| || |
Human Resource Management of Dollar General -
January 25th, 2011
Dollar General Corp. is a chain of variety stores operating in 35 U.S. states. The chain operates over 9,000 stores and is headquartered in Goodlettsville, Tennessee, a suburb of Nashville. The stores were founded in 1939 by Cal Turner in Scottsville, Kentucky as J.L. Turner & Son, Inc. In 1968 they changed the name to Dollar General Corporation. As of the third fiscal quarter of 2007, the company was acquired by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. (KKR), a private equity firm, who took the company public in 2009.[dead link]
Dollar General stores are typically in small shopping plazas or strip malls in local neighborhoods. The company acquired the 280 stores of the P.N. Hirsh Division of Interco, Inc. (now Furniture Brands International, Inc.) in 1983 and in 1985 added 206 stores and a warehouse from Eagle Family Discount Stores, also from Interco, Inc. In recent years, the chain has started constructing more stand-alone stores, typically in areas not served by another general-merchandise retailer. In some cases, stores are within a few city blocks of each other.
Family friendly policies 10 achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth. An absence of job satisfaction can lead to poor motivation, stress, absenteeism, and high labor. Job satisfaction is a multifaceted and complex notion that means different things to different individuals. Although job satisfaction is linked to motivation, the relationship between the two is not very clear because satisfaction is very different from motivation. Job satisfaction has more to do with a person's attitude. The United States has been witnessing, over the last few years, their slow but steady transformation from an industrial to a service-oriented society and America's labor force, today, is decidedly service-oriented. Over 70 per cent of the private labor force is working to supply services, and banks have been one of the 10 high-growth service industries (Schewe and Smith, 1983). The vitality of the banking industry and the performance of its employees are important for the economy of the U.S. as a whole. Strong correlations among the quality of work life factors and reduced absenteeism and turnover, high goal commitment, and increased performance and productivity have been established by several researchers (Curry, 1986; Futrell and Parasuraman, 1984; Motowidlo, 1984). Job satisfaction, which has been studied extensively, is a function of several important variables - especially the characteristics of the job itself (Hackman and Oldham, 1975), and the organizational climate (Litwin and Stringer, 1968). Job characteristics have been shown in many studies to influence the job satisfaction of employees (Rabinowitz and Hall, 1977). Various organizational climate factors such as communication, participation in decision- making, and stress have also been examined as to their relationship to job satisfaction and found to be significant predictors. While two-way communication (Bateman, 1977; Price, 1972) and participation in making job-related decisions
Expatriation is a multifaceted phenomenon influenced by individual and organizational factors. Individual factors are expatriate managers’ competencies, motivation, attitudes, beliefs and values, while, the parent and local companies’ approach to expatriation in aspects of preparation, planning, training and support are the organizational factors (Mendenhall and Kuhlman, 2001, p. 121). Shell is one of the companies that foster a high level of expatriation (Cameron, 2002). Shell has a long history of expatriate employment because it is fundamental to the nature of the company. Shell believes that expatriate staffs in all the businesses contribute to the growth and success of the company especially through the combination of competences and expertise of local staff and expatriate staff.
According to Fenwick and De Cieri (1995) and Hitchcock (1992), performance management is the process of transforming strategic objectives into action, monitoring progress, and rewarding results. Definitions of performance management as a holistic, or integrated, strategic approach, thus extending the concept beyond performance appraisal, are now in common use. For example, a process for establishing shared understanding about what is to be achieved, and approach to managing and developing people in a way which increases the probability that it will be achieved in the short and longer term
Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job.
The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be.
Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. J
design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance, methods include job
rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction
include the management style and culture, employee involvement,
empowerment and autonomous work groups. Job satisfaction is a very important
attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. The most common way
of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their
reactions to their jobs. Questions relate to rate of pay, work responsibilities,
variety of tasks, promotional opportunities the work itself and co-workers. Some questioners ask yes or no questions while others ask to rate satisfaction on 1-5 scale (where 1 represents "not at all satisfied" and 5 represents "extremely satisfied"). The concept of job satisfaction traditionally has been of great interest to soci
scientists concerned with the problems of work in an industrial society. A numbe
rof consequences have been shown to result from job satisfaction/dissatisfaction.
Despite the large number of studies that have dealt with these issues, however, there has been little accumulation of knowledge.
Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting fro
mthe appraisal of ones job;an affective reaction to ones job;and an attitude
towards ones job.
One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne
studies. These studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the
Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various conditions (most
notably illumination) on workers productivity. These studies ultimately showed
that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called
the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this increase resulted, not from
new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided
strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which paved the
way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction.
Scientific management (aka Taylorism) also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylors 1911 book, Principles of Scientifi cManagement, argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial production
philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework towards the more
modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial use of scientifi
cmanagement by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were
forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and
dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding jo
bsatisfaction. It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill S
Some argue that Maslows hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid
the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people see
kto satisfy five specific needs in life physiological needs, safety needs, social
needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories.
Models of job satisfaction
Edwin A. Lockes Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job
satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is
determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one hasin a
job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of
work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how
satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/arent met. When aperson
values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly
impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when
expectations are not met), compared to one who doesnt value that facet. Toillustr
ate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is
indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a
position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a positionw
ith little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that
too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction
more a worker values that facet.
Dispositional Theory Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is a verygeneral theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of
ones job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light
of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across career
sand jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of jo
bsatisfaction. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the
Core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judgeargued t
hat there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine ones disposition
towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control,
neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value onep
laces on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in ones own
competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of contro
l(believing one has control over her\his own life, as opposed to outside forcesha
ving control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction.
Last edited by netrashetty; January 25th, 2011 at 12:47 PM..