International Paper (NYSE: IP) is an American pulp and paper company, the largest such company in the world. It has approximately 51,500 employees, and it is headquartered in Memphis, Tennessee.
The significant impact of information technology on the role of the HR function also
began to emerge at this time. Indeed, as early as the 1960s payroll administration,
benefits administration and other applications such as record keeping were some of the
earliest business processes to be automated (Martinsons, 1994; Ball, 2001). Since then in
attempting to increase administrative efficiency and improve organisational decision
making HR has continued to merge new technology with old processes (Lengnick-Hall
and Moritz, 2003). The advent of employee self-service HR systems can potentially
reduce the administrative burden on HR professionals by allowing employees to
complete routine administrative tasks (such as applying for leave or updating personal
details) themselves. At its most developed it is argued that e-HR can “liberate the HR
function from its operational focus and redirects it towards a more strategic one”
(Lengnick-Hall and Moritz, 2003, p. 368).
It has been argued however that these developments amongst others have created a
more multifaceted and complex role for the HR function. They have resulted in a
number of role-ambiguities, which confront practitioners (Legge, 1995; Friedson, 1994).
Indeed this has led Torrington (1998) to argue that HRM may be a set of initials, but
that it is not a package like TQM and other management techniques. Rather “it is an
aspect of the way in which the personnel contribution is made, and there is no clear,
pre-determined formula for what it is or should be” (Torrington, 1998, p. 28). The role
ambiguities, which confront HR practitioners are summarised by Caldwell (2003,
p. 984) thus:
. Powerlessness or marginality in the managerial decision making process,
particularly at a strategic level.
. Difficulty in defining and maintaining the boundaries of their specialist expertise
from encroachment or control by managerial intervention.
. Lack of clarity or accountability in specifying the bottom line contribution of the
HR function; and finally.
. Tensions in sustaining an ethos of mutuality given the opposing interests of
employees and managers.
These ambiguities combined with the relatively low status held by HR professionals in
organisations have resulted in them assuming a chameleon like appearance
(Hope-Hailey et al., 1997), illustrated in the evolution of the HR role in the US and
Europe outlined above, and indeed Caldwell has noted that “Partly as a consequence of
these role ambiguities personnel managers have been past masters at reinventing or
reinterpreting their role in their efforts to maintain their credibility and status within a
changing world of work” (Caldwell, 2003, p. 984). As indicated earlier this debate is not
a product of the twenty first century. Writing in the late 1990s and referring
specifically to the transition from personnel to human resource management
Torrington (1998, p. 36) postulated that there is a “crisis of confidence among personnel
specialists . . . and there always has been” (see, Legge, 1978). He attributes this to the
difficulties of measuring the success of HR/personnel specialists, as their
success/failure is often the successes/failures of other people. He also points to a
crisis of identity because of the function’s changing characteristics from personnel to
HRM and the impacts of the ambiguity around this change. Finally turning to the
strategy versus operational debate he talks of a crisis of direction whereby the
traditional operational role of personnel specialists is being replaced by the strategic
role of their HR counterparts. Thus the role of the HR function appears to lack
theoretical bounding and is considered to constantly be in a state of flux.
Despite this crisis of confidence, or perhaps because of it, the very utility of an
established HR function has been questioned. Thus, while the great majority of
medium and larger organisations tend to employ a specialist HR function, recent years
have seen some questioning of its value and some consideration of the option of
managing without a specialist HR function (Paauwe, 1996). As organisations move to
“leaner” and “flatter” organisation structures, it is clear that the establishment of a
traditional personnel/HR function is no longer a seemingly inevitable consequence of
increases in organisation scale. In evaluating the option of managing without a formal
personnel/HR function, there appears to be two principal ways of carrying out the HR
(1) Devolvement of personnel/HR responsibilities to line management (internal
(2) Outsourcing HR activities to external contractors (external devolution).
The first route represents an extension of an ongoing debate about the optimal balance
of HR responsibilities between line management and the specialist HR function. Line
management have always played a key role in the execution of day-to-day HR
activities. However, what is different about the internal devolution argument is the
suggestion that line managers should play a greater role in policy development and
interpretation, in addition to their traditional role in carrying out HR activities. This
theme has developed concurrently with moves towards flatter organisation structures
and team working. Undoubtedly this development is important and will lead to a
changing division of labour between personnel and line management. However, it is
unlikely to lead to a widespread abolition of the HR function.
Possibly a more significant threat to the existence of a formal personnel/HR
function is that of outsourcing. The transaction cost model places considerable
emphasis on the so-called “make or buy” decision (Gunnigle, 1998). In this model, it is
argued that if a particular unit does not make a demonstrable added value contribution
to the organisation when compared to outsourcing, then such services should be
STEPS OF HR PROCESS:
The steps of hr process which are performed in are:
HR planning in hr management is a process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number & kind of people at the right place and at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that help the organization achieve its overall objectives.
It is the process of identifying the gap between what is the current business situation/ current manpower and what is the future business situation / manpower need and developing a plan to fill the gap with numbers of additional workers/staff / managers etc skills of different levels flexibility in job handling achieving equal employment opportunities experience- lifting the experience levels capabilities—
improving capabilities for performance increase potential of people training.
Forecasting future manpower requirements, where we use mathematical projections to project trends in the economic environment and development of the industry.
In . Planning and forecasting is not properly done. They don’t plan their future manpower needs. They don’t use any of the forecasting technique. They don’t predict their future human resource needs and how they will fill these needs.
They start their recruiting and selection procedure only when there is demand of the new employee for any of their department. If one of the in departments needs a new employee, the head of that department will send their need to HR department and the post name for which they are needing a new employee. Then, the HR department starts the recruitment campaign, by using the job description and job specification information.
Recruitment is a main part of any organization. If an organization cannot hire a competent employee for a specific job then they cannot improve their services. An unskilled or incompetent employee can cause a big loss for the company.
In , candidates are recruited from different sources. These are internal as well as external.
Employees are rehired according to needs of the job. Former employees are rehired for the benefit of the organization, as they know the organization’s culture style ant style, and ways of doing things.
• SUCCESSION PLANNING
company also emphasis on succession planning for high level jobs. They develop the skills of their employees’ for their higher jobs. This recruiting technique is very efficient for executive jobs.
company can’t get all the employees they need from their current staff, and sometimes they just don’t want to. So they have to use different external sources for recruitment. Which are
• Via internet
companies recruit the candidates via internet. For this purpose. They have registered their organization on the website; WWW.ROZZEE.COM.PK
They post their job ads on this website and the eligible candidates access them via this website and submit their C.Vs through internet and get the job.
company also recruit the people by advertising their job needs through media. Mostly, they use newspaper for this purpose. They advertise on daily local and national newspapers like JHUNG, JAZBA etc
• EMPLOYMENT AGENCY
company also has an agreement with an employment agency named GREENLAND AGENCY with provides the recruiting services to . They recruit and select the employees on behalf of . provides their manpower needs to the agency with their required human needs, then the agency select the best suitable employee for and gets the commission from .
• College recruiting
is also involved in college recruiting. They recruit and select the fresh students from colleges. They hire the technical students. For this purpose, they go to
o SWEDISH INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY(GRT)
o FARAN INSTITUTE OF TECHONOLOGY (GRT).
• Employee referrals
company hires their low level workers purely on the basis of the referrals of the employees already working there. Employees are asked to recommend a person for the job opening. As far as working staff concerns the workers in are employed on referral basis. The company basically needs the hard working workers. There is no need of any type of qualification. All they need is commitment of employees for their work. The existing employees used to give references of further employees if company needs. And the references of the workers with good background history and fine output records are given preferences over others
The quality of employee referrals is usually high. Employees usually only refer people t hat they are confident would be a good match for the position and organization.
People tend to recommend others with similar backgrounds. Therefore it is important to ensure that the practice of employee referrals does not lead to a decrease in diversity within your organization.
People recruited by your staff usually have some understanding of the work of the organization