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Marketing Research of DirecTV Group -
April 1st, 2011
The DIRECTV Group, Inc. (NASDAQ: DTV) is an American direct broadcast satellite television company formerly known as Hughes Electronics
Hughes Electronics was formed in 1985 when Hughes Aircraft was sold by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to GM for $ 5.2 billion. General Motors merged Hughes Aircraft with its Delco Electronics unit to form Hughes Electronics.
The group then consisted of: Delco Electronics Corporation, Hughes Aircraft Company, and Hughes Space & Communications Company.
Hughes Electronics founded DIRECTV.
Hughes Electronics and PanAmSat agreed to merge their fixed satellite services into a new publicly held company, also called PanAmSat with Hughes Electronics as majority shareholder.
GM transferred Delco Electronics to its Delphi Automotive Systems business.
The aerospace and defense operations of Hughes Electronics (Hughes Aircraft) were merged with Raytheon. The remaining companies remained under the Hughes Electronics name and within GM.
Hughes Electronics Corporation sold.
ce the general purpose of research is determined, the researcher’s next job is to decide what specific information he or she wants to obtain. Many in the market research field believe this is the most critical step in the research process since it provides guidance on what must be accomplished. While the purpose identified in Step 1 may be determined relatively quickly (e.g., sale reports shows an obvious problem that needs to be explained), in Step 2 the researcher may spend a considerable amount of time deciding what to study. For instance, the researcher may engage in numerous conversations with company personal to insure that she/he understands the circumstances facing those requesting the research.
But identifying what needs to be learned is not always easy. For example, saying a drop in sales in a region is the problem does not tell the researcher much since declining sales is a symptom with the real problem resting in some other area. In situations where the party needing the research has trouble articulating what is needed the researcher must probe the client for more details until they can uncover what information is really needed. Doing this helps the researcher decide what to study and, more specifically, what concepts to include in the research (i.e., what questions to ask, what variables to study).
Determining what is to be learned is also important in helping market researchers envision the scope and demands of what must be done. The scope of a research project refers to the amount of information needed. If the scope is too large the researcher may find that it is not worth carrying out the research since they lack the resources to accomplish the goal. Alternatively, knowing in advance what is needed may give the researcher the opportunity to break a larger project into smaller, more manageable parts.
The demands of the project refer to what users of the information (e.g., marketing manager, clients) seek from the research. Most demands revolve around issues related to: acquiring information (e.g., want information that is useable); timing of the research (e.g., want information as quickly as possibly), limits on methods that can be used (e.g., may not allow certain questions be asked) and funding (e.g., limited research money). Again, knowing this in advance can help the researcher design the research plan.
variables. For example, a research question might be: "Do flexible work hours improve employee productivity?" Another question might be: "How do flexible hours influence employees' work?"
A hypothesis differs from a research question; it is more specific and makes a prediction. It is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. The major difference between a research question and a hypothesis is that a hypothesis predicts an experimental outcome. For example, a hypothesis might state: "There is a positive relationship between the availability of flexible work hours and employee productivity."
Hypotheses provide the following benefits:
They determine the focus and direction for a research effort.
Their development forces the researcher to clearly state the purpose of the research activity.
They determine what variables will not be considered in a study, as well as those that will be considered.
They require the researcher to have an operational definition of the variables of interest.
The worth of a hypothesis often depends on the researcher's skills. Since the hypothesis is the basis of a research study, it is necessary for the hypothesis be developed with a great deal of thought and contemplation. There are basic criteria to consider when developing a hypothesis, in order to ensure that it meets the needs of the study and the researcher. A good hypothesis should:
Have logical consistency. Based on the current research literature and knowledge base, does this hypothesis make sense?
Be in step with the current literature and/or provide a good basis for any differences. Though it does not have to support the current body of literature, it is necessary to provide a good rationale for stepping away from the mainstream.
Be testable. If one cannot design the means to conduct the research, the hypothesis means nothing.
Be stated in clear and simple terms in order to reduce confusion.
HYPOTHESIS TESTING PROCESS
Hypothesis testing is a systematic method used to evaluate data and aid the decision-making process. Following is a typical series of steps involved in hypothesis testing:
State the hypotheses of interest
Determine the appropriate test statistic
Specify the level of statistical significance
Determine the decision rule for rejecting or not rejecting the null hypothesis
Collect the data and perform the needed calculations
Decide to reject or not reject the null hypothesis
Each step in the process will be discussed in detail, and an example will follow the discussion of the steps.
STATING THE HYPOTHESES.
A research study includes at least two hypotheses—the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. The hypothesis being tested is referred to as the null hypothesis and it is designated as H It also is referred to as the hypothesis of no difference and should include a statement of equality (=, ≥, or £). The alternative hypothesis presents the alternative to the null and includes a statement of inequality (≠). The null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis are complementary.
The null hypothesis is the statement that is believed to be correct throughout the analysis, and it is the null hypothesis upon which the analysis is based. For example, the null hypothesis might state that the average age of entering college freshmen is 21 years.
H 0 The average age of entering college freshman = 21 years
If the data one collects and analyzes indicates that the average age of entering college freshmen is greater than or less than 21 years, the null hypothesis is rejected. In this case the alternative hypothesis could be stated in the following three ways: (1) the average age of entering college freshman is not 21 years (the average age of entering college freshmen ≠ 21); (2) the average age of entering college freshman is less than 21 years (the average age of entering college freshmen < 21); or (3) the average age of entering college freshman is greater than 21 years (the average age of entering college freshmen > 21 years).
The choice of which alternative hypothesis to use is generally determined by the study's objective. The preceding second and third examples of alternative hypotheses involve the use of a "one-tailed" statistical test. This is referred to as "one-tailed" because a direction (greater than [>] or less than [<]) is implied in the statement. The first example represents a "two-tailed" test. There is inequality expressed (age ≠ 21 years), but the inequality does not imply direction. One-tailed tests are used more often in management and marketing research because there usually is a need to imply a specific direction in the outcome. For example, it is more likely that a researcher would want to know if Product A performed better than Product B (Product A performance > Product B performance), or vice versa (Product A performance < Product B performance), rather than whether Product A performed differently than Product B (Product A performance ≠ Product B performance). Additionally, more useful information is gained by knowing that employees who work from 7:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. are more productive than those who work from 3:00 p.m. to 12:00 a.m. (early shift employee production > late shift employee production), rather than simply knowing that these employees have different levels of productivity (early shift employee production ≠ late shift employee production).
Both the alternative and the null hypotheses must be determined and stated prior to the collection of data. Before the alternative and null hypotheses can be formulated it is necessary to decide on the desired or expected conclusion of the research. Generally, the desired conclusion of the study is stated in the alternative hypothesis. This is true as long as the null hypothesis can include a statement of equality. For example, suppose that a researcher is interested in exploring the effects of amount of study time on tests scores. The researcher believes that students who study longer perform better on tests. Specifically, the research suggests that students who spend four hours studying for an exam will get a better score than those who study two hours. In this case the hypotheses might be:
''Many people believe that the goal of a marketing research and its system should be improve the 'quality of life', range, accessibility and cost of goods and the quality of the cultural environment. They would judge marketing systems not solely by the amount of direct consumer satisfaction that is created, but by the impact of marketing activity on the quality of the physical and cultural environment. Most people would agree that quality of life is a worthwhile goal for the marketing system''. (Kotler, 1986, p. 21) There had been major change in the direction of marketing development and discipline and sometimes sole orientation was the managerial thrust. The discipline of marketing management evolved with its focus on company sales and profits by providing products and
services that satisfy consumers in an efficient manner, arriving at marketing decisions as well as responsibilities in such areas as health and welfare, quality of life and civil rights are being investigated.
Moreover, childhood is the time when important elements of self-esteem are established in personality. Numerous studies associate a strong sense of self-esteem with the child's feeling of control over his environment. The inculcation of a sense of enforced helplessness may thus have more damaging results in a child than in an adult. Second, adult patients are beginning to act as their own through the healthcare consumer movement and to seek changes in the system of adult health-care delivery. Thus, how the children are treated in the hospital and the manner of attempting to reveal the contradictions between the institutional goals and the caring goals of hospitals is critical. The ailments that bring children to hospitals vary with the age of the child. Infants are particularly vulnerable to infections and respiratory diseases per se. Children's hospitals are also wavered under present regulations. Nevertheless, the hospitals are responding to a number of pressures for change. Furthermore, Kosair Crippled Children's Hospital opened on Eastern Parkway and rapidly established itself as the region's premier orthopedic and polio treatment facility. For decades, the hospital's doctors, nurses and therapists helped children benefit from advances in orthopedic treatment and polio care discovered elsewhere and by helping discover new treatments.
Statement of the Research Problem
During the year 1923 in the country Kentucky, poverty was commonplace with the rampant presence of diseases mostly affecting children such as typhoid fever, polio and smallpox often reached killing or disabling their path. In the midst of despair, a group of Shriners shared an ambitious vision to prevent the ravages of these disabling diseases from the children of Kentucky and to provide the highest quality health care possible for children who had nowhere else to turn. Thus, such issues carry marketing activities well beyond the usual bounds of marketing research action and have a host of interesting questions and challenges for investigation by marketing practitioners in unfolding of the body of marketing knowledge, finding valid ways that marketing research is the cure for the children's ailments at Kosair Children's Hospital as the process calls for marketing research and the subsequent development of a well-conceived product and appeals moving through mass and specialized communication media through paid agents and voluntary groups to reach targeted audiences.
Is Marketing Research the Cure for Norton Healthcare Kosair Children's Hospital's Ailments