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Vivekt08
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Training n Development - December 20th, 2009

SUMMARY

Organization and individual should develop and progress simultaneously for their survival and attainment of mutual goals. So every modern management has to develop the organization through Human Resource Development. Employee training is a specialized function and is one of the fundamental operative for Human Resource Management. Job and organizational requirements are not static; they are changed from time in view of technology advancement and change in the awareness of the total quality and productivity management. The objectives of the total quality and productivity management can be achieved only though training as training develops human skills and efficiency. Trained employees would be valuable assets to an organization. Organizational efficiency, productivity progress and development to a greater extend depend on training. Organizational objectives like viability, stability and growth can also be achieved through training. Training is important, as it is constitutes significant part of management control.
Training and development activities are designed, considerable costs notwithstanding, to impart specific skills, abilities and knowledge to employees. Distinction is often made between training educations, and between these two and development. Training refers to imparting specific skills. Education is the process of theoretical learning in classrooms. Development refers to learning opportunities designed to help employees grow and evolve a vision about the future. All the three from a part of training and development – only target groups of employees differ. Training is confined to shop-floor workers and development is meant for executives. Education, of course, is needed for all employees, irrespective of their hierarchy. skills, education, development, ethics, attitudinal change and decision-making skills must go into any programme of training and development.
Training and Development in BHEL, HRDC starts with the identifying the needs in various department by the concern department heads and area training coordinators. As per the requirements the head of HRDC plans the schedule for the programmes for that particular year. The planned pargrammes are conducted and evaluated after the programme is conducted. In the present study the programme for young executives who may be the future manager in their respective departments. The programme named “Budding Managers Programme”. To develop efficient managers by creating an awareness of the influence of business environment on the organization. Enhancing inter functional awareness in critical functional areas of BHEL. The study is done on the programme effectiveness by interacting with the participants, their experiences, taking their feedbacks etc. In the study ahead, secondary data regarding the programme has to be collected with the questionnaires and feedbacks from the participants.



























INTRODUCTION

“Training is the organized procedure by which learning knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job”.

Human Resource Development is concerned with increasing the skills of employees and changing their attitudes in order to enable them to function in a more efficient manner in achieving the objectives of the organization. It is based on the “Fundamental Philosophy” that “Individuals in an organization have unlimited potential for growth and development which can be harnesses for the achievement of the objectives of the organization, while bringing about a positive change and enhancement of the individual’s general capabilities. “In recent times, organizations have realized that the human resource is the resources which provide a competitive edge for the organization, which can be positively utilized for more efficient and achievement of organization objectives.

Training Programmes in any organization are aimed at increasing the overall skills, attitudes, and aptitudes of employees working in the organization. Organizations are viewing Training Programmes as an ‘investment proposal’, whose benefits can be identified and compared with the costs of training. Most of the organization has realized that “Human Asset” is as much, subject to depreciation as any other asset. Constant continuous inputs are required to ensure that the skills of the employees are updated and brought to the levels required by changing expectations. All training programmes are based on the following philosophical insights:

• Employees have immense potential, which can be tapped by suitable training facilities.

• The success of the organization depends upon the availability of efficient and motivated employees.

• Efficient and motivated employees provide much needed competitive edge in this age of severe competition.

• The success of the organization in achieving its objectives depends largely on the voluntary cooperation of the employees.

• Talents and skills are founded at every level of the organization. It is the responsibility of the management to identify these talents and provide opportunities for their improvement.

• There is one innate capacity for creativity in individual; all obstacles hindering the expression of creativity must be removed.

Thus, training is essential activity in any model organization committed to effective and efficient achievement of objectives through the optimum use of resources, both human and material.


Meaning:

Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. Training is a short-term education process and utilizing systematic and organized procedures by which employee learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose.

Importance of Training:

The importance of human resource management to extent depends on human resource development. Training is the most important technique of human resource development. As stands earlier, no organization can get a candidate who exactly matches with the job and the organization requirements. Hence, training is important to develop the employee and make him suitable to the job.

Job and organization requirements are not static; they are changed from time to time in view of technology advancement and change in the awareness of the Total Quality and Productivity Management (TQPM). Organization efficiency, progress, productivity and development to a greater extent depend on training. Training is important as it constitutes significant part of management control.

Benefits of Training :

How training Benefits the Organization
• Leads to improved profitability and or more positive attitudes toward profits orientation
• Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization
• Improves the morale of the workforce
• Helps people identify with organizational goals
• Helps create a better corporate image
• Learn from the trainee
• Help prepare guidelines for work
• Aids in understanding and carrying out organization policies
• Providing information for future needs in all areas of the organization
• Aids in development for promotion from within
• Improve labour-management relations
• Helps employees adjust to change
• Aids in handling conflict, thereby helping to prevent stress and tension.

Benefits in personnel and Human Relations, Intra and group Relations and Policy Implementation
• Improves communication between groups and individuals
• Aids in orientation for new employees and those taking new jobs through transfer or promotion
• Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action
• Provides information on other governmental law and administrative policies
• Improves interpersonal skills
• Makes organization policies, rules and regulations viable.
• Improves morale
• Builds cohesiveness in groups
• Provides a good climate for learning, growth and co-ordination
• Makes the organization a better place to work and live.

Benefits to the Individual which in Turn Ultimately should benefit the Organization

• Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving
• Through training and development, motivational variable of recognition, achievement, growth, responsibility and advancement are internalized and operationalized.
• Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence.
• Provides information for improving leadership knowledge, communication skills and attitudes
• Increases job satisfaction and recognition.
• Moves a person toward personal goals while improving interactive skills
• Satisfies, personal needs of the trainer
• Develops a sense of growth in learning.
• Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks.

The increasing competition, among other things increases the significance of training. Training matches the employee with the job from time to time. Further, the trained employees invite organizational change and ready to take up any type of assignment. The success of any organization, to a greater extent depends on the amount, qualitative and timely training provided by an organization.





Need for Training:

Every organization big or small, productive or non-productive, economic or social, old or newly established should provide training to all employees irrespective of their qualification, skill, suitability for the job etc.

Specifically, the need for training arises due to the following reasons
• To match the Employee specifications with the Job Requirements.
• Organizational Viability and the Transformation process
• Technological Advances
• Organizational Complexity
• Human Relations
• Change in the Job Assignment

The need for training also arises to:

 Increase productivity
 Improve quality of the product / service.
 Help a company to fulfill its future personnel needs.
 Improve organizational climate.
 Improve health and safety.
 Prevent obsolescence.
 Effect the personal growth.
 Minimize the resistance to change.

IDENITIFYING TRAINING NEEDS

All training activities must be related to the specific needs of the organization the needs and the individual employees. A training programme should be launched only after the training needs are assessed clearly and specifically. The effectiveness of a training programme can be judged only with the help of training needs the gap between the existing and required levels of knowledge, skills, and performance and should be specified. The problem areas that can be resolved through training should also be identified.

Training needs can be identified through the following types of analysis

Organizational Analysis

It involves a study of the entire organization. In terms of its objectives, it is resources, resource allocation and utilization, growth potential and its environment. Its purpose it to determine where training emphasis should be placed within the organization. Organizational analysis consists of the following elements:

• Analysis of objectives
• Resource Utilization Analysis
• Organization analysis
• Environmental Scanning

Task or Role Analysis

It is a systematic and detailed analyses of jobs to identify job contents, the knowledge, skills, and aptitudes required and work behavior.

Manpower Analysis

In the analysis the persons to be trained and the changes required in the knowledge, skills and aptitudes of an employee are determined. Training can be relevant and viable if the three types of analysis given above are carried on continuously more over this analysis should be integrated in a carefully designed and executed programme.



Training Objectives:

Generally line manager ask the personnel manager to formulate the training policies. The personnel Manager formulates the following training objectives in keeping with company’s goals and objective:

a. To prepare the employee both new and old to meet their present as well as the changing requirements of the job and the organization.
b. To prevent obsolescence.
c. To prepare employees for higher-level tasks.
d. To assist employees function more effectively in there present positions by exposing them to the latest concepts, information, and techniques and developing the skills they will need in their particular fields.
e. To built up a second line of competent officers and prepare them to occupy more responsible positions.
f. To develop the potentialities of people for the next level job.
g. To ensure smooth and efficient working of a department.
h. To ensure economical; output of required quality.
i. To promote individual and collective morale, a sense of responsibility, cooperative attitudes and good relationships.

Designing a Training and Development Programme

In order to achieve the training objectives, an appropriate training policy is necessary. A training policy represents the commitment of top management to employee training. It consists to rules and procedures concerning training. A training policy is required:

a. To indicate the company’s intention to develop its employees;

b. To guide the design and implementation of training programmes;

c. To identify the critical areas where training is to be given on a priority basis; and

d. To provide appropriate opportunities to employees for their own betterment.

Every training and development programme must address certain vital issues-

A sound training policy clearly defines the following issues:

i) The results expected to be achieved through training

ii) The responsibility for the training function

iii) The priorities for training

iv) The type of training required

v) The time and place of training.

vi) The payments to be made to employees during the training period.

vii) The outside agencies to be associated with the training.

viii) Relationship of training to the company’s labour policy.

Training Methods and Techniques
The methods employed for training of operatives may be as under

• On-the-job Training
i) Orientation training
ii) Job-instruction training
iii) Apprenticeship Training
iv) Internships and assistantships
v) Job rotation
vi) Coaching

• Off-the-job Training
i) Vestibule
ii) Lecture
iii) Special study
iv) Films
v) Television
vi) Conference or Discussion
vii) Case study
viii) Role playing
ix) Simulation
x) Programmed instruction
xi) Laboratory training

Assessment of Training Needs
Training needs are identified based on organizational analysis, job analysis, and man analysis, Training programme, training methods and course contents are to be planned based on training needs.

Training needs = Job and Organizational requirement – Employee specifications

The following forms identify training needs
• Organizational Analysis
This includes analysis of objectives, resource utilization, and environment scanning and organization climate: Organizational strengths and weakness in different areas like accidents, excessive scrap, marketing areas and production personnel, finance etc.

• Departmental Analysis
Department strength and weakness including special problems of the department or a common problem of a group of employees like acquiring skills and knowledge in operating computer by accounting personnel.

• Job / Role Analysis
This includes study of jobs/roles, design of jobs due to changes, job enlargement, etc.

• Manpower Analysis
Individual strengths and weaknesses in the areas of job knowledge, skills etc.












TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PHILOSOPHY IN BHEL

BHEL recognizes that employees are the most important resource of any organization. In the modern world, the human factor alone can provide a competitive edge to any organization. As one author remarks – “Some of the best assets walk into and outside the organization everyday”.

All HRD efforts are based on the fundamental concept that “Human-beings infinite potential for growth and development that can be converted into performance by investment of time and effort by management at all levels”. In BHEL “Human Resource Management is identified as a key area providing the cutting edge to the organization in its endeavor towards competitive excellence. The HRD philosophy of the organization is based on “continuous efforts to enhance the knowledge develop skills and reorient attitude of employees to keep pace with the changing environment”. An attempt is made to align HD programmes with the basic business strategy.

TRAINING OBJECTIVES OF BHEL:

Objectives crystallize the fundamental principles enunciated in the mission and policy statement. To operational the policy mission and statement, the following are the objectives of BHEL of different training programmes.

1. To ensure that adequate time and efforts are invested at all levels of management towards people management.

2. To instill in all employees a feeling of pride and belong with an intention to increase organizational loyalty.

3. To design specific programmes with special focus on equipping the employees to meet the emerging challenges and opportunities.

4. To help employees improve their core competency that has direct impact on their performance and productivity.

5. To inculcate in the employee, the need for observing sound organization principles in order to ensure healthy organization practices.


TRAINING PERIOD

The duration of a training varies with skill to be acquired, the complexity of the subject, a trainee’s aptitude and ability to understand, and the training media used.

Generally, a training period should not be unduly long: if it is, trainees may feel bore uninterested. The ideal session should not go beyond 2 to 3 hours at stretch, with a break in between 2 sessions. It convenient employees may be trained for a week or a fortnight for an hour or two, every day after work hours.

The training period may extend from 3 weeks to 5 months even more, depending upon job requirements.

The physical locations of the programmes should be in pleasant surrounding away from the noise and tension of the work place.

IMPLEMENTATION OF TRAINING

Once the training programmes has been designed, it needs to be implemented. Implementation is beset with certain problems. Firstly, most managers are action oriented and frequently say no to training efforts. Secondly, there is problem of location suitable trainers within an organization. Any training programme implementation involves action on the following:

• Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities.

• Scheduling the training programme.

• Conducting the programme

• Monitoring the progress of trainees.

TRAINING EVALUATION

Objectives of training evaluation is to determine the ability of the participant in the training programme to perform jobs for which they were trained, the specific nature of training deficiencies, whether the trainees required any additional on the job training and the extent of training not needed for the participants to meet job requirements.

PRINCIPALS OF EVALUATIONS

• Evaluation specialist must be clear about the goals and purposes of evaluation.

• Evaluation must be continuous.

• Evaluation must be specific.

• Evaluation must be provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves, their practices, and their products.

• It is mainly based on objective methods.




TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS

Training effectiveness is the degree to which trainees are able to learn and apply the knowledge and skills acquired in the training programme. It depends to the attitudes, interests, values, and expectations of the trainees and the training environment. A training programme is likely to be more effective when the trainees want to learn, are involved in their jobs, have career strategies. Contents of a training programme, and the ability and motivation of trainers also determine training effectiveness.

Evaluation Criteria

Evaluation of training effectiveness is the process of obtaining information on the effects of training programme and assessing the value of training in the light of that information. Evaluation involves controlling and correcting the training programme. The basis of evaluation and mode are determined when the training programme is designed. According to Hamblin training effectiveness can be measured in terms of following criteria.

Methods of Evaluation

Several methods can be employed to collect data on the outcomes of training. Some of these are:

1. The opinions and judgments of trainers, superiors, and peers.

2. Asking the trainers to fill up evaluation forms.

3. Using a questionnaire to know the reactions of trainees,

4. Giving oral and written tests to trainees to ascertain how far they have learnt,

5. Arranging structured interviews with the trainees,

6. Comparing trainees performance on the job before and after training.

7. Studying profiles and career development charts of trainees,

8. Measuring levels of productivity, wages, costs, absenteeism’s and employee turnover after training.

9. Trainees comments and reactions during the training period, and Cost benefit analysis of training programme.





FEEDBACK

After the evaluation, the situation should be analysed to identify the possible causes for difference between the expected outcomes and the actual outcomes. The precautions should be taken in designing and implementing future training programme so as to avoid these causes. The outcomes of training programme should justify the time, money, and efforts invested by the organization in training. Information collected during evaluation should be provided to the trainees and the trainers as well as to others concerned with the designing and implementation of training programmes. Follow-up action is required to ensure implementation of evaluation report at every stage.







Functions of Human Resource Development Center

Identification of Training needs and preparation of annual training Calendar:

The training needs of employees other than executives are identified by concerned controlling executives and passed on to their area training coordinators. The area training coordinators of the plant will attend the annually concerned meeting by head of the department of HRD center. The Area Training coordinators will present the identified training needs of their respective departments, based on these training needs. HRD will prepare an annual training Calendar.

Designing of Training Programme:
The training programme shall be designed on the bases of objectives and shall take into accounts the level of participants and deviation.

Conducting Training Programme:
In accordance with “Instruction for Organizing Training Programme” are being conducted. Programme schedule shall be prepared and it shall contain the Programme title, duration period, session topics, faculty names, etc. Intimation shall be sent to area training coordinators or Head of the Departments regarding Training Programme calling for nominators the training programme will include the use of training methods, group discussions, games, exercise role plays, case studies, video feedback and films. The participants will be provided with stationary, course material and attendance letters.

Evaluation of Training Programme:
The training programme are evaluated through formal and informal sources. The formal sources are soliciting feed back by senior executives of the company and through structured questionnaire. The informal sources are soliciting feed back during tea breaks, lunch breaks etc and in between sessions. The feedback will focus on mainly reactions about course content, faculty, course material, methodologies, and administrative arrangements and over all impact of Training Programme.

Conducting Training Programme for Customers:
As a corporate policy, BHEL always gives top priority to customer service and satisfaction.

Though HRDC is conducting regular customer training Programme several requests are being received from various customers to conduct more Programme as refers her courses. It was felt necessary, since BHEL, Hyderabad unit is supplying its products for the least over three decades, personnel who were training earlier might have been redeployed due the transfers, promotions etc. and a new set of employees might be handling BHEL equipment in its operation and maintenance.

It is imperative that any power generation should work trouble free with minimum maintenance. For this the personnel who are running the equipments should be aware of the basis of the design, testing, and intricacies of operational and maintenance aspects with this end in view, the following Programme are offered:

1. Synchronous Generator
2. Centrifugal Compressors
3. Circuit Breakers
4. Gas Turbines
5. Industrial Stream Turbines
6. Industrial Steam Turbine Governing System
7. Gas Turbines and Generators

Based on the discussions and information received from the commercial department, with regard to nature of Training Programmes, HRD center will suitably plan and incorporate the same in the Annual training calendar will be sent to the customers through commercial department or some times directly to the customers on receipt of nomination from commercial department, HRDC shall conduct the customer training Programme as per “Instructions for Organizing training programme”. The customer Training Programme is evaluated through reaction feed back.

Training of Vendors:
Quality Department in association with materials management department shall identify the training needs various vendors and provide with a list of programmes purpose. HRD center will incorporate these needs in the annual training calendar. Quality department shall receive the nominations from identified vendors and conduct the training programmes in association with HRD center.

Coordinating Training Activities Through External Training Institutes:
Whenever specialized and managerial skills are required, employees are deputed to BHEL Human Resource Development Institute, Noida, and other premier training institutes with in the country the necessary coordination work is being done by this center.

Conducting Training Programme to the Employees change of Cadre:
These training programes are organized to help employees to contribute his best after promotion from one category to another category say promotes from unskilled to semi-skilled workers, workers to supervisor and supervisor to executive. The Training Programmes comprises inputs such as company information behavioral skills and technical skills.

Organizing Technical Programmes:
HRD center organizes induction training programmes for the following categories of trainees:
1. One year induction training program for engineer/Executive trainee’s organized as per the training circular booklet issued by corporate HRD.

The various training modules of engineer trainee contain objectives and these are evaluated through out one-year training programme.

2. The Executive trainees of HRM and finance will also undergo are year induction training programme. The executive trainee (HRM) training programme is jointly monitored by BHEL corporate office, BHEL, HRDI, and Unit HRD center as per ET HRM Training curriculum.

3. The trade apprentices training programme is for one year and is conducted as per apprenticeship programme, the trade apprentices are given theoretical inputs related to their respective trades followed by hands on practical experience in the production blocks. At the end of one year training they have to appears and pass all India Trade test conducted by director, Regional Board of Apprentice ship training.

4. For other trainees like technician Apprentices, Sandwich Trainees, Vocational Training Programmes as per Statutory Requirements.

5. HRD center is also providing summer vacation Training or project work training to the students of Engineering Master in Computer Application and Master of Business Administration.

Assistance during recruitment Test:
HRD center is assisting HR department during recruitment of trade apprentices and Technician apprentice trainees by conducting written examination and associating in interviews.

Faculty Development:
As a part of total development activity, facilitators of HRD center and executive from the plant are encourage to develop their capabilities to take up the faculty roles. In this aspect, HRD center is organizing annually one or two faculty Development training programmes with professionals from the premier training institutes.

Inter unit and Professional Institutes Collaboration:
To gain up to date knowledge HRD center workers with close collaboration with various BHEL sister units and other Professional Institutions and training institutes.

Computerization:
By utilizing personnel computers HRDC is generating various types of management information reports.

1. MIS’s
2. Budgeting
3. Employees training data besides, HRD center is also Organizing Computer Training Programmes as per changing needs of the organization.

DESIGNATING OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
AT B.H.E.L. (HRDC)

• Collect the database of the participants
• Sending nomination letter to the training coordinators
• Getting nomination
• Going through literature
• Design the program
• Fixing up of faculty
• Finalizing the program
• Arrange for study material
• Conduct the program
• Taking feed back from employees.




TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION

• The information related to training requirements is obtained, discussed, and consolidated with area training coordinators (ATC) and the training programmes are finalized for the year.

• The training programmes so identified are approved by Head HRDC and communicated to all holds in the form of annual training calendar.

• The respective HRDC facilitators, identified for conducting the training programme, as per the following guidelines, will carry out the designing of the training programmes.

 Title of the programmes
 Programme no.
 Duration
 Level of the participants
 Programme objectives
 Training evaluation
 Feed back

• The infrastructure and the resources required for conducting programmes shall be identified and provided by HRDC.

TRAINING EVALUATION
The effectiveness of training imparted is evaluated in two stages.

i) Firstly during the learning stage of the training programme by HRDC and
ii) Secondly through post training evaluation by the Concerned HOD.

1. First stage training evaluation is carried out by the respective training facilities of HRDC, during the learning stage of the training, in the form of a feedback obtained from participants.
2. Second stage Post training evaluation (PTE) shall be carried out for skill based, immediately after one year of training programmes PTE format will be sent by HRDC to concern HOD’s.

The HODs shall send the filled in PTE formats back to HRDC within the period of one month.

TRAINING RECORDS:

Records of all training processed through the HRDC shall be maintained in a database at the HRD center. However, the respective departments.


MEASUREMENT ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT:

• HRDC shall analyse the training effectiveness of the skill based training programme based on filled in PTE formats and review for improvement once in a year.

HRDC shall analyse such measurement and use them for continual improvement.


Objective of Budding Managers Programme

To develop efficient managers by

• Creating an awareness of the influence of business environment on the organization.
• Enhancing inter functional awareness in critical functional areas of BHEL
• Providing awareness of emerging trends and tools in management.
• Providing a conceptual and experiential understanding of the behavioural processes in an organization to enhance personnel inter-personnel and organizational effectiveness.
• Reviewing the present status of the organization and challenges ahead through interactions amongst the group and with the top management and,
• Self learning.

Coverage

• Economic scenario – Micro and Macro Dimensions
• Key issue in Planning, Customer Satisfaction, Competitiveness, Finance.
• Significant Strategic and Management Issues.
• Organization and people.
• Individual and Group Development.


Methodology

- Lectures, Group Discussions.
- Syndicate work, case studies, role plays.
- Management Films and experience sharing.

Duration
- 7 days

Eligibility
- E3 - E6 Executives form all the departments



METHODOLOGY:

Main objective of this study


• To study how training programs contribute to the goals of the organization

• To study how the evaluation of training programs is done in B.H.E.L.

• To study to what extend HRDC objectives are fulfilled

• To study to what extend the training programs conducted by HRDC has made an impact on the performance level of executives.


SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The programmes were conducted for the executives, supervisors and the workers of B.H.E.L. Hyderabad.


Scope

The scope of the study has been limited to the executives cadre of B.H.E.L., R.C. Puram unit only, since it was not possible to attend to all employees to whom the training programmes was imparted.




Sample size

The size of the sample was 100 and respondents are at the level of executives of HR/ Finance/ Purchase / Medical/ Commercial / Engineering Department in B.H.E.L. The data collected from 100 respondents are analysed and interpreted.

DATA COLLECTION

Data has been collected on two bases primary data and Secondary data.


Primary Data

Methodology used in the process of collecting the primary data is through questionnaire. Data has been gathered by executing a designed structured questionnaire, which consists of 20 questions.
Data has been collected through one to one interaction with executives.


Secondary Data

The secondary data related to the programme conducted. During 2001-2009 will be analysed and there by inferences will be drawn from the data collected.
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Re: Training n Development - March 16th, 2016

Quote:
Originally Posted by Vivekt08 View Post
SUMMARY

Organization and individual should develop and progress simultaneously for their survival and attainment of mutual goals. So every modern management has to develop the organization through Human Resource Development. Employee training is a specialized function and is one of the fundamental operative for Human Resource Management. Job and organizational requirements are not static; they are changed from time in view of technology advancement and change in the awareness of the total quality and productivity management. The objectives of the total quality and productivity management can be achieved only though training as training develops human skills and efficiency. Trained employees would be valuable assets to an organization. Organizational efficiency, productivity progress and development to a greater extend depend on training. Organizational objectives like viability, stability and growth can also be achieved through training. Training is important, as it is constitutes significant part of management control.
Training and development activities are designed, considerable costs notwithstanding, to impart specific skills, abilities and knowledge to employees. Distinction is often made between training educations, and between these two and development. Training refers to imparting specific skills. Education is the process of theoretical learning in classrooms. Development refers to learning opportunities designed to help employees grow and evolve a vision about the future. All the three from a part of training and development – only target groups of employees differ. Training is confined to shop-floor workers and development is meant for executives. Education, of course, is needed for all employees, irrespective of their hierarchy. skills, education, development, ethics, attitudinal change and decision-making skills must go into any programme of training and development.
Training and Development in BHEL, HRDC starts with the identifying the needs in various department by the concern department heads and area training coordinators. As per the requirements the head of HRDC plans the schedule for the programmes for that particular year. The planned pargrammes are conducted and evaluated after the programme is conducted. In the present study the programme for young executives who may be the future manager in their respective departments. The programme named “Budding Managers Programme”. To develop efficient managers by creating an awareness of the influence of business environment on the organization. Enhancing inter functional awareness in critical functional areas of BHEL. The study is done on the programme effectiveness by interacting with the participants, their experiences, taking their feedbacks etc. In the study ahead, secondary data regarding the programme has to be collected with the questionnaires and feedbacks from the participants.



























INTRODUCTION

“Training is the organized procedure by which learning knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job”.

Human Resource Development is concerned with increasing the skills of employees and changing their attitudes in order to enable them to function in a more efficient manner in achieving the objectives of the organization. It is based on the “Fundamental Philosophy” that “Individuals in an organization have unlimited potential for growth and development which can be harnesses for the achievement of the objectives of the organization, while bringing about a positive change and enhancement of the individual’s general capabilities. “In recent times, organizations have realized that the human resource is the resources which provide a competitive edge for the organization, which can be positively utilized for more efficient and achievement of organization objectives.

Training Programmes in any organization are aimed at increasing the overall skills, attitudes, and aptitudes of employees working in the organization. Organizations are viewing Training Programmes as an ‘investment proposal’, whose benefits can be identified and compared with the costs of training. Most of the organization has realized that “Human Asset” is as much, subject to depreciation as any other asset. Constant continuous inputs are required to ensure that the skills of the employees are updated and brought to the levels required by changing expectations. All training programmes are based on the following philosophical insights:

• Employees have immense potential, which can be tapped by suitable training facilities.

• The success of the organization depends upon the availability of efficient and motivated employees.

• Efficient and motivated employees provide much needed competitive edge in this age of severe competition.

• The success of the organization in achieving its objectives depends largely on the voluntary cooperation of the employees.

• Talents and skills are founded at every level of the organization. It is the responsibility of the management to identify these talents and provide opportunities for their improvement.

• There is one innate capacity for creativity in individual; all obstacles hindering the expression of creativity must be removed.

Thus, training is essential activity in any model organization committed to effective and efficient achievement of objectives through the optimum use of resources, both human and material.


Meaning:

Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. Training is a short-term education process and utilizing systematic and organized procedures by which employee learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose.

Importance of Training:

The importance of human resource management to extent depends on human resource development. Training is the most important technique of human resource development. As stands earlier, no organization can get a candidate who exactly matches with the job and the organization requirements. Hence, training is important to develop the employee and make him suitable to the job.

Job and organization requirements are not static; they are changed from time to time in view of technology advancement and change in the awareness of the Total Quality and Productivity Management (TQPM). Organization efficiency, progress, productivity and development to a greater extent depend on training. Training is important as it constitutes significant part of management control.

Benefits of Training :

How training Benefits the Organization
• Leads to improved profitability and or more positive attitudes toward profits orientation
• Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization
• Improves the morale of the workforce
• Helps people identify with organizational goals
• Helps create a better corporate image
• Learn from the trainee
• Help prepare guidelines for work
• Aids in understanding and carrying out organization policies
• Providing information for future needs in all areas of the organization
• Aids in development for promotion from within
• Improve labour-management relations
• Helps employees adjust to change
• Aids in handling conflict, thereby helping to prevent stress and tension.

Benefits in personnel and Human Relations, Intra and group Relations and Policy Implementation
• Improves communication between groups and individuals
• Aids in orientation for new employees and those taking new jobs through transfer or promotion
• Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action
• Provides information on other governmental law and administrative policies
• Improves interpersonal skills
• Makes organization policies, rules and regulations viable.
• Improves morale
• Builds cohesiveness in groups
• Provides a good climate for learning, growth and co-ordination
• Makes the organization a better place to work and live.

Benefits to the Individual which in Turn Ultimately should benefit the Organization

• Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving
• Through training and development, motivational variable of recognition, achievement, growth, responsibility and advancement are internalized and operationalized.
• Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence.
• Provides information for improving leadership knowledge, communication skills and attitudes
• Increases job satisfaction and recognition.
• Moves a person toward personal goals while improving interactive skills
• Satisfies, personal needs of the trainer
• Develops a sense of growth in learning.
• Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks.

The increasing competition, among other things increases the significance of training. Training matches the employee with the job from time to time. Further, the trained employees invite organizational change and ready to take up any type of assignment. The success of any organization, to a greater extent depends on the amount, qualitative and timely training provided by an organization.





Need for Training:

Every organization big or small, productive or non-productive, economic or social, old or newly established should provide training to all employees irrespective of their qualification, skill, suitability for the job etc.

Specifically, the need for training arises due to the following reasons
• To match the Employee specifications with the Job Requirements.
• Organizational Viability and the Transformation process
• Technological Advances
• Organizational Complexity
• Human Relations
• Change in the Job Assignment

The need for training also arises to:

 Increase productivity
 Improve quality of the product / service.
 Help a company to fulfill its future personnel needs.
 Improve organizational climate.
 Improve health and safety.
 Prevent obsolescence.
 Effect the personal growth.
 Minimize the resistance to change.

IDENITIFYING TRAINING NEEDS

All training activities must be related to the specific needs of the organization the needs and the individual employees. A training programme should be launched only after the training needs are assessed clearly and specifically. The effectiveness of a training programme can be judged only with the help of training needs the gap between the existing and required levels of knowledge, skills, and performance and should be specified. The problem areas that can be resolved through training should also be identified.

Training needs can be identified through the following types of analysis

Organizational Analysis

It involves a study of the entire organization. In terms of its objectives, it is resources, resource allocation and utilization, growth potential and its environment. Its purpose it to determine where training emphasis should be placed within the organization. Organizational analysis consists of the following elements:

• Analysis of objectives
• Resource Utilization Analysis
• Organization analysis
• Environmental Scanning

Task or Role Analysis

It is a systematic and detailed analyses of jobs to identify job contents, the knowledge, skills, and aptitudes required and work behavior.

Manpower Analysis

In the analysis the persons to be trained and the changes required in the knowledge, skills and aptitudes of an employee are determined. Training can be relevant and viable if the three types of analysis given above are carried on continuously more over this analysis should be integrated in a carefully designed and executed programme.



Training Objectives:

Generally line manager ask the personnel manager to formulate the training policies. The personnel Manager formulates the following training objectives in keeping with company’s goals and objective:

a. To prepare the employee both new and old to meet their present as well as the changing requirements of the job and the organization.
b. To prevent obsolescence.
c. To prepare employees for higher-level tasks.
d. To assist employees function more effectively in there present positions by exposing them to the latest concepts, information, and techniques and developing the skills they will need in their particular fields.
e. To built up a second line of competent officers and prepare them to occupy more responsible positions.
f. To develop the potentialities of people for the next level job.
g. To ensure smooth and efficient working of a department.
h. To ensure economical; output of required quality.
i. To promote individual and collective morale, a sense of responsibility, cooperative attitudes and good relationships.

Designing a Training and Development Programme

In order to achieve the training objectives, an appropriate training policy is necessary. A training policy represents the commitment of top management to employee training. It consists to rules and procedures concerning training. A training policy is required:

a. To indicate the company’s intention to develop its employees;

b. To guide the design and implementation of training programmes;

c. To identify the critical areas where training is to be given on a priority basis; and

d. To provide appropriate opportunities to employees for their own betterment.

Every training and development programme must address certain vital issues-

A sound training policy clearly defines the following issues:

i) The results expected to be achieved through training

ii) The responsibility for the training function

iii) The priorities for training

iv) The type of training required

v) The time and place of training.

vi) The payments to be made to employees during the training period.

vii) The outside agencies to be associated with the training.

viii) Relationship of training to the company’s labour policy.

Training Methods and Techniques
The methods employed for training of operatives may be as under

• On-the-job Training
i) Orientation training
ii) Job-instruction training
iii) Apprenticeship Training
iv) Internships and assistantships
v) Job rotation
vi) Coaching

• Off-the-job Training
i) Vestibule
ii) Lecture
iii) Special study
iv) Films
v) Television
vi) Conference or Discussion
vii) Case study
viii) Role playing
ix) Simulation
x) Programmed instruction
xi) Laboratory training

Assessment of Training Needs
Training needs are identified based on organizational analysis, job analysis, and man analysis, Training programme, training methods and course contents are to be planned based on training needs.

Training needs = Job and Organizational requirement – Employee specifications

The following forms identify training needs
• Organizational Analysis
This includes analysis of objectives, resource utilization, and environment scanning and organization climate: Organizational strengths and weakness in different areas like accidents, excessive scrap, marketing areas and production personnel, finance etc.

• Departmental Analysis
Department strength and weakness including special problems of the department or a common problem of a group of employees like acquiring skills and knowledge in operating computer by accounting personnel.

• Job / Role Analysis
This includes study of jobs/roles, design of jobs due to changes, job enlargement, etc.

• Manpower Analysis
Individual strengths and weaknesses in the areas of job knowledge, skills etc.












TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PHILOSOPHY IN BHEL

BHEL recognizes that employees are the most important resource of any organization. In the modern world, the human factor alone can provide a competitive edge to any organization. As one author remarks – “Some of the best assets walk into and outside the organization everyday”.

All HRD efforts are based on the fundamental concept that “Human-beings infinite potential for growth and development that can be converted into performance by investment of time and effort by management at all levels”. In BHEL “Human Resource Management is identified as a key area providing the cutting edge to the organization in its endeavor towards competitive excellence. The HRD philosophy of the organization is based on “continuous efforts to enhance the knowledge develop skills and reorient attitude of employees to keep pace with the changing environment”. An attempt is made to align HD programmes with the basic business strategy.

TRAINING OBJECTIVES OF BHEL:

Objectives crystallize the fundamental principles enunciated in the mission and policy statement. To operational the policy mission and statement, the following are the objectives of BHEL of different training programmes.

1. To ensure that adequate time and efforts are invested at all levels of management towards people management.

2. To instill in all employees a feeling of pride and belong with an intention to increase organizational loyalty.

3. To design specific programmes with special focus on equipping the employees to meet the emerging challenges and opportunities.

4. To help employees improve their core competency that has direct impact on their performance and productivity.

5. To inculcate in the employee, the need for observing sound organization principles in order to ensure healthy organization practices.


TRAINING PERIOD

The duration of a training varies with skill to be acquired, the complexity of the subject, a trainee’s aptitude and ability to understand, and the training media used.

Generally, a training period should not be unduly long: if it is, trainees may feel bore uninterested. The ideal session should not go beyond 2 to 3 hours at stretch, with a break in between 2 sessions. It convenient employees may be trained for a week or a fortnight for an hour or two, every day after work hours.

The training period may extend from 3 weeks to 5 months even more, depending upon job requirements.

The physical locations of the programmes should be in pleasant surrounding away from the noise and tension of the work place.

IMPLEMENTATION OF TRAINING

Once the training programmes has been designed, it needs to be implemented. Implementation is beset with certain problems. Firstly, most managers are action oriented and frequently say no to training efforts. Secondly, there is problem of location suitable trainers within an organization. Any training programme implementation involves action on the following:

• Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities.

• Scheduling the training programme.

• Conducting the programme

• Monitoring the progress of trainees.

TRAINING EVALUATION

Objectives of training evaluation is to determine the ability of the participant in the training programme to perform jobs for which they were trained, the specific nature of training deficiencies, whether the trainees required any additional on the job training and the extent of training not needed for the participants to meet job requirements.

PRINCIPALS OF EVALUATIONS

• Evaluation specialist must be clear about the goals and purposes of evaluation.

• Evaluation must be continuous.

• Evaluation must be specific.

• Evaluation must be provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves, their practices, and their products.

• It is mainly based on objective methods.




TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS

Training effectiveness is the degree to which trainees are able to learn and apply the knowledge and skills acquired in the training programme. It depends to the attitudes, interests, values, and expectations of the trainees and the training environment. A training programme is likely to be more effective when the trainees want to learn, are involved in their jobs, have career strategies. Contents of a training programme, and the ability and motivation of trainers also determine training effectiveness.

Evaluation Criteria

Evaluation of training effectiveness is the process of obtaining information on the effects of training programme and assessing the value of training in the light of that information. Evaluation involves controlling and correcting the training programme. The basis of evaluation and mode are determined when the training programme is designed. According to Hamblin training effectiveness can be measured in terms of following criteria.

Methods of Evaluation

Several methods can be employed to collect data on the outcomes of training. Some of these are:

1. The opinions and judgments of trainers, superiors, and peers.

2. Asking the trainers to fill up evaluation forms.

3. Using a questionnaire to know the reactions of trainees,

4. Giving oral and written tests to trainees to ascertain how far they have learnt,

5. Arranging structured interviews with the trainees,

6. Comparing trainees performance on the job before and after training.

7. Studying profiles and career development charts of trainees,

8. Measuring levels of productivity, wages, costs, absenteeism’s and employee turnover after training.

9. Trainees comments and reactions during the training period, and Cost benefit analysis of training programme.





FEEDBACK

After the evaluation, the situation should be analysed to identify the possible causes for difference between the expected outcomes and the actual outcomes. The precautions should be taken in designing and implementing future training programme so as to avoid these causes. The outcomes of training programme should justify the time, money, and efforts invested by the organization in training. Information collected during evaluation should be provided to the trainees and the trainers as well as to others concerned with the designing and implementation of training programmes. Follow-up action is required to ensure implementation of evaluation report at every stage.







Functions of Human Resource Development Center

Identification of Training needs and preparation of annual training Calendar:

The training needs of employees other than executives are identified by concerned controlling executives and passed on to their area training coordinators. The area training coordinators of the plant will attend the annually concerned meeting by head of the department of HRD center. The Area Training coordinators will present the identified training needs of their respective departments, based on these training needs. HRD will prepare an annual training Calendar.

Designing of Training Programme:
The training programme shall be designed on the bases of objectives and shall take into accounts the level of participants and deviation.

Conducting Training Programme:
In accordance with “Instruction for Organizing Training Programme” are being conducted. Programme schedule shall be prepared and it shall contain the Programme title, duration period, session topics, faculty names, etc. Intimation shall be sent to area training coordinators or Head of the Departments regarding Training Programme calling for nominators the training programme will include the use of training methods, group discussions, games, exercise role plays, case studies, video feedback and films. The participants will be provided with stationary, course material and attendance letters.

Evaluation of Training Programme:
The training programme are evaluated through formal and informal sources. The formal sources are soliciting feed back by senior executives of the company and through structured questionnaire. The informal sources are soliciting feed back during tea breaks, lunch breaks etc and in between sessions. The feedback will focus on mainly reactions about course content, faculty, course material, methodologies, and administrative arrangements and over all impact of Training Programme.

Conducting Training Programme for Customers:
As a corporate policy, BHEL always gives top priority to customer service and satisfaction.

Though HRDC is conducting regular customer training Programme several requests are being received from various customers to conduct more Programme as refers her courses. It was felt necessary, since BHEL, Hyderabad unit is supplying its products for the least over three decades, personnel who were training earlier might have been redeployed due the transfers, promotions etc. and a new set of employees might be handling BHEL equipment in its operation and maintenance.

It is imperative that any power generation should work trouble free with minimum maintenance. For this the personnel who are running the equipments should be aware of the basis of the design, testing, and intricacies of operational and maintenance aspects with this end in view, the following Programme are offered:

1. Synchronous Generator
2. Centrifugal Compressors
3. Circuit Breakers
4. Gas Turbines
5. Industrial Stream Turbines
6. Industrial Steam Turbine Governing System
7. Gas Turbines and Generators

Based on the discussions and information received from the commercial department, with regard to nature of Training Programmes, HRD center will suitably plan and incorporate the same in the Annual training calendar will be sent to the customers through commercial department or some times directly to the customers on receipt of nomination from commercial department, HRDC shall conduct the customer training Programme as per “Instructions for Organizing training programme”. The customer Training Programme is evaluated through reaction feed back.

Training of Vendors:
Quality Department in association with materials management department shall identify the training needs various vendors and provide with a list of programmes purpose. HRD center will incorporate these needs in the annual training calendar. Quality department shall receive the nominations from identified vendors and conduct the training programmes in association with HRD center.

Coordinating Training Activities Through External Training Institutes:
Whenever specialized and managerial skills are required, employees are deputed to BHEL Human Resource Development Institute, Noida, and other premier training institutes with in the country the necessary coordination work is being done by this center.

Conducting Training Programme to the Employees change of Cadre:
These training programes are organized to help employees to contribute his best after promotion from one category to another category say promotes from unskilled to semi-skilled workers, workers to supervisor and supervisor to executive. The Training Programmes comprises inputs such as company information behavioral skills and technical skills.

Organizing Technical Programmes:
HRD center organizes induction training programmes for the following categories of trainees:
1. One year induction training program for engineer/Executive trainee’s organized as per the training circular booklet issued by corporate HRD.

The various training modules of engineer trainee contain objectives and these are evaluated through out one-year training programme.

2. The Executive trainees of HRM and finance will also undergo are year induction training programme. The executive trainee (HRM) training programme is jointly monitored by BHEL corporate office, BHEL, HRDI, and Unit HRD center as per ET HRM Training curriculum.

3. The trade apprentices training programme is for one year and is conducted as per apprenticeship programme, the trade apprentices are given theoretical inputs related to their respective trades followed by hands on practical experience in the production blocks. At the end of one year training they have to appears and pass all India Trade test conducted by director, Regional Board of Apprentice ship training.

4. For other trainees like technician Apprentices, Sandwich Trainees, Vocational Training Programmes as per Statutory Requirements.

5. HRD center is also providing summer vacation Training or project work training to the students of Engineering Master in Computer Application and Master of Business Administration.

Assistance during recruitment Test:
HRD center is assisting HR department during recruitment of trade apprentices and Technician apprentice trainees by conducting written examination and associating in interviews.

Faculty Development:
As a part of total development activity, facilitators of HRD center and executive from the plant are encourage to develop their capabilities to take up the faculty roles. In this aspect, HRD center is organizing annually one or two faculty Development training programmes with professionals from the premier training institutes.

Inter unit and Professional Institutes Collaboration:
To gain up to date knowledge HRD center workers with close collaboration with various BHEL sister units and other Professional Institutions and training institutes.

Computerization:
By utilizing personnel computers HRDC is generating various types of management information reports.

1. MIS’s
2. Budgeting
3. Employees training data besides, HRD center is also Organizing Computer Training Programmes as per changing needs of the organization.

DESIGNATING OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
AT B.H.E.L. (HRDC)

• Collect the database of the participants
• Sending nomination letter to the training coordinators
• Getting nomination
• Going through literature
• Design the program
• Fixing up of faculty
• Finalizing the program
• Arrange for study material
• Conduct the program
• Taking feed back from employees.




TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION

• The information related to training requirements is obtained, discussed, and consolidated with area training coordinators (ATC) and the training programmes are finalized for the year.

• The training programmes so identified are approved by Head HRDC and communicated to all holds in the form of annual training calendar.

• The respective HRDC facilitators, identified for conducting the training programme, as per the following guidelines, will carry out the designing of the training programmes.

 Title of the programmes
 Programme no.
 Duration
 Level of the participants
 Programme objectives
 Training evaluation
 Feed back

• The infrastructure and the resources required for conducting programmes shall be identified and provided by HRDC.

TRAINING EVALUATION
The effectiveness of training imparted is evaluated in two stages.

i) Firstly during the learning stage of the training programme by HRDC and
ii) Secondly through post training evaluation by the Concerned HOD.

1. First stage training evaluation is carried out by the respective training facilities of HRDC, during the learning stage of the training, in the form of a feedback obtained from participants.
2. Second stage Post training evaluation (PTE) shall be carried out for skill based, immediately after one year of training programmes PTE format will be sent by HRDC to concern HOD’s.

The HODs shall send the filled in PTE formats back to HRDC within the period of one month.

TRAINING RECORDS:

Records of all training processed through the HRDC shall be maintained in a database at the HRD center. However, the respective departments.


MEASUREMENT ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT:

• HRDC shall analyse the training effectiveness of the skill based training programme based on filled in PTE formats and review for improvement once in a year.

HRDC shall analyse such measurement and use them for continual improvement.


Objective of Budding Managers Programme

To develop efficient managers by

• Creating an awareness of the influence of business environment on the organization.
• Enhancing inter functional awareness in critical functional areas of BHEL
• Providing awareness of emerging trends and tools in management.
• Providing a conceptual and experiential understanding of the behavioural processes in an organization to enhance personnel inter-personnel and organizational effectiveness.
• Reviewing the present status of the organization and challenges ahead through interactions amongst the group and with the top management and,
• Self learning.

Coverage

• Economic scenario – Micro and Macro Dimensions
• Key issue in Planning, Customer Satisfaction, Competitiveness, Finance.
• Significant Strategic and Management Issues.
• Organization and people.
• Individual and Group Development.


Methodology

- Lectures, Group Discussions.
- Syndicate work, case studies, role plays.
- Management Films and experience sharing.

Duration
- 7 days

Eligibility
- E3 - E6 Executives form all the departments



METHODOLOGY:

Main objective of this study


• To study how training programs contribute to the goals of the organization

• To study how the evaluation of training programs is done in B.H.E.L.

• To study to what extend HRDC objectives are fulfilled

• To study to what extend the training programs conducted by HRDC has made an impact on the performance level of executives.


SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The programmes were conducted for the executives, supervisors and the workers of B.H.E.L. Hyderabad.


Scope

The scope of the study has been limited to the executives cadre of B.H.E.L., R.C. Puram unit only, since it was not possible to attend to all employees to whom the training programmes was imparted.




Sample size

The size of the sample was 100 and respondents are at the level of executives of HR/ Finance/ Purchase / Medical/ Commercial / Engineering Department in B.H.E.L. The data collected from 100 respondents are analysed and interpreted.

DATA COLLECTION

Data has been collected on two bases primary data and Secondary data.


Primary Data

Methodology used in the process of collecting the primary data is through questionnaire. Data has been gathered by executing a designed structured questionnaire, which consists of 20 questions.
Data has been collected through one to one interaction with executives.


Secondary Data

The secondary data related to the programme conducted. During 2001-2009 will be analysed and there by inferences will be drawn from the data collected.
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