between responsibility and authority
 Improved companys competitive strength
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