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impact of globalization and liberalization on industries in our country -
December 18th, 2006
Q.1 (a) What is the impact of globalization and liberalization on industries in our country?
Ans: 1 (a) The Programme of Economic Liberalization
The New Economic policy
During the mid 1980s, the Congress Government headed by Rajiv Gandhi made a move to change its policies regarding business, licenses and permits, as also its attitude towards multinational companies (MNCs) operating in India. However, it was only during the succeeding government of Narasimha Rao (1991-96) that a strategy was actually formulated in this direction and marketed both in India and abroad. The strategy aimed to bring the Indian economy into the mainstream of the global economy, and, at the same time allow a whiff of competition and growth to India business. This, it was hoped would bring a new dimension to the concepts of quality, productivity and growth.
Inevitably, the winds of liberalization that swept through the nation opened a variable Pandora’s box, with far-reaching implications for human resource management. It brought in a new era of technology, quality consciousness and competition, which compelled Indian business to wake up from its somnambulism and reassess its assumptions for dealing with the ‘compete-or-perish’ situation.
The Pre-reform Scenario
In the pre-liberalization period India had pursued a shortsighted policy in the name of self-reliance, blocking out the rest of the world in the manufacturing and services sectors. Relying on bureaucratic controls, through licensing and centralized planning, the government had imposed restrictions on the capacity of business units, their location, choice and source of raw materials and so on. It had also kept a check on corporate take-overs and mergers, through the monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission (MRTP).
India had actively discouraged foreign investments in its capital markets to protect domestic industries. It had also denied itself access to international capital, technology and markets; Unlike the Asian Tigers who went on to beat the first World nations at their own game. However, as seen by the recent downslide in the South Asian economy and the currency crisis in Indonesia, this access to international capital and markets has been a mixed blessing for these countries. Notwithstanding this, the tremendous progress made by the Asian Tigers during the last three decades can certainly serve as an example to developing countries such as India.
Not that socialistic state planning did not have its benefits in India. Heavy industries were established and significant strides were made in the field of agriculture, Industrial growth rose from 7 per cent in the early 1950s to 9% in the early 1960s. However the inevitable
problems of socialism outweighed the benefits. Protected employment led to loss making units where as the License Raj worked against competitive forces.
The Reform Process and Imperatives
After 1991 there was a two fold shift in the Indian economic policy-at the global level as also the national level.
1. At the global level, it sough to integrate the Indian economy with the world economy by allowing free movement of capital investment, both into and from India. This exchange would also expose India to new technology
Table 1.1 indicates that there has been a significant time lag between foreign direct investment (FDI) approvals and actual in-flows. This has been possibly due to the government’s failure to ensure a smooth single-window clearance for projects. Other factors have been the government’s tendency to backtrack on its own policy, and lack of congruity in Center-state clearance for FDI inflows.
2. At the national level, it envisaged a decontrolled business environment where free market forces would be given more freedom to operate and state control would be reduced or eliminated. The omnipotent role of public sector corporations would be redefined, allowing disinvestments of their equity holdings by the government.
One of the desired effects of such a major restructuring of the economy was growth and generation of employment which, it was hoped would lead to more purchasing power for the common man.
The central government’s reform package was a mix of policy and administrative changes. The budget was used as a major instrument for altering the financial policies. The 1996 budget, which was awaited with both skepticism and hope proved to be turnaround in many ways-custom duties applicable to core industries were reduced, excise duty was rationalized and a commitment was made towards disinvestments of PSUs. The budget identified the existing infrastructure as inadequate for growth and indicated efforts to encourage investment in this critical area. Further it took cognizance of the aspirations of farmers and the poor, offering schemes and subsidies to uplift these neglected sections. Unfortunately the budget elicited a lukewarm response and failed to energies the capital market. This resulted in a slow down of economic reforms and loss of investor confidence in the Indian economy. In February 1997, the budget presented by the formed finance minister, Mr. P.Chidambaram, tried to firmly establish India’s commitment to the reform process and managed to enthuse both Indian and Foreign business. The budget showed a spirit of optimism and growth. Market-men were amply encouraged and share indices recorded their biggest jump in any post budget session in the last two decades. The budget reformed India’s tax structure in line with the structure
in developed countries; significantly reduced tariffs; rationalized excise rates; encouraged investment in infrastructure; and also opened up the insurance sector partially. On the negative side, however the budget paid more lip-service to reduction in government expenditure and remained silent on the huge oil-pool deficit. (This was subsequently tackled by an administrative decision).
One of the imperatives of the environment is to have a skilled and educated workforce, which can understand and cope with the requirements of IT and other technologies in the manufacturing and services sectors. Therefore, the state has to make heavy investments in education. It is worth noting that Yashwant Sinha, minister of finance, in his 1998 budget speech, stressed on the importance of education as a key vehicle for social transformation and provided total budgetary allocation of Rs70, 470 million to the sector. This was an increase of 50% over the preceding year’s allocation. Here, it must, however, be pointed out that a significant share of this increase would go into paying the increases in salaries. The finance minister also expressed the government’s intention to eventually raise total resource allocation for education to 6% of GDP, in a phased manner. He further stated the government’s plan to implement the constitutional provision for making primary education free and compulsory up to fifth standard, and also to go beyond and provide free education for girls up to the college level.
Mahajan (1998) estimates that the central government’s expenditure on human resource development (HRD), which was Rs 32,410 million in 1989-90, dropped to Rs28, 910 million in 1992-93. The expenditure by the states was Rs 1,23,100 million in 1989-90, which marginally improved to Rs 1,29,020 million in 1992-93. Given India’s vast population, the number of poor and school drop-outs (turned child laborers), it is indeed a critical situation. Unfortunately, not much has gone into the National Renewal Fund (NRF) either, which was originally created to impart training, retrain workers whose skills has become inadequate or redundant as a result of technology up gradation.
The new economic programme has opened up the economy to a greater degree of international participation and investments. The service industry has taken significant strides in areas such as tourism, hospitalize or medicine, banking and financial services. Consequently, not only have more players come into India, but mergers and acquisitions of a large number of India companies have also taken place. This has compelled Indian companies to sit up and re-examine their strategies and practices, as also the type of business they are in. Such a shake-out is indeed in stark contrast to their attitude in the recent past, where cornering a license mattered more than a company’s product or competence. Liberalization has thus resulted in paradigmatic shift.
1 (b) What is the effect of competition on Human Resource Management?
Ans: 1 (b) Effect of competition on Human Resource Management
As a result of domestic and international competition, human resource management is being given a key role. Our survey highlighted the following changes in human resource policies and programmes.
1 With manpower costs going up, and the need to bring product prices down to meet competition, manpower productivity has become a central issue in organizations. Human resource professionals will have to play a critical role to fulfill this need.
2 Another area of intervention would be in the case of joint ventures where professional will have to predict and manage culture-fit policies. Companies are focusing on people with the right profiles as also those who are more capable.
3 There is increasing emphasis on training, and retraining to tap latent talent.
4 Companies have started paying attention to career growth and career planning for employee.
5 Companies are showing increasing willingness to retail talent and redeploys manpower when necessary.
6 In some industry, Indian employees are being sought after abroad. This, coupled with competition for employees among Indian companies, has led to an alarming attrition rate for some companies. To meet ambitious career aspirations and salary expectations, human resource departments are using industry-wise benchmarking for salary revisions.
7 Employee compensation is being linked and programmes are becoming more focused, responsive and are also constantly reviewed against the external environment.
8 Contemporary practices, policies and programmes are becoming more focused, responsive and are also constantly reviewed against the external environment.
9 Globalization has resulted in an influx of foreign managers to India. There is evidence of greater mobility both within India and abroad. Furthermore, there is greater integration with world market dynamics and practices.
10 Corporate restructuring and redefining of roles are areas also under focus.
The aftermath of Liberalization and globalization has made Indian companies conscious of competition and quality and acquire a totally global mindset. According to Gurcharan Das they need to:
1. Focus on a single area of competence and not hopelessly diversify.
2. Initially concentrate on the domestic market and then leverage their economies of scale overseas.
3. Be able to capitalize on global trade.
4. Not ignore quality even when they are pursuing a low cost strategy.
5. Be able to overcome their historic phobia for investing in product development.
Das (1996) in his article ‘Nation and Corporation-III’ has recommended the adopting of a strategy based on superior service, rather than a focus on the strategy of cost-leadership. According to him, a cost strategy in vulnerable to the exchange rates of competitions and the rising labor cost of domestic employees. A strategy based on superior service, on the other hand, can be very powerful as the value added is high, i.e., superior service delivered by highly trained knowledge workers (scientists, engineers, market researchers, lawyers) and provides a powerful insulation against competition. Not only can knowledge workers harness the power of IT, they can also be trained to benchmark their deliverables against the competition and against customer needs.
If Indian companies pursue this approach seriously and strategically, they stand a vast potential to emerge as winners.
Q.2 (a) What is Performance Appraisal? What are the objectives of the Performance Appraisal System?
Ans 2 (a) Performance Appraisal is a formal exercise in which an organization makes an evaluation form, of its employees, in terms of contributions made towards achieving organizational objectives and/ or their personal strengths and weaknesses, and in terms of attributes and behaviors demonstrate for meeting whatever objective the originations may consider relevant.
Performance appraisal systems are widely used today. None is perhaps perfect. Many advocate their discontinuance. More rational ones plead for their improvement through continuous dialogue with line managers. However some appraisal systems fail, efforts to improve them notwithstanding. There are several reasons for such a failure. Some major ones are:
1 Some appraisal systems demand of the superior to assess his subordinate in terms of personality traits. While talking generally of personality traits is accepted, no subordinate would like such assessment to be recorded in an official document as a negative evaluation may adversely affect his career. The human personality is a complex reality. Even physiologists disagree on how it should be defined. Personality traits as well are extremely difficult to define. Moreover, how many executives are properly trained to assess him to change aspects of his personality?
2 The results of a subordinate’s behaviour are easy to describe. However, the problem starts when the superior tries to identify the cause. For example, in a case of inter-personal problems, the superior may determine that it is because the subordinate is stubborn. The subordinate may claim that he is only being assertive. The word stubborn itself may make him defensive. This will block further communication reducing the effectiveness of appraisal system.
3 A superior may not want to pass judgement on another person it he feels that his negative judgement may have an adverse influence on the individual’s future. In such a case, the superior tends to be non-committal and vague in his assessment. No wonder in some organizations most of the managers get rated “above average”.
4 These factors may greatly neutralize the beneficial effects of appraisal systems.
Objectives of the Performance Appraisal
Performance appraisal system can serve the following purposes:
1 To enable each employee to understand his role better and become more effective on the job.
2 To understand his own strengths and weakness with respect to his role in the organization.
3 To identify the developmental needs of each employee.
4 To improve relationship between the superior and the subordinate through the realization that each is dependent
2(b) Explain the concept of 360-degree appraisal. How is this concept used in industry to appraise the employees?
Answer 2 (b)
360-degree appraisal is a Multi-Rater Appraisal and Feedback System, where an individual (employee) is assessed by a number of assesses including superiors, subordinates, peers, internal customers, and external customers. The appraisal is done anonymously by the concerned persons and the final assessment is collected by the HRD. The assessment is made on questionnaire designed to measure behaviors considered critical for performance.
360-degree appraisal system involves 5 main phases to appraise the employees.
a. Participants Orientation and modalities of the exercise
b. Questionnaire distribution
c. Monitoring and Follow-up
d. Data feeding reports and analysis
3.(a) What is Performance Councelling? Explain the process involved in Performance Councelling.
Ans: Performance Counselling refers to the help provided by a manager to his subordinates in objectively analyzing their performance. It essentially focuses on the analysis of performance and identification of training and developing needs for bringing about further improvement. It attempts to help the employee in:
1 Understanding himself – his strengths and weaknesses.
2 Improving his professional and interpersonal competence by giving him feedback about his behaviour.
3 Setting goals and formulating action plans for further improvement.
4 Generating alternatives for dealing with various problems.
5 By providing a supportive and empathetic atmosphere in which the employee feels encouraged to discuss his aspirations, tensions, conflicts, concerns and problems.
Conditions for Effective counseling
1 A climate of trust, confidence and openness is essential for effective counseling. Counselling cannot be effective if the subordinate does not trust his boss.
2 It is necessary that the subordinate should feel free to participate, without inhibition or fear, in the process of review and feedback. Counselling is a dialogue between the boss and the subordinate. It is not one-way process of communication to the employee what he should do or not do.
3 The main purpose of counseling is employee development.
Performance Counselling does not serve its purpose if the discussion is allowed to digress into other areas like increments, salaries, rewards etc.
Processes Involved in Performance Counselling
The superior should be an excellent listener. He should pay careful attention to the ideals and feelings of the subordinate. While ideas can be easily understood by the superior, the subordinate’s feelings and concern should also be deciphered. This requires both patience and skill on the part of the superior, who is doing performance counseling.
Questions play an important role in performance counseling, they can help in gathering more information and in stimulating thinking. However, all questions do not facilitate communication. Some questions can actually hinder it.
It is extremely important that feedback is communicated in a manner that produces a constructive response in the subordinate. Most managers find it extremely embarrassing to give negative feedback. Given below are some guidelines that could be followed in giving feedback.
1 Make sure you know that was mutually agreed in terms of job responsibilities.
2 Review employee’s background, education, training, and experience.
3 Review employee’s past jobs and job performance.
4 Determine the strengths and development needs to be discussed with the employee.
5 For each need you plan to discuss with the employee, be prepared with alternative development plans should he need assistance in coming up with a suitable plan.
6 Determine those points you do not intend to discuss with the employee and how you plan to handle them.
7 Identify areas that need attention during the next review period.
8 Make sure that the employee has sufficient advance notice for the interview so that he has time to do his own preparation.
9 It is useful to note the key points on a piece of paper.
1 Be sincere, informal and friendly. Explain the purpose of the discussion and make it clear to the subordinate that the interview is a two-way communication.
2 Encourage the employee to discuss how he appraises his own performance.
3 Talk about strong points first, interspersing the discussion with areas that need improvement. Wherever possible, cite specific observations you have made.
3 .(b)What are the Objectives of Potential Appraisal?
(ans ) Potential Appraisal
In making potential appraisal of managers, levels of talent and ambition have to be clearly identified. It should be remembered that there are limits beyond which any individual employee will be over-stretched and likely to succeed. Doing the present job exceedingly well is no indicator of assured success in a higher job. Some employees are cut-out for specific jobs. They are happy doing such jobs. Promoting them without assessing their potential may be a lose-lose situation for the organization. For example all good salesmen cannot be promoted as sales supervisors. In the absence of a proper potential assessment, the organization may lose an ace salesman and get poor sales supervisor.
Objectives of the Potential Appraisal
1 To assess an individual in terms of the highest level of work the individual will be able to handle comfortably and successfully in future without being over-stretched.
2 To assist the organization in discharging its responsibility of selecting and developing managers for the future to ensure continuous growth of the organization.
Based on past experience and research, the following qualities determine the potential of an employee;
1 Analytical Power.
2 Creative Imagination.
3 Sense of Reality
4 Capability of taking holistic view from a detached position.
5 Effective Leadership.
Potential appraisal is a relatively difficult exercise. Therefore, it should be done with care. Otherwise it may do more harm than good to the organization.
4.(a) Define TQM. Examine the elements involved in TQM and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of TQM.?
The concept of quality control as a distinct discipline, emerged in the United States in the 1920’s. At that time, quality control was intended simply to control or limit the creation of defective items in the industrial processes. The process involved inspection of the output and then sorting the defective products from good ones. The concept of quality underwent numerous refinements. The pioneers who carried out these refinements included Shewhart, Deming, Juran, Crosby and others. As a result, a more effective management philosophy was adopted. The focus was on actions to prevent a defective product from being created, rather than simply screening it out. The philosophy also recognized that the concept of quality control need not be restricted only to manufacturing process, but could also be applied to administrative processes and service industries.
Several management theorists expanded this idea and started using statistics to control processes, to limit variations and to improve quality.
This was when Deming evolved the TQM philosophy. He believed that quality should be shared by everyone in an organization. Deming recognized that most quality problems were system-induced and were therefore, not related to workmanship. Crosby later promoted the “Zero defects” concept and emphasized adherence to quality requirements and employee motivation.
1. Ron Collard and Gill Sivyer: “TQM is a cost effective system for integrating the continuous quality improvement efforts of people at all levels in the organization to deliver products and services which ensure customer satisfaction.”
2. TQM is the conformance to the requirements which customers expect.
3. TQM is about building quality rather than merely inspecting defects out.
Elements of TQM / Effective Implementation of TQM
TQM emphasizes a number of concepts which all supports the philosophies of customer focus, continuous improvement, defect prevention and a recognition that quality responsibility is shared by all.
The Key TQM concepts are:
1. Management Commitment to Quality: The commitment to implement TQM has to start at the top. The commitment of the top level reflects the seriousness towards quality.
2. Focus on the customer: The TQM philosophy is based on customer focus. The basic aim is to assure that customer needs and expectations are understood and met. This philosophy can be understood with reference to the ad of Lee lacocca. He once advertised that Chrysler had only three rules: Satisfy the customer, Satisfy the customer and Satisfy the customer.
3. Prevention rather than detection of defects: This philosophy seeks to prevents poor quality rather than detecting and sorting out defects. The technologies evolved to prevent defects are statistical process control, continuous process improvement, problem solving and systems failure analysis.
4. Universal quality responsibility: TQM is based on the precept that quality is not just the responsibility of the quality control department, but is instead a guiding philosophy that everyone shares in an organization.
It has been observed that once TQM is effectively implemented the quality control department gets smaller. This is because quality becomes everyone’s responsibility and as such the need for a separate quality assurance function disappears.
5. Quality measurement: TQM believes that quality is a measurable commodity and in order to improve, we need to know what the current quality levels are and we need to know what quality levels we aspire to attain.
6. Continuous Improvement: TQM strives for continuous improvement in all areas. This is made by typing in closely with quality measurement and universal quality responsibility. The essence of this element is not to find someone to blame when things go wrong instead it aims at zeroing on the process deficiencies that allowed the problem to exist. Another significant aspect of this element is that it should not be attempted on a grand scale but pursued in small, incremental and manageable steps.
7. Root Cause Corrective Action: It is often experienced that problems continue to appear though corrective measures have been taken. This issue is tackled effectively under TQM, since it seeks to identify the root cause of problems and by implementing corrective action that address problems at the root cause level.
The techniques used to address problems at the root cause level include problem solving approach and systems failure analysis approach including fault free analysis and management tracking tools.
8. Employees involvement and empowerment: TQM demands employee involvement and empowerment. While employee involvement means every employee is an active participant in goal attainment, employee empowerment means providing the employees with necessary tools and authority to overcome obstacles to achieving goals.
9. Synergy of teams: The problems & challenges of continuous improvement can be effectively tackled by taking advantage of the synergy of teams. Dr. Ishikawa formalizer the team concept as a part of the TQM philosophy by developing quality circles.
10. Bench marking: This element involves defining competitors best features and adopting the best practices organizations for ones own operation.
11. Inventory reduction: This element, also know as Just-in-Time Inventory management, originally intended to address material shortages. The ultimate impact of this concept was that as inventories grew smaller, quality improved.
12. Value Improvement: The essence of value improvements is the ability to meet customer expectations while removing unnecessary cost. Here, the customer receives the same level of quality for a lower cost. Supplier Teaming: Another principle of TQM is to develop long-term relationships with a few high-quality suppliers, rather than selecting those suppliers with the lowest initial const. The TQM philosophy believes that lowest initial cost does not reflect the lowest overall life cycle cost if quality problems later emerge with the low bidders supplies.
13. Training: Training is the basic element of the TQM process. This concept can be developed by encouraging continuous improvement for which training appears to be the basic and the important tool.
Need and Importance / Advantages of TQM:
TQM is an integrative management concept aiming at continuous improvement in the quality of goods and services through the participation of all levels. It believes in making quality everyone’s concern and responsibility. Quality should become a habit and not a matter of chance. TQM ensures attainment of this objective generating a number of benefits to the organization.
The advantages of TQM includes:
1. Improving customer satisfaction: TQM aims at producing goods and services in accordance with customer expectation. This approach improves customer satisfaction and generates higher profits.
2. Enhancing quality: TQM helps in manufacturing better quality products at a lower cost. This increases the market share and profits of the organization.
3. Reduction in waste: TQM seeks to prevent poor quality rather than detecting and correcting defects. It stresses on things done right the first time. This reduces wastage and the related costs are eliminated.
4. Reduction in inventory: TQM aims at eliminating shortage in the supply of inputs. It also ensures that the organization does not purchase excessive inventory. TQM believes that smaller the inventory, better is the quality.
5. Improving productivity: Productivity is the input output relationship. Productivity improves when the same output is attained at a lower cost or higher output is achieved at the same cost. TQM helps in attaining these goals, thus contributing to improved productivity.
6. Reducing product development time: TQM not only focuses on customers, it also analyses and improves the basic business systems and subsystems to match customer requirements. This helps in reducing the product development time.
7. Flexibility : TQM increases the flexibility in meeting market demands. It helps in ascertaining the requirements of the customers and evolves systems to do a better job in a shorter time.
8. Motivates human resource: TQM demands employee involvement and empowerment. Employees who adopt customer satisfaction as their primary objective are rewarded with monetary and non-monetary benefits. All this motivates the employees to do a better job.
9. Enhances competitiveness: TQM enables a company to face competition. This is facilitated by better quality products, lowest possible cost and a team of dedicated employee.
Pitfalls in Implementing TQM:
(I) TQM incorporates several dimensions: The design of the products, control of processes and quality improvement. It goes without saying that crisis are inevitable.
The initial period is focused on quality awareness, infrastructure, measurement systems and ungrading skills. Gradually, the quality message is no longer new and as such loses some of its excitement. As measurement improves, problems can be seen more clearly.
The realization that things are not going as expected causes disappointment, anxiety and even panic. This is mainly because organizations tend to look for quick results, rather than at long-term improvement.
(II) The crisis in implementing TQM arises from:
1. Difficulties experience in bringing about change: TQM requires significant changes in methods, processes, attitudes and behaviour. This realization not only takes time to set in but the change is painful. Line managers become more accountable for their work. Supervisors become coaches. Middle manages become problem solvers and the top level has to interact with customer. The process is very painful.
2. Rising expectations: As people become more knowledgeable about what a quality organization is, their expectations keep rising. This creates anxiety.
To avoid this crisis situation, the following measures are needed:
a) At the beginning of the process expectations should be kept simple.
b) Everyone needs to recognize that setbacks will occur and are a normal phenomenon.
c) Managers should be trained in interpersonal skills so that the human issues associated with change are effectively managed.
d) All improvements, no matter how small, should be publicized and appropriately rewarded.
e) Progress should be reviewed periodically, and goals revised accordingly.
(b) What are Quality Circles? Examine the process involved in Quality Circles and evaluate the advantages and disadvantage of Quality Circles.
(ans ) Quality Circles (QC’s):
After the colossal destruction in World War-II, Japan became notorious for the poor quality of its goods. “Made in Japan” became a synonym for shoddy goods. The Japanese started searching for ways to improve quality. Dr. Deming and Dr. Juran played a key role in this process. They trained Japanese supervisors thoroughly in the use of Statistical Quality Control (SQC) techniques. The supervisors disseminated this technology and exhorted the workers to use SQC in solving problems related to quality. This gave birth to the quality control movement in Japan in the early sixities. The Japanese exploited the SQC and quality circle philosophy to such an extent that their products became a major threat to sophisticated western products. Dr. Ishikawa Kaoru played a major role in launching this movement in Japan.
Quality Circle Defined:
1. Philip Thomson: “A quality circle is a small group of employees from the same work area who meet regularly and voluntarily to identify, solve and implement solutions to work related problems.”
2. A quality circle is a group of people from the same work area, coming together voluntarily to identify, work-area problems, analyse them and find solutions.
Process of Quality Circles:
In the QC philosophy, the circle members identify the work area problems, analyses them and find solutions. It aims to achieve the objectives through the development of people, the most important asset of an organization.
The Process of QC’s involves:
1. Problem Collection: The creation of a problem bank is one of the primary tasks that the circle members perform. Each problem bank is given a priority number depending on its benefit potential and urgency. Problem collection is an on-going process.
2. Problem Analysis: Problem analysis depends on facts and not on feelings. A good number of data collection tools, charts and statistical techniques to establish facts, before proceeding to find solutions. Subjective opinions have no place in this philosophy.
3. Problem Solution: A proper environment and group thinking together with expertise in work area generate appropriate solutions to problems. Various alternative solutions are explored and the optimum solution is chosen. Experience shows the people involved in a work area are the best equipped to solve its problems and their solutions are feasible and practical.
4. Management Presentation: The solutions chosen by the circle members are presented to the management, highlighting the benefits anticipated. Acceptance of the solution acts as a powerful motivator.
5. Implementation, review and follow up: After getting the sanction of the management, the circle members chalk out a schedule for the implementation of the solutions. The results are constantly reviewed and follow-up action is taken if required. In fact, review and follow-up is a continuing responsibility of the circle.
Benefits of Quality Circles
There are no financial rewards in the QC’s. But there are many other gains, which primarily benefit the individual and in turn, benefit the organization. These are:
1. Self-development: QC’s facilitate self-development of individuals by bringing about attitudinal change, improving self-confidence and a sense achievement.
2. Social development: QC is a participative and consultative programme where each member interacts with others. This interaction helps in developing team-spirit.
3. Opportunity to acquire knowledge: QC members have an opportunity for acquiring new knowledge by sharing ideas, opinions and experience.
4. Potential Leader: Every individual gets an opportunity to develop his leadership potential, since any member can become a leader.
5. Improved communication skills: The joint problem solving and presentation before the management helps the members to improve their communication skills. Non-attainment of cherished objectives due to poor communication is, thus, avoided.
6. Job satisfaction: QC’s encourage creativity by tapping the dormant intellectual skills of the people. Individuals also perform activities different from routine work, which boosts their self-confidence and gives them immense job satisfaction.
7. Healthy work environment: QC’s generates a tension-free environment which each members likes, understands and co-operates with others.
8. Organizational benefits: The individual benefits generates a synergistic effect, leading to higher productivity, better quality, reduction in waste and cost effectiveness.
All these benefits are long-term in nature, which bring about improvements over a period of time.
Pitfalls of QC’s / Essentials of effective QC’s
1. Unconditional Support: The top management should offer unconditional support to the QC movement. Lack of support or its withdrawal at a later date leaves the circles at a loose end. The support should also be made visible, by the top managers by participating frequently in the QC activities.
2. Prompt approval: The acceptable recommendations of the circle should be promptly approved to boost the enthusiasm of members. If the recommendations are not accepted or delayed, reason for the same should be explained to the members.
3. Long-term approach: The objectives intended to be achieved can be achieved over a period of time, QC’s are a long-term approach. Overnight miracles can’t be achieved in QC’s.
4. Proper orientation: The QC philosophy should be appreciated by one and all. For this a proper orientation at all levels needs to be undertaken. This will help in increasing everybody’s involvement in the movement.
5. Morale trickles from the top: The top management should praise the work of the members. This boosts the morale of the members and helps in sustaining their continued enthusiasm. The principle to be remembered is that morale trickles from the top.
6. Expenditure scrutiny: The top management should get the cost – benefit analysis done expeditiously. Delays can demotivate the members.
7. Dispel fears: The middle management often entertains fears like losing importance, becoming redundant, being exposed, etc. The top level needs to take steps in this direction and ensure that such fears are dispelled.
8. Identify of interests: Middle management co-operation and identify of interests with circles is important. Lack of understanding of objectives lead to diversity of interests and to misdirected goals.
9. Regular communication: The communication channels should be kept open to ensure the success of QC. Communication gap can lead to misinformation or no information between different people involved in the QC operations.
Also there should be no language barrier. Training should be conducted in a common language.
10. Proper environment: A proper environment with mutual trust, faith and respect is necessary for QC’s to thrive.
11. Effective leader: The success of a QC depends largely on the leader. He has to take initiative, be tolerant, appreciate the objectives, motivate the members and foster a feeling of oneness. He should also own responsibility for the action of the QC.
Ques.5: (a) What is Manpower Planning? Explain the various steps involved in Manpower Planning.
Ans 5 (a) Man Power Planning Definition:
Vetter defines man Power Planning as “the process by which Management determines how the organization should move from its current man power position to desired manpower position. Through planning, management strives to have the right time, doing things which result in both the organization and individual receiving maximum long run benefits.”
According to Gordon McBeath, Man Power Planning is concerned with two things:
1 Planning of Manpower requirements
2 Planning of Manpower supplies.
Manpower Planning Steps
The need to anticipate and provide for future manpower requirements has made manpower planning a vital function today in the area of staffing or the personnel function. In large organizations, where a personnel department exists, such department as a staff function naturally performs this function. Systematic manpower planning has not yet become really popular even in advanced countries such as USA and UK, being practiced there only by a few huge companies in large-scale industries such as petroleum and chemicals. Observing the following three steps can basically do manpower planning:
First step, determine the period for forecasting requirements of manpower in the future (i.e., requirements at the end of the first year, second year, third year, fourth year, fifth year, etc.) and forecast the manpower required at the end of such period.
Second step, from the number available at the commencement of the period, deduct the expected wastage through deaths, resignations, retirements and discharges. This would give the manpower available from existing staff at the end of the period concerned. A comparison of the figures arrived at in steps first and second, would indicate shortages or surpluses in manpower requirements.
Third step, (a) In case of shortages, decide how such shortages are to be met (i.e., whether through fresh recruitment and/or promotions from within) and whether any training or developmental facilities would be required for this purpose. (b) If surpluses are anticipated, decide how these surpluses will be dealt with like through early retirements, discharge, or lay offs.
Manpower planning thus seeks to ensure that the required personnel possessing the necessary skills are available at the right time. As Dr. Ram Tarneja emphasizes, “Management can ensure control of labor costs by avoiding both shortages and surpluses or manpower proper manpower planning. “He stresses that under-estimation either regarding quality of quantity of manpower requirements would lead to shortfalls of performance. Whilst over estimation would result in avoidable costs to the organization. Whist agreeing that it is necessary to project deep into the future for skills which would require longer periods of training. He warns that if the periods selected are too long, manpower forecasts are likely to be less accurate in view of the inability to predict effectively the likely changes in the economic, social and technological spheres.
With this caution in mind, forecasts can be made for a short-term up to two years, medium term for periods 3-5 years and long-term periods longer than 5 years. However, a reasonable degree of accuracy can only be expected in case of short-term forecasts up to 2 years. Even, such forecast should be periodically reviewed and readjusted.
(b) What is meant by Human Resource Planning?
Ans.5.(b): Human Resource Planning
The actual HRM process starts with the estimation of the number and the type of people needed. The HRM process never stops. It is an ongoing process that tries to keep the organization supplied with the right people in the right positions at the right time. Human resource planning is a sub-system of this process.
Human Resource Planning Defined:
1. Leap and Crime: “HRP includes the estimation of how many qualified people are necessary to carry out the assigned activities. How many people will be available, and what, if anything, must be done to ensure that personnel supply equals personnel demand at the appropriate point in the future”.
2. De Cenzo and Robbins:”HRP is the process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number and kinds of people, at the right place, capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will help the organization achieve its overall objectives.”
3. Stoner and Freeman: :HRP is planning for the future personnel needs of an organization, taking into account both internal activities and factors in the external environment.”
HRP has four basic aspects:
Planning has future needs by deciding how many people, with what skills, the organization will need.
(I) Planning for future balance by comparing the number of employees needed to the number of present employees who can be expected to stay with the organization.
(II) Planning for recruiting employees if the number exceeds the number of present employees or laying-off employees if the number needed is less than the number of present employees.
(III) Planning for the development of employees, to be sure the organization has a steady supply of experienced and capable personnel.
Question 6(a) : Explain how the training needs can be identified?
Ans: 6)(a) Identification of Training needs
Criticism about trainers is that they conduct training programmes on the basis of what they know rather than the trainees need. Thus, an expert in marketing on a rotational assignment as Training Manager would keep on conducting training programmes on marketing without even thinking whether such programmes are needed or not. This not only wastes a scarce corporate resource but, also holds the training profession up for ridicule.
The second most important role of a trainer would be to concentrate on the identification of the real training needs. Conducting training programmes for the sake of improving training related statistics on increasing training budgets will not produce good results. What is required is that trainers should assume the role of the training-need-identifiers. They should develop sophisticated training need identification skills and only the right type of training programme could be designed.
Jorge Chapiro, a Management Consultant, who works in Buenos Airs, Argentina and Sao Paulo, Brazil, has done excellent work in this area. He has developed what has come to be referred to as the Supervisory Skill Level Survey, also known as SSL Technology. It is a method of measuring objectively the training needs of a company’s supervisors through well-designed psychometric tests. This was developed through test on 5000 supervisors in 75 of Brazil’s largest companies including General Motors, Fiat, Norton, AUG, Telefunken and Massey Ferguson. Te tests were repeated in the US under the auspices of the American Society for Training & Development.
The idea behind SSL is that companies could obtain a good understanding of training supervisors by comparing their performance with that of several thousand supervisors in other companies. The supervisors have to spend three hours answering a 400- statement questionnaire. Typical of these statement are the following:
1 Objectives are always attained when planning is good.
2 Subordinates need not participate in discussion and preparation of all changes undertaken.
3 A supervisor has no responsibility to teach his subordinates safety measures. The organization should provide specialists for that purpose.
4 It is almost impossible to motive people in situation where there is disagreement, however, slight.
The final judgments that have to be made on many of the questions gradually reveal the basic attitudes each supervisor has towards his role. The large number of responses is necessary to establish the consistency of the supervisors reactions. This ensures that the attitudes and this test helps in determining who should be trained in what. Each of the 11 performance areas has an accompanying training module.
These modules are on
1 Training Subordinates
5 Planning and Programming
6 Introduction of Change
7 Work Environment
10 Human Relations
11 Union Relations
The key to the whole programme ties in the initial identification of the Supervisor’s weaknesses. The computerized results usually hold a number of surprises for all. Experience shows that very seldom does a supervisor needs training in more than areas. The outcome is that training costs are reduced considerably quite frequently by 30% to 50%. Each supervisor gets what he specifically needs to improve the learning effectiveness.
Major sources of identifying training and development needs of individuals are performance appraisal, career plans and new system introduction/improvement.
In the performance appraisal system there is scope to identify the difference between the organization’s expectations and the individuals performance. Areas relating to knowledge, skill, attitude and behavior on the job, which need change, can be specifically assessed in the system. The identification comes from the employee himself or out of a discussion between the employee and senior who prepare the appraisal.
Generally, training need identification forms a part of management. Appraisal system. The needs identified are then collected and suitable training programmes designed to meet identified needs for different groups of managers.
Based on the advance information made available about changes in content/ context of the job of an individual, the training manager provides suitable inputs to prepare the individual for the change.
The details of the inputs to be given to the individual emerge from discussions the Training Manager has with the concerned employee and his supervisors, both present and future.
New systems and procedures, when introduced, call intervention from the Training & Development function, implementation of new systems becomes much easier., if all individuals/groups concerned are explained in advance about the change and how to derive the maximum benefit from it.
If more and more employees become aware of the functions of the Training Department, it would increase the free flow of communication between the Training Department and other employees. This would help in better identification of training needs.
6(b) : Explain how the results of training can be evaluated?
Ans 6 (b): Evaluate the Results of Training
Trainers today are so busy conducting training programmes that they have no time to find out what results their training efforts have produced. There is a famous joke about training effectiveness.
On a request from the King a trainer agrees to teach the king’s horse to fly within a year. To this surprise and apprehensive friends, he says: why worry’ within a year many things could happen. The King could die, or I could die. Or who knows, the horse might fly”.
Thus training programmes are conducted in the hope that they will have some effect.
No doubt measuring training effectiveness is a difficult job. However, this difficult job must be dome is to take somebody from outside the impact of some selected training programmes. He studies and makes a presentation to the line managers on the results obtained as a result of these training programmes.
Training evaluation is a must to enhance the effectiveness of training systems.
Goal Of Training
The goal of all job related training is to achieve long term improvements in the way employees do their jobs. How could this goal be best achieved? Dean Spitzer in a recent article published in Training makes interesting points, which should be remembered by every trainer interested in producing results through training. This is what he has to say.
Question 7(a): Examine the elements of succession planning?
Ans: 7 (a):
1 As a first step, management staffing plans should be developed. These plans should be prepared on an individual basis for all anticipated needs in the immediate year ahead and for key positions the intermediate and long-range future. The potential forecasts and overall manpower market forecasts should be reviewed and considered. The business plans should be reviewed to determine their effect on managerial needs. As business plans for both the near and the long term are developed, the organization plans and human resources forecasts should be formulated. Both of them can then be dovetailed into the staffing plans. This step is clear from the following illustration:
2 The second step concerns staffing and development. Staffing includes recruitment, selection and placement of candidates from outside. As well as selection and movement of present employees through promotion and transfer. Development of managerial personnel should be ensured through approaches such as formal training, both within the organization and outside, planned job rotation, performance planning and appraisal, counseling and coaching.
3 The third step concerns creation a congenial environment, where people give their best. The organizational environment should ensure the retention of the most desirable employees. In case the nominated successor quits, the whole exercise will have to be repeated. This will be a costly exercise.
4 The fourth step consists of doing appraisals. Appraisal and analysis of results achieved should provide an organization with essential feedback on the performance of managers. Potential appraisal done separately will provide feedback on the potential of these managers.
5 The last step in the succession planning exercise is the preparation of Management Resource inventory consisting of the following:
1 Personal data
5 Career Goals
6 Career Plans
This should help identify the best-qualified employees for filling present and future managerial vacancies.
7(b):Explain the advantages of promoting employee within the Organization rather than employing outside persons?
Ans7(b): Promotion from within
Familiarity breeds contempt. It is so true in the corporate sector. Whenever a vacancy comes up because of some manager retiring or resigning, top managers always think of bringing some body from outside. They have so little of faith in their own men and women and so much of it in outsider. Headhunters are called in to locate managers from competitors to succeed the retiring manager. What is the outcome of such an approach?
There are several adverse impacts on the organization. Firstly, managers lose faith in the fairness of the top management. The moment this feeling takes root in the minds of managers in general the productivity of the organization suffers. Secondly, many managers directly affected by the induction of a manager from outside decide to separate from the company rather than helplessly watch the injustice done to them. What starts as a trickle ultimately becomes an exodus. In the short run, it means increase in the recruitment, induction and training costs.
In the long run, it may mean fewer suitable candidates applying for jobs in the organization. In the absence of talent, the organization gets caught in the mediocrity trap and its long-term growth and prosperity are hampered. Thirdly, many a time a gang war starts in the organization to oust the “outsider”. It happened sometime back in very prestigious and professionally managed organization.
In the absence of a succession plan, the Chief Executive was brought in from another professionally managed organization. There were competent managers within, but they were not considered. It was a high-profile recruitment finalized by an intentional selection committee after global advertisements. The candidate selected was really a brilliant one. He was an excellent leader. He could make an impact in no time. However, his brilliant itself unleashed forces within the organization. It was first these top mangers, who had missed the opportunity of becoming the chief executive , starting subtle rebellion. When the intensity of these rebellious forces intensified, the boss of the newly inducted chief executive, who was instrumental in bringing him, joined these forces. And this talented Chief Executive left. The rebellious top managers have been rewarded through promotions for staging the coup. The Chief Executive has started a new company
and is doing well. Everybody, has gained except the poor organization, which has remained stagnant. Its growth has been stifled. It has virtually lost the race to be in the big-league. The organization still continues to be divided in two camps. The gang-wars have stopped but some skirmishes do take place from time to time. After every such incident, a few talented senior managers leave, further depleting the already depleted talent pool of the organization.
Question: 8(a) : Explain the importance of Carrier Planning in Industry?
Ans: 8 (a) Career planning involves efforts on the part of the organization to provide avenues for growth to its employees. Certainly this growth should be companied by development. The other side of the coin is the role of employees in career planning. It involves efforts on the part of employees to clearly think through and decided areas in which they would like to make a career for themselves.
Research studies have indicated that certain attitudes formed early in life, guide people throughout their career. They ‘anchor’ an individual to one or a few related types of careers. Five such anchors have been identified:
Managerial Competence: The fundamental characteristics of the persons anchored by an overriding interest in management include a capacity to take considerable responsibility, ability, to influence and control others and skills in problem solving.
Technical-functional competence: Their primary interest is in the functional work. They consider managerial and administrative responsibilities as avoidable irritants. They will like to remain experts rather than become general managers.
Search for security: They are more attached to an organization or a location than to work. They do not want to hear anything against their organization. The only price to be paid by the organization is to keep them at the location of their choice.
Desire for creating and developing something new: Such individuals start a new business, less for making money than for creating a product that could be identified as theirs.
Freedom or Independence: They will like to work at their own place. They will like to choose their working hours. Freelance writes and consultants come under this category.
Knowledge of these career anchors helps in planning for career development.
8(b) : Carrier Planning and Succession Planning are very vital to meet the
challenges thrown by the forces of Globalization and Liberalization. Explain?
Ans 8 (b): Career Development Cycle
There are four stages of this cycle:
Exploratory stage: This stage starts when a new employee joins an organization. He gets a real shock. He finds a big gap between what an ideal organization should be and what it is. He finds that neither the education in the university nor the induction programme of the organization is able to prepare him fully for the job at hand. Alternatives for the initial training include a “swim or sink’ approach. Full time training with no job responsibility. And worthwhile training. However, the sooner the trainee is given a definite job assignment, the more rapidly he will develop.
Establishment stage : Once an individual has chosen a career., he requires regular feedback on his performance. A good career development plan should provide this feedback. The first performance appraisal, the first promotion and the successfully complete assignment are all very important occasions for a young employee.
Maintenance stage: In this stage, employees try to retain the name they have established in their career. In a fast changing world, this will require continuous efforts at self-development. This is the stage many face their mid-career crisis. Some start an entirely different career. In one case, an executive took to journalism at the age of 40. And he was quite successful.
Stage of decline: Impending retirement scares everybody. But it almost inevitable. Some planning for recruitment can ensure smooth transition, many organization conduct-training programmes for their retiring employees.
Career Need Assessment
Employees are often uncertain as to the type of work that would suit them best. There are a number of evaluation instruments available to determine basic aptitudes. Human Resources Development Managers should be able to guide employees by administering these instruments on them. Employees should think whether they value prestige, Independence, money or security. They should also find out whether they are loners or socially active. These exercises with some assistance from HRD managers should help in career need assessment.
Realizing that employees have definite career needs, organization should chart different career paths. Several examples of such career [paths chartered by a large public sector organization have been discussed. These should be made known to all the employees. As every employee wishes to see bright future for himself, these career paths do provide the hope to achieve success.
Question: 9(a): What is Job Evaluation? Explain the various methods used in
conducting Job Evaluation Studites.
Ans : 9(a): Introduction
Job evaluation is the process to determine in a systematic and analytical manner the comparative worth of job with an organization. The worth of job is determined in relation to other jobs in terms of the skill needed, responsibility involved, efforts required and the surroundings in which it is performed. Job evaluation attempts to measure these requirements for individual jobs and arrive at their respective worth and place them in their relative order.
Techniques of Job Evaluation
Many techniques are used for the measurement of jobs. All forms of job evaluation are designed to enable management to determine how much one job should be paid as compared to others. Basically all systems of job evaluation can be classified under two categories: 1) Non-quantitative 2) Quantitative. Simple ranking and grading are placed in non-quantitative while point system and factor comparison methods are under quantitative category. The most widely used method is point system and the least is ranking system. One company can apply two methods for two different types of jobs. But, generally, all the four methods are useful and real effectiveness of any method would depend on how best they are applied. Thomas Atkinson and Wendell Frech tried to inter-correlate these four systems and found inter-correlation to be as high as 0.94.
1. Job Ranking: This method is widely used in small organizations. Being a very simple and not expensive method, it also consumed less time and promises enough potential in its usefulness. Before actual ranking, brief job descriptions of all the jobs are taken. Then the Job’s relative worth, without any other consideration is taken. In the beginning of the process, the highest and lowest jobs are determined which serve as the bench marks for the ranking of the remainder. The second method is the paired comparison technique in which each job is to be compared with all other jobs.
Once the comparison is done, jobs are arranged according to their worth. In this technique, the main idea is to rank jobs in order of their worth. The simplicity of this method is rather deceptive.
2. Job Grading: In ranking we do not have pre-decided scale of values, but here thee is one yardstick consisting of job classes. In this approach, job factors approach is not considered. Jobs are rather measured as whole.
A scale of values consisting of grades and grade description is prepared. Job grades are determined for a category of jobs. From this, the grade descriptions are prepared which should be broad enough to include several jobs. Such grade descriptions cover job description as well.
Two approach are used in preparing grade description on which help to create a single scale of values for measuring the worth of a job. For example, in an enterprise, Job A and B are similar in nature and job X,Y,Z are of similar nature. Another approach is to give some known key jobs.
3. Factor comparison System: Improved method of ranking systems is known as factor comparison system where job factors are compared rather than the whole job. It consists of the following steps:
a) Selection of job characteristics.
b) Selection of key jobs.
c) Determination of correct rates of key jobs.
d) Ranking key jobs under each job factor.
e) Allocation of correct rate to each key job.
f) Evaluation of all other jobs.
g) Designing, Adjusting and Operating the wage structure.
The first three steps are quite similar to that of point system. While the fourth one, is the ranking of all the key jobs, to a particular factor at a time. For example, suppose job A,B,C,D,E constitute key jobs. They are ranked in such a way that one factor is considered at a time.
4. Point Rating System: This system is widely used in job evaluation. It is quantifying, analytical and detailed approach hammered out to derive a balanced wage structure with least dispute among employees. This method consists of the following steps.
h) Select job factors or features.
i) Prepare yardstick of value for each job factor.
j) Decide the value of all the jobs against the predetermined yardstick.
k) Build a wage survey for selected key jobs.
l) Design the wage structure.
m) Adjust and operate the wage structure.
9(b): What is meant by HRD Audit?
Ans: 9 (b) : Need for HRD Audit
In the last two decades a large number of corporations have established HRD departments, introduced new systems of HRD, made structural changes in terms of differentiating the HRD function and integrating it with the HR function. A good number of CEOs saw a hope in HRD for most of their problems, issues and challenges. It is estimated that on an average, establishing a new HRD department with a small size of about five professionally trained staff costs about two million rupees per annum in terms of salaries, another ten million in terms of budget (e.g. Training budget, travel etc.) and probably about five to 10 times the amount in terms of managerial time costs and opportunity costs. This is because HR systems are people intensive and require a lot of managerial time.
Inspite of these investments in a number of corporations, there is a widespread feeling that HRD has not lived upto the expectations of either the top management or the line managers. There are also examples of corporations where HRD has taken the driver’s seat and has given a lot of benefits. In today’s competitive world `people’ or employees can give a good degree of competitive advantage to the company. To get the best out of the HR function, there should be a good alignment of the functions – its strategies, structure systems, and styles – with business (e.g. financial and customer parameters). It should be aligned both with the shorterm goals and long-term strategies. If it is not aligned, the HR function can become a big liability to corporations and they will have no alternative but to close their HR departments. Besides this alignment, the skills and styles of the HR staff, line managers and top management should be in synergy with the HR goals and strategies. HRD audit is an attempt to assess these alignment and ensure that they take place.
HRD audit is a comprehensive evaluation of the current HRD strategies, structure, systems, styles and skills in the context of the short and long-term business plans of a company. It attempts to find out the future HRD needs of the company after assessing the current HRD activities and inputs. In the last few years the author alongwith his colleague Udai Pareek pioneered, in India, a methodology for auditing the HRD function called HRD audit and implemented in many companies.
HRD audit is a comprehensive evaluation of the current HRD strategies structure, systems styles and skills in the context of the short and long-tyerm business plans of a company. It provides inputs required to assess all aspects of HRD and assign the HRD score for the company on a number of dimensions. Its main objective is to align the HR function (structure, systems and processes) with business goals or
to create a business-driven HR function. Since it incomprehensive, it uses a variety of methods including interviews, observation, secondary data analysis, workshops. It has to be business-driven and comprehensive. There are numerous reasons why companies go for HRD audit, the main ones being growth and diversification, promoting professionalism, improving HRD strategies and enhancing the direct contribution of HRD to business. Experience has shown HRD audit to have tremendous impact on business in areas of strategic planning, role clarity, streamlining practices, better policies, top management styles, improvement in HRD systems, focus on competence and TQM interventions. However, proper implementation and top management support are both very crucial for its success.
Q 10 (a) Explain the nature of Human Resource Development . Examine its nature & scope.
Ans) HRD is the process of increasing knowledge , capabilities and positive work attitudes of all people working at all levels in a business undertaking.
HRD is matching the organizations needs for human resources with the individual needs for personal career growth & development.
Nature & scope of HRD:-
The dynamic environment in which an organization functions demands regular updating of job requirements. This is necessary to insure an adequate number of qualified persons for the changed job. Its scope can be understood with reference to the following points:-
1) HRD is a system made up of mutually dependent parts . Therefore the design of the system cannot be considered in isolation . It must take into account its linkages with other parts of the organization.
2) HRD is a proactive function. Its function is not merely to cope with the needs of the organization, but to anticipate them and to act on them in advance in a continuous & planned way.
3) HRD aims at developing the capabilities of all line managers so that they can increasingly handle functions like industrial relations , reward and punishment, performance appraisal etc.
4) HRD emphasizes on building the right work culture in the organization. The work culture should identify, nurture and use the capabilities of the people.
5) HRD emphasizes a lot on the need to motivate people . It considers informal organization, job enrichment , participative management as motivating forces.
6) HRD considers that the better utilization of human resources leads to improved performance. This in turn leads to increased job satisfaction and morale.
Q 10 (b ) What constitutes good HR practices ? What is its impact on the organizational performance.
Ans) Any practice that deals with enhancing competencies , commitment and culture building can be considered an HR practice. The practice can take the form of a system, a process, an activity, a norm, a rule an accepted or expected habit , or just a way of doing things. HRD has been defined as essentially consisting of these three Cs :-
All three are needed to make an organization function well. Without competencies many tasks of the organization may not be completed cost effectively or with optimal efficiency. Without commitment they may not be done at all or are done at such a slow pace that they loose relevance . Without an appropriate culture organizations cant live.
Competencies are not merely related to single individuals . They can also be related to pairs of individuals .Competencies may also relate to pairs of individuals . This includes departments, task forces, teams and other informal groups and teams that may come into existence from time to time on a temporary , semi permanent or permanent basis . Competencies may be related to an organization as a whole. They may also deal with various areas and functions : technology , organization and management , behavioral , conceptual etc. They may also include a variety of skills and abilities ranging from simple awareness , knowledge and information to highly sophisticated ones.
Developing commitment has a lot to do with motivation and work habits. Commitment is indicated by work effort. Commitment building should be continuous and should be a part of life. Commitment should be at the level of individuals, dyads, teams, work unit, and the entire organization. Various HR systems contribute towards developing commitment among employees. At the more visible level , rewards , recognition and similar interventions can lead to greater culture.
A strong culture can have a lasting effect and provide sustenance to an organization . It gives a sense of pride and identity to individuals and teams. It enhances predictability , reduces transactional costs and also contributes to commitment. However the culture and values associated with an organization need to be appreciated and well articulated. The instruments of culture building include organizational climate surveys, total quality management interventions, value clarification exercises , vision , mission workshops, organizational – renewal exercises and various other organization development interventions.
Good HR practices are those that contribute to one or more of the three Cs . They need to be identified and implemented cost effectively, reviewing and revising them from time to time to enhance their effectiveness and appropriateness.
Impact of good HR practices:-
A lot of evidence linking organizational effectiveness with good HR practices comes from case studies of HR practices and organizational performance. The National HRD Network and Confederation of Indian industries has been giving HRD awards for organizations that have outstanding HR practices.
About 90 % of the award winning companies have continued to grow and expand in spite of having to face a turbulent environment in the recent past. They have shown that they have the wherewithal to withstand all kinds of turbulence including the onslaught of globalization after having been in a protected environment for several years. Most of these companies exhibit the following characteristics:-
1) They seem to have capability to cope well with leadership changes.
2) They seem to have coped well with changes due to liberalization and have even exploited the opportunities to their advantage.
3) All the companies seem to have attempted to meet the challenges to liberalization by becoming customer oriented.
4) Most of these organizations seem to demonstrate that they are changing and learning organizations.
5) Most of them have used their HR departments to initiate and manage changes.
6) These organizations have heavily invested in training and some of them have even established new training centers.
7) They have integrated well the personnel and HRD functions.
Although the above generalizations are based on impressionistic data , a scientific study may not reveal too different a picture. The only scientific study in this field has been made by Abraham. Who surveyed 68 Indian organizations. He measured various elements of HRD profile of these organizations including performance management, training, career planning, promotions, autonomy. Abraham has also constructed an index of growth of the companies profitability as a measure of organizational performance. He found that the perception of the HRD climate was more important than the HRD practice itself.
This evidence is sufficient to indicate that good HR practices do matter . However the relationship between good HR practices and organizational effectiveness is not simple. It is not that all one has to do is to have good HR practices and everything else will automatically follow. Though good HR practices can ensure a number of things . They can lend a competitive advantage to a company if other things are equal. There are other variables that need to be kept in mind which are location of the company, economic policies.