Discuss Human Resource Management of Apple Inc. within the Human Resources Management (H.R) forums, part of the PUBLISH / UPLOAD PROJECT OR DOWNLOAD REFERENCE PROJECT category; Apple Computer, Inc. is an American multinational corporation that designs and markets consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. The ...
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Human Resource Management of Apple Inc.
Human Resource Management of Apple Inc. - January 22nd, 2011
Apple Computer, Inc. is an American multinational corporation that designs and markets consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. The company's best-known hardware products include the Macintosh line of computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad. Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system; the iTunes media browser; the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software; the iWork suite of productivity software; Aperture, a professional photography package; Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products; Logic Studio, a suite of music production tools; and iOS, a mobile operating system. As of August 2010[update], the company operates 301 retail stores in ten countries, and an online store where hardware and software products are sold. As of May 2010[update], Apple is one of the largest companies in the world and the most valuable technology company in the world, having surpassed Microsoft.
Established on April 1, 1976 in Cupertino, California, and incorporated January 3, 1977, the company was previously named Apple Computer, Inc., for its first 30 years, but removed the word "Computer" on January 9, 2007, to reflect the company's ongoing expansion into the consumer electronics market in addition to its traditional focus on personal computers. As of September 2010[update], Apple had 46,600 full time employees and 2,800 temporary full time employees worldwide and had worldwide annual sales of $65.23 billion.
For reasons as various as its philosophy of comprehensive aesthetic design to its distinctive advertising campaigns, Apple has established a unique reputation in the consumer electronics industry. This includes a customer base that is devoted to the company and its brand, particularly in the United States. Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in 2008, and in the world in 2008, 2009, and 2010. The company has also received widespread criticism for its contractors' labor, environmental, and business practices
A job description indicates the undertakings, obligations and restraints that are all a part of any venture. It identifies what is done, why it is done, where it is done, and briefly, how it is done (Mathis & Jackson 2007, p. 221). The description of the job is done by elaborating the tasks to be performed, equipment to be used, the working conditions and the performance standards (Dessler et al 2007, p.100). According to Stone a good job description should elucidate and focus on the job and the position and not on any particular individual that fills that position (Stone 2005).
2.1 Job Summary
Aspirants having established credentials and performance history in the field of freighting or shipping, along with complicated and intricate client related matters within limited timeframes and meeting deadlines are favored by Apple. This requires active involvement and participation on behalf of the project manager in matters such as industry or company evaluation, operational blueprint reviews and consultations, statistics structuring meets, experimentation, proof-of-concept, management of dealer relations, etc.
• Oversee all aspects of project information for multiple projects including timelines, resource allocation, scope and definition
• Drive business, functional, financial, and reporting requirements, often writing them yourself
• Own overall cross-functional project schedules including development on the iTunes Store, back-end financial systems, and other Apple groups
• Collaborate with IS&T, Treasury, legal, Tax, finance, operations and other organizations both within and outside of Apple to develop solutions for partnerships and promotions and other new business.(Apple Inc. 2009)
• At least 4 years of project management in software development.
• Outstanding communication and presentation skills, written and verbal, at multiple levels of the organization.
• Ability to participate in and possibly facilitate requirements brainstorming sessions.
• Strong technical proficiency: server architecture and development, SQL, and bonus for past programming experience.
• E-Commerce and business experience: orders, billing, tax, payments, invoicing, royalties, licensing, etc.
• Digital media experience, SAP integration experience. (Apple Inc. 2009)
2.1.3 Job/Person Specification
• Experience: 8 - 10+ years of experience in Operations related project management.
• Proven track record leading large and complex system projects.
• 3 -5 years experience managing Business Process design or Re- engineering activities, PMI training.
• Consulting experience considered a plus. (Apple Inc. 2009)
A manager is answerable for any undertaking that he takes up and must be strictly observed at all times by the governing bodies within the organization. He must adhere to all the regulations and guidelines of the organization and must thereby operate within the boundaries of professional ethics (Dessler 2004). A project manager should act as a guide and share complete knowledge of the overall activity as a part of his job.
2.2 Employment Conditions
The successful candidate has to fulfill certain needs before becoming a part of the organization officially, which means before finalizing the selection the following conditions have to be fulfilled.
2.2.1 General Conditions
Lucrative aspirants must acquire and preserve a suitable safety sanctions and some other essential conditions (De Cieri & Kramar 2003).
• Proof of identity and legal right to work in the United States as required by and in accordance with the process and procedures of the U.S. Immigration reform and Control Act (IRCA).
• Due to US Department of Commerce requirements, if not a U.S. citizen, U.S. permanent resident, Canadian citizen, political refugee, or political asylum holder, you will be required to sign an assurance regarding obligations not to export controlled technical data or software to certain countries.
• Must sign the Intellectual Property Agreement and return the signed agreement.
• Must receive a satisfactory background check in accordance with Apple policy.
2.2.2 Probationary Period
The successful candidates would have to sign a 12 month probationary period agreement which includes training and performance management to determine the satisfactory work capabilities (Bartlet 2002.) Apple closely monitors its new project manager`s performance as a large portion of responsibility is rested on the shoulders of a manager of iTunes, which also controls a number of other departments in the organization. Apple may terminate a contract during this probationary period in case of unsatisfactory performance of the candidate.
2.3 Link with Human Resource Management
Job descriptions supply the essential details for internal assessment that include availability of positions, number of jobs and the strategic importance of the jobs. Human resource specialists can redesign jobs to eradicate redundant tasks and integrate responsibilities on the basis of a clear identification of the current functions being performed and the time spent on performing them. The fundamental aim of human resource management is to provide for the presence of a compliant and accommodating team in an establishment. There are four major aspects of the human resource management, namely operational, organizational, personal and societal (Project Management Institute 2006).
• Societal Objectives: The project manager should be morally and communally prepared to meet the wants of, and tackle the issues plaguing society, while simultaneously reducing the negative effects of these charges upon the establishment.
• Organizational Objectives: To acknowledge the function of a project manager, in the field of human resource management, in generating organizational efficiency. In short, this branch essentially exists for the sole purpose of benefiting the establishment and ensuring its progress.
• Functional Objectives: The project manager should supervise and ensure that the department caters to the needs of the establishment in a stable and steady manner.
2.4 Link with Apple`s Goals and Strategies
Apple has predefined certain objectives for its project managers such as portfolio management, business planning, project planning and execution. A perfect alignment of these activities leads to the portfolio element being fed by strategy, the project management element being fed by the portfolio and the team`s execution is fed by the project manager. In certain cases, establishments handle all enterprises and undertakings in a similar manner, irrespective of the entrepreneurial tactic or stratagem that the establishment opts for (Pinto 1989 & Covin 1989). Therefore, if the enterprise’s business tactic is converted into project related objectives, its .Thus, when the organization's business strategy is translated into project-level goals, its specialized rareness and exclusivity is amplified multifold. (Mathis & Jackson 2007).
Recruitment is the practice of attracting a collection of eligible candidates for an available post through particular measures like publicity, broadcasts and announcements (Dessler et al 2007, p.168). Apple has its recruitment in accordance to ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act), along with a strong implementation of Equal Pay Act (1963), Civil Rights Act (1991), Congressional Accountability Act (1995) and other legislations laid down by the US government (See Appendix 9). It is rather note-worthy that Apple has shown its capability in demonstrating such a cohesive branding know-how all through their commodities, promotion, vending and distributing, assisting clients, and hiring or appointing candidates.
3.1 Commence Recruitment
The Director of Human Resources at Apple Headquarters in Cupertino completes the following documents before there is an announcement for a position:
• Recruitment request form
• Job description
• Job classification and suggested salary range
• Interview questions
• Test/Skill evaluation tools
• Criteria for evaluating candidates
3.2 Announcement of Positions
The Human resource department announces the open position and draft advertisements. The job descriptions are circulated to about 340 agencies, universities and organizations. The Hiring Unit has to bear the cost of all other advertising expenses.
Advertising is a prominent source to build a pool of Candidates:
• Print media – Newspapers: State, national or local; Other: specialist magazines/journals (See Appendix 8)
• Other media – radio, television
• Decisions must be made as to which media to use and how the advertisement should be designed to target suitable applicants
Receiving complete Application/Resume and begin the Review Process
Applicants are accepted or rejected on the basis of their qualifications and experience in the field of engineering management. The criterion for selection is determined before the actual screening takes place. Once the screening is complete using the criteria of performance and experience, the Hiring Unit interviews at least three applicants.
4.2 Committee/Face to Face Interviews
The interview includes questions that are relevant to the job under focus. The interviewing panel members have to fill the interview evaluation form for each applicant interviewed which is submitted to the Human Resource department. The COO reviews the search committee for all new hires for Project manager level.
• What is most important to you in a job?
• Why should we hire you?
• What are your strengths and weaknesses?
• Are you familiar with OS 9?
• If a customer asks you to sync music from their iPod to computer, what do you say?
• How do you answer a customer who wants to share music with his friend via iTunes?
4.3 Reference Check
Before an offer can be made to the selected candidates a reference check has to be done by the Hiring Manager. This manager would personally contact all the references to complete the Candidate Reference Check.
• Academic references
• Prior work references
• Financial references
• Law enforcement records
• Personal references
4.4 Compliance Review
Once the desired aspirant has been chosen by the department manager, certain documents to be assessed must be handed over to the human resources director, namely:
• Request to recruit form – offer section completed
• Affirmative action compliance report
• The rationale behind selecting the final aspirant
4.5 Medical Examinations
The applicant must endure a fitness assessment test. Often, the job is offered to an applicant only once it has been confirmed that he is physically stable and enjoys good health after having taken the test. The physical examination/test is done for following purposes:
• To detect if individual is carrying any infectious disease.
• Determines whether the applicant is fit to perform work.
• Determines if there are certain physical capabilities, which differentiate successful and less successful employees.
• Medical check-up protects the applicant from undertaking work that would be hazardous to his health (Stone 2005).
4.6 Appointment of Candidate
The Hiring Department forwards the Non-Academic Appointment Form to the Human Resources Department. The newly hired project manager has to complete all the forms and return them to the Human Resource Department before joining. The induction program cannot commence till all these formalities have been completed (San Jose State University Research Foundation 2004).
4.7 Induction Program
The induction program provides a planned introduction of the job, organization and the environment. It is a quintessential part of recruitment as it provides familiarity with the roles and responsibilities within the rules and norms of the organization`s culture (Stone 2005). Induction programs have been found to contribute to improved socialization and to increase organizational commitment. Helps to reduce new employees’ stress levels and assist them to settle into their new role more quickly. Apple uses the buddy system – a method of linking every new employee with an existing employee who then assists them to settle into the workplace (San Jose State University Research Foundation 2004).
5. Remuneration Management
Remuneration implies the pay packet given to any staff member for the work done by them, their efforts and services. Sum total of the remuneration comprises of all the ways of payment and gratuities and incentives that may be both fiscal and non-fiscal, and that are presented to the staff. Two types of remuneration are direct remuneration that basically consists of monetary rewards such as a pay packet or other value add-ons, and indirect remuneration that are non-monetary rewards such as reimbursements or such other services, that although are fiscal in nature, yet cannot be accepted in the form of money. However, these benefits can be traded with money (Dessler 2004). The strategies and policies have to be implemented for a just and balanced reward management system where the rewarding would be fair and consistent without any bias (Armstrong & Murlis 2007).
5.1 Methods of setting pay rates
• Collective agreements (EBAs)
• Individual arrangements (AWAs or common law contracts)
5.2 Determining Pay rate
• Salary Surveys - Government and commercial salary surveys can provide useful information
• Job evaluation - Determines ‘worth’ or ‘value’ of job through systematic comparison of one job relative to another
• Grouping jobs into pay grades - After determining the relative worth of each job, jobs are grouped into pay grades. A pay grade is made up on jobs of approximately equal difficulty or importance
• Pricing each pay grade - Pay rates are assigned to each pay grade
Remuneration plans at Apple are built on four principles:
• Few classifications
• Pay-for-performance (PFP)
Apple has one of the most well balanced remuneration policies in the corporate world today. They have been well established as an employees` company, where good salary packages, insurance and a well structured superannuation program have established it as a fair and balanced organization for its employees. Remuneration comprises of reserve procuring schemes, 401k and adjustable and formative health and wellness schemes. Furthermore, apple allows its staff member’s rebates on its commodities, along with incentives such as paid vacation schemes, and other education – related alternatives. (See Appendix 2)
Rationale behind Apple`s Compensation Program
• Engage and absorb the coveted class and combination of staff workers.
• Encourage their staff to enhance their efficiency and efforts in a steady manner.
• Strengthen the establishment’s strategic standards and principals and the coveted system of operating within the establishment.
• To be just and unbiased towards its staff members.
• Offer customary and periodic reimbursement and efficiency audits.
Last edited by bhautik.kawa; January 19th, 2016 at 10:33 AM..
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If you want to get more materials that related to the Human resource practices art Apple, Inc, you can search: HR (Human Resources) manager at Apple, Inc here on Management Paradise. There is plenty of coverage on Apple, Inc. and its HR management practices in Projects, Articles and also forums.
Last edited by meheer; February 25th, 2013 at 11:58 AM..
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