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types of production

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types of production - January 22nd, 2007


Production management is one functional area of total business management. It is also called production function of management. Production is the creation of utilities for meeting human wants. Here, men, material and equipment are used for the creation of goods, which can be used for different purposes.
In the production process, raw material and other inputs are converted into finished goods for actual use. Production is transformation of raw materials by factory methods into things wanted by people or users. There is creation of utilities through the process of production. Satisfaction of human wants is the guiding principle of all production activities. Thus, production is a process by which goods and services are manufactured or brought into existence. Production is a combined result of materials, machines and other factors in operation. Workers/employees play an important role in bringing such combination of resources.

Definition of Production Management: -

The term production management is difficult to define precisely as production management is not independent of other areas of business management such as marketing, finance and personnel. However, production management which deals with the transformation of resources into goods and/or services.

In simple words production management may be defined as” the planning, organizing, directing and controlling the activities of the production function which deals with the conversion of raw materials into finished products.”

In addition, the following definitions of production management are worth noting: -

 According to E.L Brech: -“Production management is the process of effective planning and regulating the operations of that section of an enterprise which is responsible for the actual transformation of materials into finished products.”

This definition limits the scope of production management to those activities of an enterprise, which is directly related to the transformation of inputs (materials) into output (finished products). It also states that production management is concerned with planning and controlling the operations relating to production process. In brief, production management is basically concerned with production planning and control.

 According to E.S. Buffa: -“production management deals with decision-making related to production process so that the resulting goods or services is produced according to specification, in the amounts and by the schedule demanded and at specification, in the amounts and by the schedule demanded and at minimum cost.”

 According to Carl Heyel, “Production is the process of transforming raw materials or purchased components into finished products for sale”.

This simple clear and exhaustive definition speaks about the coverage of production management. Production management is a decision-making process relating to activities involved in the production process.

PRODUCTION SYSTEM: It is the framework within which the inputs are converted into outputs, which are linked together by certain operations, which provide value to the inputs. There are three components of a production system namely, inputs, transformation process and output, which are further divided into a number of sub-components or operations.

Labour Transformation of conversion process OUTPUTS:
Machines Operations management Products
Facilities Systems design Services
Energy Operations planning and control
Information &

Information feedback concerning
Outputs for process control


TYPES OF PRODUCTION SYSTEMS: There are five types of Production Systems-
1. CONTINUOUS/FLOW PRODUCTION SYSTEM: It is the manufacture of a product through a series of interconnected operations where material moves from one stage to another without interruption.
2. MASS PRODUCTION SYSTEM: Here goods are produced in large quantities using Standardisation, product wise layout and balanced production.
3. PROCESS PRODUCTION SYSTEM: Here production is carried out continuously through uniform and standard sequence of operations using highly sophisticated and automatic machines.
4. JOB PRODUCTION SYSTEM: It means producing goods to meet specific customer requirements or special order, thus this process is always non-standardised.
5. BATCH PRODUCTION SYSTEM: This is the manufacture of a product in batches (small or large) or lots by a series of operations, each operation being carried out on the whole batch before any subsequent operation is undertaken.

Factory name: - Trevini Steel’s.
Brand name: - Om Prabath and Samir Steel Products.
Owner : - yogesh kanakiya.

The company visited is a steel industry, which makes all kind of household products used in the kitchenware. The company also produces the factories goods. The products made by the factory are sold in all most all parts of the country. They also exports there products to country like Singapore China some African countries etc. although there exports is nearby 4%-7% they only take exports order on the availability of time raw material and laborers etc.
The goods produced are used for the household purpose therefore it is a consumers non-durable goods. These products are also used in the factory where the eatable are made on large scale. They mostly sell the goods directly to the retailers while there are some wholesalers but they don’t give the dealerships to some one of specific area to some one those who want to take the goods directly form the industries are solely welcome to purchase the goods.

The production process carried on in the industry is a totally machined made this can be shown in the following format. The production is totally carried on the process layout this can be explained with the help of the following points:-

Raw material: - The company purchases its raw material form the big companies like Essar, Vijay steel industries. The products are purchased form Mumbai, Salem, Delhi, Rajasthan and the cities of Chhattisgarh and Bihar.

There are mostly only two main parts of the raw material required in the production process. They can be explained as follows
I} The sheet of steel: - This is the big sheet of raw material. This are mostly black in color it is very uneasy to handle them because the hands get black. This is the coal and the mud stick on the raw steel. The quality of the steel mostly depends on the gauges of the steel this is known for the width of the steel or the thickness of the steel. Actually it is the gravitational force applied on the big sheet of the steel to become as thin as it can be used in the household for different purpose. The gauges are in even number it is the as large the number the sheet is so thin. E.g. if the gauges is 32 it is most thin sheet which can be used in the household and in the 18 G this most thick for the used in the household purpose. This is the most important that which goods to order that is it should be a 22 or 24 gauges steel be ordered etc.
II} The sheet of steel nets:- The company purchases a different sizes of steel nets sheets that is the gap between the single rods of the net this depends on what product is being used to produce. E.g. product used in the webs of Attar Maida Rave or Wheat requires different sizes that are the width between the two single rods. This is most important as there should be planned that which size of the net should be ordered there also the gauges of the net also come into the matter. But the company uses only single gauges that are the 22G.
There can be different product produced by the changes in the raw material that is if you purchased a and make the utensils of 24G as well 26G as well 28G this can increases the type product produced by the company this depends on the totally planning of the company. The production process can be explained as follows.

1} The inspection of the raw material: - This is the most important stage in the production process. Firstly the inspection made of the raw material. Inspection made this help us see are their any kind of cracks made or some inferior quality raw material sends by the supplier. This takes about 1 day this is mostly done by hammering the raw material by hand or cutting the sheet by the hammer and chimney. Then the quality of the product is being tested.

2} The drawing of lines on the raw material:- This is used for the cutting in the raw material. That is of which size is the product is to be made that is whether the size is of the product is of 4 inches or 6 or 12 etc. therefore in the specific manner the sheet is being prepared for the cutting under the cutting machine. In these steel nets are also prepared for he cutting under cutting machine. The desire size is decided and the lines are drawn on the net or the sheet of the raw material. This the most important process because if the lines are not drawn then this may lead to UN utilization of the raw material

3} Cutting of the steel and net sheet:- This is the most important process in making of the product. The raw material in taken onto a huge table, on which the sheets are kept and then the cutting, is made. Actually this machine know as multi cutting machine this machine can cut all the sheet form 14G-34G and form 1 inches to 24 inches long sheet into circular sheet.
This is most important machine in the factory because if this machine stops even for a hour the industries can even loss up to 25,000 rps/hr this is because the raw material is stopped and because of which the laborer are sited ideal for the hour. This makes a huge loss.
The machine is very useful for the process this machine cost up to 95 lakhs and the industry has five machine one machine is kept ideal for adjusting the size and changing of the cutter blade and for servicing. The servicing is the most important step in the cutting because the cutting blade is used to change after every 5000 cutting. This becomes important in the process for having an extra machine. Therefore the planning is also the most important for the control over the machine time.
The multi cutter machine is being used for the cutting of all the raw material in the production process. It just cut the sheet in the circular format. Then the pressing and other process are made on the raw material to make the finished product. The factory person did not allow taking a photo of a single machine but they allowed drawing the diagram of the machine. This diagram can be shown as follows.

In the diagram you can see that there are about 25 blades in the machine this are used for cutting the sheet in the different sizes. The sheets when cuts take a time of about 4-10 sec. Depending upon the gauges of the sheet. If the gauges are high the machine will take less time and if the gauges are low the machine will take much time to cut because it requires much more pressure for cutting the thick sheet. The sheet of the nets is also cuts in the same format this become important will placing the sheet on the table, which is of the same size of the width of the sheet.

The working of the machine: - The machine works on the principle of the gravitational force firstly the huge hand or the cutter part of the machine gets lifted up and then the size of which the machine is to be cuts is then comes out and then it comes down and cuts the sheet the cuts part of the sheet goes down of the table form where the it is being lifted up. The downward part of the machine that is the place on which sheet is going to be pressed is also changes its dimension with change in the size which is to be cuts. If the size is 4 inches then the blade of the 4 inches comes out of the tip which will cut the sheet in 4th inch and the downward table will also come to the specific size that is the hole will be created on the support of which the whole cutter comes down of the sheet and the sheet is cuts.
Therefore the cutting of the sheet is important. If the sheet is shifted even a single inch here or there the lines drawn on the sheet will go wrong and then it will occur a huge loss of whole sheet and the scrap will also increase.

3} Pressing of the sheet:- This also become the most important step involves in the raw material to be a finished product. This product involves the change in the circular sheet of the raw material into the finished product. In this process the raw material that is the circular sheet that is being cut under the cutting machine. This material is firstly inspected, as there is the chances of being changing in the diameter of the raw material this may cause change in the final product. After the inspection is made this is kept one upon the other ready for the pressing machine.
The pressing machine is a huge in size. The machine has a dye in the tip of the machine. This machine is horizontal size that is total huge in height it is about 10 meters in height. The machine cost about 65-90 lakhs depending on the quality of the machine.

The working of the machine:- The machine works on the principal of gravitational force. This can be explained, as there is the continuous working of the machine that is of the up and down. The revolving part of the machine goes up and down when it goes up the person handling the machine changes the material and keeps the new sheet and the machine comes down and then press the sheet and the shape occurs in the raw material.
The machine uses a hot temperature during pressing but this is only up to some extent that is the machine uses the high heating temp. Only for the first pressing because of the steel can get a better shape with the help of the high temperature. The machine for the first pressing also uses the revolving tip to make steel shape fast. The revolving tip revolves about 250times/sec. this is the enormous speed to make the dome like shape.

The producer of pressing:- When the sheet which are kept one upon the other then the sheets are taken near to the machine where the machine are kept. Then after fixing the dye on the machine the pressing starts the sheet is kept on the circular table at the bottom of the machine then the small hands likes’ structure handles the sheet to very tight. Then the main top part of the sheet comes down and the sheet and the top hand of the machine go down. There a huge noise comes of pressing and after 3 sec. The sheet gets the shape of the desire shaped.
The shaped material is kept aside and new sheet is kept on the circular table at the bottom of the machine. This is a continuous process this process goes on going until the desire numbers of the quantity are achieved. This whole producer takes about 20-30 sec. Depending on the dye the shaped desired and the gauge of the sheet. This can be explained as when the sheet is of the 32G this will take only 12 sec. when the sheet is of the 16G this will take about 30-35 sec. this also depends on the desired shape. That what is the required shape if the shape is only a plain shape that is the only a deep one then it will very less time to make the shape.
If the shape is complicated then it may take two or even more machine pressing with different dyes this may be up to 2-3 days. As said the when the shape required is complicated then it may require more than time because this can be not done in the single pressing it requires a different shaping by the different types of dyes which has a specific shape.
This is like a sheet is made into a desired shape a when it is first given a shape a simple dome shape then it goes on the different dye where it gets biding that makes the sheet stronger and make the height small that is a small curve is made on the top edge that is when pressed the machine makes the a good shape so higher number of complication makes a sheet to go undergo as more as 18 different dyes of pressing. The diagram of the pressing machine can be viewed as below.
The rejection of goods:- There are many product rejected during pressing and also during cutting. On an average 5 sheets are rejected form 100 sheets, which are finally selected for shinning. The goods are rejected because of
1} The cutting may be made properly or the change in the diameter may cause in the rejection of the circular sheet. This has a solution that is the sheet is again cut or kept for the cutting of a smaller diameter. So there is some profit from the waste.
2} During the pressing the goods are rejected because there are a small lines like structure after pressing. This makes the costumer think like this is a bad steel and this is going to break earlier. But that not the reason the lines that are seen on the edge of the product are not due to bad quality steel this is because of the pressing. During pressing the dye gets older with the time of pressing therefore the dye needs to serviced after every 10000-15000 pressing on the steel if this is not done then it may cause a lines like structure on the edge on the steel.
3} During pressing if the sheet is not placed properly. If the sheet is not placed properly then it may cause a problem in the pressing it can even destroy the dye of the pressing machine. If the sheet is mislead under the machine then the shape may not come as desired it may even change the shape of the product. But this waste which are not pressed properly are not thrown out this shapes are kept and preserved. The reason behind this is that it can even create a new shape that can be having a huge sale in the market.
4} If many pressing are made on the steel:- If the sheet are pressed many time it may cause breaking in the sheet of the steel because the steel has a limit in the pressing if many pressing is done this may cause change in the molecular formula of the steel during pressing which can be hot this may breaking on the steel sheet. During the pressing the steel should be selected properly before the cutting because this may cause a huge loss of labour and money.

The Dye

The dies are the most important tools in the pressing depending on the die how good the dye is the shape and the sale of the goods depends. As attractive the shape will be the high will be the demand. Therefore the dye becomes the important part in the industries. The die is mostly made of the tough material that is the cormium steel. This is very strong part. The cost of the die various form the quality and the shape made by the die and the capability of the die to press amount without servicing. This may vary form 50 thousand to 35 lakhs.
The die has basically two parts the top and the bottom part the gap between the both the types is very negligible. The top part is fixed to the moving hand of the machine which moves up and down the other part is fixed on the bottom part which is fixed and when the sheet is kept on the circular part the dye get pressing the sheet and the bottom part makes the right shape.
The die has a specific capacity to make to get pressed this depends on the amount and complication of the pressing the shape and the gauge of the sheet to which the shape is made. Normally a dye can press about 25000-30000 pressing of the sheet after that its needs to service as explained above. The servicing is done in the sense that the die gets pressed and crushed by a polish paper and then it is clean by the chemical to make the die fresh and again used for the pressing this takes a whole day because the opening and then closing of the dye takes a lot of time. The die also needs to be made a kind of extra servicing after every 30-40 normal servicing this cuts the upper part of the dye and makes a good newer shape. The diagram of the die can be shown as below.
Normally the average lifetime of a die is of 50-75 yrs of pressing after this the dyes gets destroyed. Therefore the die plays an important role in the production of any steel product. The die becomes the main aspect the production that is why the making of a die is one of the most crucial stages in the production because if there is any slight variation in the temperature while making the die then the die may get destroyed earlier. For making any new shape of the steel then the product price mostly depends on the die cost or the number of different dyes to be used for the production. Therefore it also becomes an important aspect in the production.

For making the steel webs:- For making the steel also the dye is being used now earlier the product used to be of a specific shape that is only plain shape but now as the demand for the new types of shapes in the webs also and the different shapes also increases the utility of the product that is why now webs also need the pressing. But there is a good way out in this the dye which get destroyed or are not working properly are mostly used in the pressing machine. Because the net only needs to be pressed properly it does not have the linings on the net therefore it is used as the best form waste.

The shaping of the edges of the goods:- The next producer which is small producer is that of the making the edges of the steel product as well as the cut nets become a cut free. That is it should not be as sharp as it can cut the hands of the user. It is just make the product crushed to the revolving machine which has a rough disc on the top when the product is crushed to the revolving disc then goods get brushed up and the good made soft and easy to used. The diagram of the machine used for making the edge soft can be viewed as below.
A special producer on the webs:- The next producer for the jalies or the net covers, which has being made by the Bhagwati industries, is having some additional process. The process is that of the making the cut jalies fitted to the holder. This is mainly done manually and partly by machine. The machine is only used to do the main work that is of pressing.
The net covers or the different sizes jalies (which are passed through the pressing machine as well as the plain cut sheet) are placed on the holder and then the back supporter is kept which is of the same size of that of the holder. Then the whole set is then kept on the pressing machine and the machine pressed on it. The jalies or net covers get fitted on holder and that of the back supporter.
4} Buffing of steel product:- The next producer is the production is of that of the buffing this is a small process this is used to clean the outer blackness on the steel as discussed earlier the buff is nothing but the a parts of the coal on the surface of the steel. As when one purchases a new steel product they see the black semi-solid like substance this is nothing but the buff, which is being remained during the buffing.

The process of buffing.
The buffing is like a revolving material. This they call it as a buffer it has round shape and it is a soft material. The buffer is fitted on the revolving machine, which revolves the buffer at a very high speed. Then the steel product is pushed like a driller on to the revolving buffer and then one can see the pure mirror like steel on the surface of the steel substance. In the buffing producer the steel product when struck to the revolving buffer then whole buff on the steel gets cleaned up as the small-small particle of the buff gushes out of the product. This process is very dirty, as the person doing this has to wear full dress because the buff may stick to the hands and the face. So the care is being taken for the buffing made.
The buffing is done to each and every steel product because the raw steel is not made buffed first. The steel buffing should be properly. The buffing is not a good if done in excess because it can make the outer of steel some kind of rashes on it this may decrease the quality of the product. The buffer on which the product is being pushed on the different angles of the steel product should be as soft as it will not make the rashes on the steel and as hard as it can clean the buff form the steel. Therefore the speed and the quality of the buffer are most important in the buffing process.

If the product is blacker then it will need a harder buffer and if the product is less black then the product will need a soft material buffer to clean the buff. Therefore buffing need a special man to work on it because buffing decides the quality of the products therefore the buffing is the buffing is most important in the quality of the product.

5} Polishing of the steel product:- The last step in the steel production are polishing of the product. This is the final production process on the production. The polishing of product was not famous before 1995 although it was know to as a production process but it was optional because it can be made only as an extra finishing to the product. The polishing is now become an important aspect in today scenario. The polishing means as giving a polish like a mirror on the steel.
The polishing is becoming important because in today world the steel needs to be a good polish. The people are in the mind that the steel is of good quality if the polish of the product is very nice but after the used the polish of the product goes on decreasing as after use. Therefore the producer have made like a mind that though the quality of the goods is not good but then also the polish should be very nice. This increases the price of the product because the costumers are in the mind that of the high polishes high quality. But this is not true but the producer makes the costumer fool and earning huge profits.
The polishing is also being used as protector form rust. During rainy season there is a chance of getting rust on the steel utensils therefore they make a polish on it so that the metal does not get until it get used by the costumer. Because there is always a mishandling of the product in the warehouse of the purchaser. Therefore to prevent them rusting it has being used.

Therefore though the product is of 28G and the polish is one of the best then you can sell a thin sheet product at a considerably at a high price. There in today world the polishing has become an important process. The polishing has become the important aspects in increasing the price of the product. The polishing process is as follows
The product, which has being under the buffing process, are then selected and then made for the polishing. Buffing is important before polishing. The polishing is done like that of the buffing but a special kind of soap is being used in the polishing this makes the steel utensils shine like a mirror. This polishing is done on the steel metal. The product is structed to the on the reveling machine. The revolving machine is the same as on used on the buffer the soap is spread on the whole spunch and then made instructed on it. Then after a few seconds the steel metal gets polished up and then the goods are ready to inspection.

The examination of product:- Further the steel metal is then examined. This is only an overall examination. This examination is done by the special people, which are only meant for the inspection of the goods. This people have a total right to reject the good or give the product back to buffing or polishing. But if the cutting is not proper then the goods may go top the scrap. The examination is very important because if it is cancelled in the factory it will cut down the further cost on the product that is packing labeling or transportation cost.
The packing of the goods:- Then the stickers, labels, price, name, etc. are stick on the steel metal. Then the metals are kept inside the plastic polythene. Then they are packed on inside there specific boxes. If the metal is big then only one box for a single metal and if it is small then on the basis of dozen or gross or in 6 to 24 pieces.
Packing is the most important thing sale process because the packing tends to be the most important because:-
1} The packing makes metal safe for longer duration this will helps to be a good even in the longer period of time.
2} This helps metal look like new even its old.
3} The packing is self-explanatory advertisement concept because it acts as salient salesmen the pictures and the dialogues on the packing box makes the goods attractive in nature.
4} That is why packing a single metal can cause the company for more than 5 Rs. if more colour are used in the box it may extent to 30 Rs. per box.

The planning of introducing the new product:- The next is about the planning of introducing a new product. For introducing a new product the company always uses a different process. Firstly they always thing about the new product which is to be made then they ask there housewives about there suggestion. The suggestion of housewives is the most important because they can make necessary changes in the shape or add some kind additional facilities in the product.
Then after finalization of the product the producer then tries to make the good in some very small quantity and they makes the goods with the which they take the dye or the machine on rent and then study the time taken the cost of the dye the polish needed the type steel required and the pressing and all the other cost is taken into consideration and then the price of the goods is fixed then they again takes the suggestion of there housewives.
It important to keep the shape in secret therefore they take the machine on rent and they itself tries to make the product they doesn’t make the other person form outside to make the product. The housewives are needed because of the secrecy in the shape and the quality of the product. Then at their home the goods are roughly used and used up to it extends. That is it is the tested and then launched in the market. Being on the demand in the market the goods is are being produced. But they will continue his production on rent basis machinery and if the demand is at the constant then only a new machine will purchase.

The production planning

The production planning is most important because the machines are limited and there should no interruption in the production therefore the planning of the product is most important.
The industries make planning on the basis of many things. The changes of dyes in the pressing. The number of pressing required for a specific metal sheet. The cutting time required, etc. all are taken into consideration. The number of dyes pressing is one of the most important aspect the servicing of dyes the cutting machine all are one of the basic concept.
The value engineering:- This is mostly important that is what is the time taken in the today sector. The time taken form the worker wheather it is less or high what is the total time taken for the replacing the sheet after cutting. The deep time series is taken in data and then the goods are made into production. The time is very important.
The planning is important in the production. This is not as important in that of the cutting machine. Since there are 5 cutting machine only 4 are being used regularly the remaining one is under servicing and then it swap with the other machine.
The main problem occurs with that of the changing in the dies of the product. The number of product to be made the types of the different pressing in the different dies to be get pressed and the time taken for changing the dies in the machine etc. are taken into consideration and then the planning is made. The planning is mostly made into the orders pending for a particular product and the amount to be refilled in the warehouse.

The Lead Time

The lead time is of 3-4 months this means that the time required form the order placed to the industry to the total time required for them to give the supply to the buyer including the transportation time. That is it the time it reaches the door of the buyer. This time starts as follows
1} The industry to place an order to the raw material owner that is the seller and the time required to him to send the raw material. APRs 15 days
2} The time to inspection. APRs 1 day
3} The time for making the lines on the sheet that how it should be cutted off. APRs 2 days
4} The time taken for cutting the sheet in the round shape. APRs 4 days
5} The time taken for the jalies and the net covers to be get pressed and get fixed to back supporter is APRs. 6 days
6} The time taken for pressing the sheet and giving it right shape. Depends on the
I} Gauge
II} The type of shape
III} The number of dyes pressing on the sheet etc.
The time taken can be form 25-30 days.
7} The time taken for buffing and polishing. APRs 2 days
8} The time taken for packing and arranging in the large box and ready to dispatch. APRs 3 days
9} The time taken for transporting the goods depends upon the type of mode the distance and the transportation service.
APRs. 20-30 days.
Therefore in all the approximately days form the costumer placing an order to the time of dispatch is of 3-4 months.

Demand Forecasting
The demand forecasting is one of the important is one of the most important process in the supply of the goods during the high demand. The producer knows as form the experience that what will be the demand for this particular product. The demand is seasonal in nature as they are can more demand for the Jalies and the other types of gift items in the Diwali. This can be made that they can make the goods in anticipation of demand because they have the past experience that the demand of a particular product is going to be raised in the near future.
So during the marriages of about 3-5 moths of the seasons they make the gift article goods many and try to launch new shapes and the product in this type of season because new kind of shapes can be easily sale in the this types of season. Because people wants something new for giving the gifts to the other person.
The planning is needed when the goods are going to be dispatch in bulk with a very short time. Mainly the time during the seasons as during Diwali and during some majors. As well as the during the marriages as well some local major function in the particular state etc. during which the goods are made in anticipation of demand because they knew that there will be demand in the market with the pervious experiences.

Plant Location
The plant location is very important in the production function. As the industry is suited Bhayender they have many of the merits for having a factory on this place they are as follows.
1} The place is nearer to Mumbai therefore they have a good market nearby.
2} The office is situated in the main market in Mumbai. But the goods sold to the costumer outside the Mumbai are directly send form the factory to the other place in the country. This makes the transportation cost very less. The goods does not enter in Mumbai therefore there is no problem of octri for entering in Mumbai.
3} Since it is an industrial sector the government gives huge facilities like ample electricity that is they have a good supply of electricity. There also a good supply of water and the sewage system is also good so the company has not to worries about the sewage problem and that of the pollution.
4} Due to the industrial sector it has made many of the function easy. The packing material like cartoons, plastic, the stickers and other revenants things are made in the same industrial sector.
5} They also share the machines and specially the dyes with each other. Since the dye is very expensive they share the material and because of which the goods are made easily and the cost occurred to one industry is very less.
6} The plant location has also helped them for the employment facilities. The employment is very cheap in this sector. The cost is very less and the there is abundant supply of the labor in the location. Therefore the cost of laborers is less and the labor problem is also very less in the area.

7} The transportation cost is very less of that of the raw material. Since there are many ways for the transport but because of the good industrial sector the transportation cost as well as that of the time taken is comparatively very less.
8} The factors like banking, communication, as well as the local taxes are beneficial for the smooth working in the industry. There is also a good security in the company this makes the goods are safe and sound in this plant location.

The layout of the Plant
The layout of the plant can is a process layout. This is because the machine which are used have a equal importance in all the type of the goods which are made by the company. This can be explained as follows:-
The goods which ever the goods may be has to undergo with
I} The cutting machine.
II} The pressing machine. Only the dies of the product are changing and rest the machine is remaining the same.
III} The softing of the Edges of the product whether it is a Jalies one or it is a sheet product.
IV} Only there is an exception for the product in which the webs are used is that the goods have to be fixed between the supporter and the back supporter.
V} The buffing is same for all the product.
VI} The polishing for all the product is also same.
The layout of the plant is also the type of that of the |_| curved this can be explained with the help with the help of the following diagram. This diagram has the entrance then the cutting machines, then followed by that of the pressing machine, then buffing and the polishing
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Auto industry
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Hey Hey
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Auto industry - December 16th, 2008

Production management is one functional area of total business management. It is also called production function of management. Production is the creation of utilities for meeting human wants.
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Fertilizer Industry
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Fertilizer Industry - December 16th, 2008

complete production process at fertilizer unit. which will help to understand the manufacturing process of fertilizer industry
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File Type: ppt Copy of Group 5 - Fertilizer Industry.ppt (678.0 KB, 74 views)
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Tyre industry
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Tyre industry - December 16th, 2008

Production management is one functional area of total business management. It is also called production function of management. Production is the creation of utilities for meeting human wants.
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File Type: ppt Copy of Group 7 - Tyre Industry.ppt (1.38 MB, 98 views)
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paper industry report
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paper industry report - December 16th, 2008

Production management is one functional area of total business management. It is also called production function of management. Production is the creation of utilities for meeting human wants.
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paper industry presentation
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Hey Hey
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paper industry presentation - December 16th, 2008

Production management is one functional area of total business management. It is also called production function of management. Production is the creation of utilities for meeting human wants.
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Re: types of production
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Siddharth S
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Re: types of production - January 30th, 2009

thanks for all the effort !! keep uploading
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Re: types of production
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Arun Philip
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Re: types of production - February 4th, 2009

thanks for the ppts!! this will definitely help me...
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Re: Auto industry
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Re: Auto industry - June 13th, 2009

Any project on essar? Need it urgently. Please let me know.
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Re: Fertilizer Industry
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Re: Fertilizer Industry - June 17th, 2010

Originally Posted by hey001978 View Post
complete production process at fertilizer unit. which will help to understand the manufacturing process of fertilizer industry
Yes it will.Thanks for the wonderful support.
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