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management lessons from the mahabharata

Discuss management lessons from the mahabharata within the Final 100 Mark Project forums, part of the Projects HUB for Management Students ( MBA Projects and dissertations / BMS Projects / BBA Projects category; hey i need help on the topic management lessons from the mahabharata. give me tips on how can i gather ...

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themaharana
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Post management lessons from the mahabharata - May 9th, 2006

hey i need help on the topic management lessons from the mahabharata.

give me tips on how can i gather primary data apart from the questionaires.

i know mahabharata as a story but need some books so that it would be helpful in the creation of my project.
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Re: management lessons from the mahabharata - May 9th, 2006

Search the site.. we have good info on management lessons from bhagwad gita .


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Re: management lessons from the mahabharata - May 29th, 2006

nothing on the site. checked everywhere
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Re: management lessons from the mahabharata - May 29th, 2006

Chck in articles section.. and get in touch with seniors of mithibai.. karan valecha n guys.. they made a good hard copy on a related topic.


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Re: management lessons from the mahabharata - July 30th, 2006

go and serch in ur coll library u can find books on that management from bagvad gita coz once i had come accross this book i don rember who is its author more over u can refer to bagvad gita in english or elese go to ISKON(hare rama hare krishana temple) these ppl have lots of books on such topics


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Re: management lessons from the mahabharata - July 30th, 2006

Mind is very restless, forceful and strong, O Krishna, it is more difficult to control the mind than to control the wind ~ Arjuna to Sri Krishna.

...Arjuna got mentally depressed when he saw his relatives with whom he has to fight. To motivate him the Bhagavad Gita is preached in the battle field Kurukshetra by Lord Krishna to Arjuna as a counseling to do his duty while multitudes of men stood by waiting .

Mind can be one's friend or enemy. Mind is the cause for both bondage and liberation. The word 'mind' is derived from man to think, and the word 'man' is derived from the word manu (sanskrit word for man).

Management is a systematic way of carrying out activities in any field of human effort.

Its task is to make people capable of joint performance, to make their weaknesses irrelevant, says the Management Guru Peter Drucker.

The general principles of effective management can be applied in every field, the differences being more in application than in principle. The Manager's functions can be summed up as:

1. Forming a vision

2. Planning the strategy to realise the vision.

3. Cultivating the art of leadership.

4. Establishing institutional excellence.

5. Building an innovative organisation.

6. Developing human resources.

7. Building teams and teamwork.

8. Delegation, motivation, and communication.

9. Reviewing performance and taking corrective steps when called for.

Thus, management is a process of aligning people and getting them committed to work for a common goal to the maximum social benefit - in search of excellence.

The critical question in all managers’ minds is how to be effective at their job.

The answer to this fundamental question is found in the Bhagavad Gita, which repeatedly proclaims that “you must try to manage yourself.”

The modern (Western) management concepts of vision, leadership, motivation, excellence in work, achieving goals, giving work meaning, decision making and planning, are all discussed in the Bhagavad Gita. There is one major difference. While Western management thought too often deals with problems at material, external and peripheral levels, the Bhagavad Gita tackles the issues from the grass roots level of human thinking. Once the basic thinking of man is improved, it will automatically enhance the quality of his actions and their results.

...By making the equable mind the bed-rock of all actions, the Gita evolved the goal of unification of work ethic with ethics in work, for without ethical process no mind can attain an equipoise.

...The principle of reducing our attachment to personal gains from the work done is the Gita’s prescription for attaining equanimity. It has been held that this principle leads to lack of incentive for effort, striking at the very root of work ethic. To the contrary, concentration on the task for its own sake leads to the achievement of excellence – and indeed to the true mental happiness of the worker.

....Thus, while commonplace theories of motivation may be said to lead us to the bondage or extrinsic rewards, the Gita’s principle leads us to the intrinsic rewards of mental, and indeed moral, satisfaction.

In the sentence, ‘Aham Brahmasmi,’ or I am Brahman, the ‘I’ is that which is the One Witnessing Consciousness, standing apart form even the intellect, different from the ego-principle, and shining through every act of thinking, feeling, etc. This Witness-Consciousness, being the same in all, is universal, and cannot be distinguished from Brahman, which is the Absolute. Hence the essential ‘I’ which is full, super-rational and resplendent, should be the same as Brahman. This is not the identification of the limited individual ‘I’ with Brahman, but it is the Universal Substratum of individuality that is asserted to be what it is. The copula ‘am’ does not signify any empirical relation between two entities, but affirms the non-duality of essence. This dictum is from the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad.**
While India is emerging as a superpower, the Management systems of our generation also have to get Indianised. India which was once the richest country of the world has great Management Principles on which it operated. All these concepts are available to us even today in the form of the Ancient scriptures that our ‘Rishis’ left for us.



The Managers working in various companies have to day in and day out deal with various problems that the employees come across. Today HR is not just a department but a bridge between the employees and the Top Management, the past and the evolving future, company goals and human purposes.




This unique training program being conducted for the first time will set the HR managers into an adventure in thinking – an Indian way from Kautilya’s Arthashastra the world’s first management book written by Chanakya in 350 BC. It gives us principles and techniques that can be very successfully applied in the modern days to bring out the best in oneself and the employees in a company.
* A networking opportunity of like minded HR professionals who want to create a ‘Change’ in their own organisation / pattern of working.
This book written by Kautilya (popularly known as Chanakya) in 350 B.C. has been studied by leaders of various generations for better managing their kingdom, organizations and people. “Chanakya, The world’s first Management Guru” has become immortal in the field of Management due to this voluminous work of his. It contains over 6000 verses divided into 150 chapters and 180 sections. Covering topics like Statecraft, economics, Military warfare, Law and order, this book is a masterpiece by itself. Today the modern corporate world can benefit from the various Management topics covered in the book which includes Selection of Employees, Training, Consultancy, Competition, strategy, Time Management, Mergers and Acquisitions among many others. There is no topic of Management which has not been covered in this one book. As one of the western scholars said, “Kautilya’s Arthashastra is not a book it is a Library”. Therefore it is called a book of ‘Total Management’

The ancient Hindu philosophy of keepiing mind and body for the well being, has entered the managerial, medical and judicial domain of the world. Today it has found its place as an alternative medicine to cure various ailments including depression and also as a means to bring back cowards to the right path of peace and prosperity and to enable them to do their duty..I believe that in all the living languages of the world, there is no book so full of true knowledge, and yet so handy. It teaches self-control, austerity, non-violence, compassion, obedience to the call of duty for the sake of duty, and putting up a fight against unrighteousness (Adharma). To my knowledge, there is no book in the whole range of the world’s literature so high above as the Bhagavad-Gita, which is the treasure-house of Dharma nor only for the Hindus but foe all mankind.The Mahabharata has all the essential ingredients necessary to evolve and protect humanity and that within it the Bhagavad-Gita is the epitome of the Mahabharata just as ghee is the essence of milk and pollen is the essence of flowers."
The teachings of Koran ( a man's life is subject to inner storms far
more devastating than those in the material world around him. In such
storms in the bitter anguish of personal sorrow which almost removed
the reason and made life seem meaningless, a new hope was born out of
a systematic understanding of Koran which repeatedly warns The
Believer to avoid "exceeding the limits" set by God.), The Ten
Commandments, the Ten Precepts of the Buddha, and verse 16:1 of the
Bhagavad Gita, all clearly state moralistic teachings for human
welfare. Mind is very restless, forceful and strong, O Krishna, it is
more difficult to control the mind than to control the wind ~ Arjuna
to Sri Krishna Introduction The ancient (nearly 5000 years old)
Indian philosophy of keepiing mind and body for the well being, has
entered the managerial, medical and judicial domain of the world.

Today it has found its place as an alternative to the theory of
modern management and also as a means to bring back the right path of
peace and prosperity for the human beings. One of the greatest
contributions of India to the world is Holy Gita which is considered
to be one of the first revelations from God.

The management lessons in this holy book were brought in to light of
the world by divine Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and Swamy Chinmayananda,
and now being popularized by Swami Bodhananda, a renowned seer and
teacher of Vedanta, meditation and values, the spiritual philosophy
by Swamy Vivekananda, the devotional philosophy by Sri Srila
Prabhupada Swami, personality development by Sri. Sri Ravishankar,
its relevance to uplift the weaker sections by Mata Amrithanandamayi
Devi, and humanism by Sai Baba. Maharishi calls the Bhagavad-Gita,
the essence of Vedic Literature and a complete guide to practical
life. It provides "all that is needed to raise the consciousness of
man to the highest possible level." , reveals the deep, universal
truths of life that speak to the needs and aspirations of everyone.
Arjuna got mentally depressed when he saw his relatives with whom he
has to fight.( Mental health has become a major international public
health concern now).

To motivate him the Bhagavad Gita is preached in the battle field
Kurukshetra by Lord Krishna to Arjuna as a counseling to do his duty
while multitudes of men stood by waiting . It has got all the
management tactics to achieve the mental equilibrium and to overcome
any crisis situation. The Bhagavad Gita can be experienced as a
powerful catalyst for transformation. Bhagavad gita means song of the
Spirit, song of the Lord. The Holy Gita has become a secret driving
force behind the unfoldment of one's life. In the days of doubt this
divine book will support all spiritual search.This divine book will
contribute to self reflection, finer feeling and deepen one's inner
process. Then life in the world can become a real education—dynamic,
full and joyful—no matter what the circumstance. May the wisdom of
loving consciousness ever guide us on our journey. What makes the
Holy Gita a practical psychology of transformation is that it offers
us the tools to connect with our deepest intangible essence and we
must learn to participate in the battle of life with right
knowledge.Many great thinkers from our times such as Albert Einstein,
Mahatma Gandhi and Albert Schweizer as well as Madhvacarya, Sankara
and Ramanuja from bygone ages have all contemplated on the Bhagavad
Gita and its timeless message.

The primary purpose of the Bhagavad Gita is to illuminate for all of
humanity the realization of the true nature of divinity; for the
highest spiritual conception, to motivate people to do things in a
better way, and the greatest material perfection is to attain love of
God! The Holy Gita is the essence of the Vedas, Upanishads. It is a
universal scripture applicable to people of all temperaments and for
all times. It is a book with sublime thoughts and practical
instructions on Yoga, Devotion, Vedanta and Action. It is profound in
thought and sublime in heights of vision. It brings peace and solace
to souls that are afflicted by the three fires of mortal existence,
namely, afflictions caused by one's own body (disease etc), those
caused by beings around one (e.g. wild animals, snakes etc.), and
those caused by the gods (natural disasters, earth-quakes, floods
etc). Mind can be one's friend or enemy.

Mind is the cause for both bondage and liberation. The word mind is
derived from man to think and the word man derived from manu
(sanskrit word for man). "The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone's
heart, O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living
entities, who are seated as on a machine, made of the material
energy." There is no theory to be internalized and applied in this
psychology. Ancient practices spontaneously induce what each person
needs as the individual and the universal coincide. The work proceeds
through intellectual knowledge of the playing field(jnana yoga),
emotional devotion to the ideal(bhakti yoga) and right action that
includes both feeling and knowledge(karma yoga). With ongoing
purification we approach wisdom. The Bhagavad Gita is a message
addressed to each and every human individual to help him or her to
solve the vexing problem of overcoming the present and progressing
towards a bright future. Within its eighteen chapters is revealed a
human drama. This is the experience of everyone in this world, the
drama of the ascent of man from a state of utter dejection, sorrow
and total breakdown and hopelessness to a state of perfect
understanding, clarity, renewed strength and triumph. Introduction.

Modern Management has become a necessity of everyday life, be it at
family,in friend circle, in sports, in the office or factory and in
Government. In all organizations, where a group of human beings
assemble for a common purpose, management principles come into play
through the management of resources, finance and planning,
priorities, policies and practice. Management is a systematic way of
carrying out activities in any field of human effort. Its task is to
make people capable of joint performance, to make their weaknesses
irrelevant, says the Management Guru Peter Drucker. It creates
harmony in working together - equilibrium in thoughts and actions,
goals and achievements, plans and performance, products and markets.
It resolves situations of scarcity, be they in the physical,
technical or human fields, through maximum utilization with the
minimum available processes to achieve the goal. Lack of management
causes disorder, confusion, wastage, delay, destruction and even
depression. Managing men, money and materials in the best possible
way, according to circumstances and environment, is the most
important and essential factor for a successful management.

Management guidelines from the Bhagavad Gita There is an important
distinction between effectiveness and efficiency in managing. ·
Effectiveness is doing the right things. · Efficiency is doing things
right. The general principles of effective management can be applied
in every field, the differences being more in application than in
principle. The Manager's functions can be summed up as: · Forming a
vision · Planning the strategy to realise the vision. · Cultivating
the art of leadership. · Establishing institutional excellence. ·
Building an innovative organisation. · Developing human resources. ·
Building teams and teamwork. · Delegation, motivation, and
communication. · Reviewing performance and taking corrective steps
when called for. Thus, management is a process of aligning people and
getting them committed to work for a common goal to the maximum
social benefit - in search of excellence. The critical question in
all managers' minds is how to be effective in their job. The answer
to this fundamental question is found in the Bhagavad Gita, which
repeatedly proclaims that "you must try to manage yourself." The
reason is that unless a manager reaches a level of excellence and
effectiveness, he or she will be merely a face in the crowd.

Old truths in a new context The Bhagavad Gita, written thousands of
years ago, enlightens us on all managerial techniques leading us
towards a harmonious and blissful state of affairs in place of the
conflict, tensions, poor productivity, absence of motivation and so
on, common in most of Indian enterprises today – and probably in
enterprises in many other countries. The modern (Western) management
concepts of vision, leadership, motivation, excellence in work,
achieving goals, giving work meaning, decision making and planning,
are all discussed in the Bhagavad Gita. There is one major
difference. While Western management thought too often deals with
problems at material, external and peripheral levels, the Bhagavad
Gita tackles the issues from the grass roots level of human thinking.
Once the basic thinking of man is improved, it will automatically
enhance the quality of his actions and their results. The management
philosophy emanating from the West, is based on the lure of
materialism and on a perennial thirst for profit, irrespective of the
quality of the means adopted to achieve that goal.

This phenomenon has its source in the abundant wealth of the West and
so 'management by materialism' has caught the fancy of all the
countries the world over, India being no exception to this trend. My
country, India, has been in the forefront in importing these ideas
mainly because of its centuries old indoctrination by colonial
rulers, which has inculcated in us a feeling that anything Western is
good and anything Indian is inferior. The result is that, while huge
funds have been invested in building temples of modem management
education, no perceptible changes are visible in the improvement of
the general quality of life - although the standards of living of a
few has gone up. The same old struggles in almost all sectors of the
economy, criminalisation of institutions, social violence,
exploitation and other vices are seen deep in the body politic. The
source of the problem The reasons for this sorry state of affairs are
not far to seek. The Western idea of management centres on making the
worker (and the manager) more efficient and more productive.
Companies offer workers more to work more, produce more, sell more
and to stick to the organisation without looking for alternatives.

The sole aim of extracting better and more work from the worker is to
improve the bottom-line of the enterprise. The worker has become a
hireable commodity, which can be used, replaced and discarded at
will. Thus, workers have been reduced to the state of a mercantile
product. In such a state, it should come as no surprise to us that
workers start using strikes (gheraos) sit-ins, (dharnas) go-slows,
work-to-rule etc. to get maximum benefit for themselves from the
organisations. Society-at-large is damaged. Thus we reach a situation
in which management and workers become separate and contradictory
entities with conflicting interests. There is no common goal or
understanding. This, predictably, leads to suspicion, friction,
disillusion and mistrust, with managers and workers at cross
purposes. The absence of human values and erosion of human touch in
the organisational structure has resulted in a crisis of confidence.
Western management philosophy may have created prosperity – for some
people some of the time at least - but it has failed in the aim of
ensuring betterment of individual life and social welfare. It has
remained by and large a soulless edifice and an oasis of plenty for a
few in the midst of poor quality of life for many.

Hence, there is an urgent need to re-examine prevailing management
disciplines - their objectives, scope and content. Management should
be redefined to underline the development of the worker as a person,
as a human being, and not as a mere wage-earner. With this changed
perspective, management can become an instrument in the process of
social, and indeed national, development. Now let us re-examine some
of the modern management concepts in the light of the Bhagavad Gita
which is a primer of management-by-values. Utilisation of available
resources The first lesson of management science is to choose wisely
and utilise scarce resources optimally. During the curtain raiser
before the Mahabharata War, Duryodhana chose Sri Krishna's large army
for his help while Arjuna selected Sri Krishna's wisdom for his
support. This episode gives us a clue as to the nature of the
effective manager - the former chose numbers, the latter, wisdom.
Work commitment A popular verse of the Gita advises "detachment" from
the fruits or results of actions performed in the course of one's
duty. Being dedicated work has to mean "working for the sake of work,
generating excellence for its own sake." If we are always calculating
the date of promotion or the rate of commission before putting in our
efforts, then such work is not detached. It is not "generating
excellence for its own sake" but working only for the extrinsic
reward that may (or may not) result.

Working only with an eye to the anticipated benefits, means that the
quality of performance of the current job or duty suffers - through
mental agitation of anxiety for the future. In fact, the way the
world works means that events do not always respond positively to our
calculations and hence expected fruits may not always be forthcoming.
So, the Gita tells us not to mortgage present commitment to an
uncertain future. Some people might argue that not seeking the
business result of work and actions, makes one unaccountable. In
fact, the Bhagavad Gita is full of advice on the theory of cause and
effect, making the doer responsible for the consequences of his
deeds. While advising detachment from the avarice of selfish gains in
discharging one's accepted duty, the Gita does not absolve anybody of
the consequences arising from discharge of his or her
responsibilities. Thus the best means of effective performance
management is the work itself. Attaining this state of mind
(called "nishkama karma") is the right attitude to work because it
prevents the ego, the mind, from dissipation of attention through
speculation on future gains or losses. Motivation – self and self-
transcendence It has been presumed for many years that satisfying
lower order needs of workers - adequate food, clothing and shelter,
etc. are key factors in motivation.

However, it is a common experience that the dissatisfaction of the
clerk and of the Director is identical - only their scales and
composition vary. It should be true that once the lower-order needs
are more than satisfied, the Director should have little problem in
optimising his contribution to the organisation and society. But more
often than not, it does not happen like that. ("The eagle soars high
but keeps its eyes firmly fixed on the dead animal below.") On the
contrary, a lowly paid schoolteacher, or a self-employed artisan, may
well demonstrate higher levels of self-actualisation despite poorer
satisfaction of their lower-order needs. This situation is explained
by the theory of self-transcendence propounded in the Gita. Self-
transcendence involves renouncing egoism, putting others before
oneself, emphasising team work, dignity, co-operation, harmony and
trust – and, indeed potentially sacrificing lower needs for higher
goals, the opposite of Maslow. "Work must be done with detachment."
It is the ego that spoils work and the ego is the centrepiece of most
theories of motivation. We need not merely a theory of motivation but
a theory of inspiration.

The Great Indian poet, Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941, known
as "Gurudev") says working for love is freedom in action. A concept
which is described as "disinterested work" in the Gita where Sri
Krishna says, "He who shares the wealth generated only after serving
the people, through work done as a sacrifice for them, is freed from
all sins. On the contrary those who earn wealth only for themselves,
eat sins that lead to frustration and failure." Disinterested work
finds expression in devotion, surrender and equipoise. The former two
are psychological while the third is determination to keep the mind
free of the dualistic (usually taken to mean "materialistic") pulls
of daily experiences. Detached involvement in work is the key to
mental equanimity or the state of "nirdwanda."

This attitude leads to a stage where the worker begins to feel the
presence of the Supreme Intelligence guiding the embodied individual
intelligence. Such de-personified intelligence is best suited for
those who sincerely believe in the supremacy of organisational goals
as compared to narrow personal success and achievement. Work culture
An effective work culture is about vigorous and arduous efforts in
pursuit of given or chosen tasks. Sri Krishna elaborates on two types
of work culture – "daivi sampat" or divine work culture and "asuri
sampat" or demonic work culture. · Daivi work culture - involves
fearlessness, purity, self-control, sacrifice, straightforwardness,
self-denial, calmness, absence of fault-finding, absence of greed,
gentleness, modesty, absence of envy and pride. · Asuri work culture -
involves egoism, delusion, personal desires, improper performance,
work not oriented towards service. Mere work ethic is not enough. The
hardened criminal exhibits an excellent work ethic.

What is needed is a work ethic conditioned by ethics in work. It is
in this light that the counsel, "yogah karmasu kausalam" should be
understood. "Kausalam" means skill or technique of work which is an
indispensable component of a work ethic. "Yogah" is defined in the
Gita itself as "samatvam yogah uchyate" meaning an unchanging
equipoise of mind (detachment.) Tilak tells us that acting with an
equable mind is Yoga. (Bal Gangadhar Tilak, 1856-1920, the precursor
of Gandhiji, hailed by the people of India as "Lokmanya," probably
the most learned among the country's political leaders. For a
description of the meanings of the word "Yoga", see foot of this
page.) By making the equable mind the bed-rock of all actions, the
Gita evolved the goal of unification of work ethic with ethics in
work, for without ethical process no mind can attain an equipoise.
The guru, Adi Sankara (born circa 800 AD), says that the skill
necessary in the performance of one's duty is that of maintaining an
evenness of mind in face of success and failure.

The calm mind in the face of failure will lead to deeper
introspection and see clearly where the process went wrong so that
corrective steps could be taken to avoid shortcomings in future. The
principle of reducing our attachment to personal gains from the work
done is the Gita's prescription for attaining equanimity. It has been
held that this principle leads to lack of incentive for effort,
striking at the very root of work ethic. To the contrary,
concentration on the task for its own sake leads to the achievement
of excellence – and indeed to the true mental happiness of the
worker.

Thus, while commonplace theories of motivation may be said to lead us
to the bondage or extrinsic rewards, the Gita's principle leads us to
the intrinsic rewards of mental, and indeed moral, satisfaction. Work
results The Gita further explains the theory of "detachment" from the
extrinsic rewards of work in saying: · If the result of sincere
effort is a success, the entire credit should not be appropriated by
the doer alone. · If the result of sincere effort is a failure, then
too the entire blame does not accrue to the doer. The former attitude
mollifies arrogance and conceit while the latter prevents excessive
despondency, de-motivation and self-pity. Thus both these
dispositions safeguard the doer against psychological vulnerability,
the cause of the modem managers' companions of diabetes, high blood
pressure and ulcers. Assimilation of the ideas of the Gita leads us
to the wider spectrum of "lokasamgraha" (general welfare) but there
is also another dimension to the work ethic - if the "karmayoga"
(service) is blended with "bhaktiyoga" (devotion), then the work
itself becomes worship, a "sevayoga" (service for its own sake.)
Along with bhakti yoga as a means of liberation, the Gita espouses
the doctrine of nishkamya karma or pure action untainted by hankering
after the fruits resulting from that action. Modern scientists have
now understood the intuitive wisdom of that action in a new light.
Scientists at the US National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda,
found that laboratory monkeys that started out as procrastinators,
became efficient workers after they received brain injections that
suppressed a gene linked to their ability to anticipate a reward.

The scientists reported that the work ethic of rhesus macaques wasn't
all that different from that of many people: "If the reward is not
immediate, you procrastinate", Dr Richmond told LA Times. (This may
sound a peculiarly religious idea but it has a wider application. It
could be taken to mean doing something because it is worthwhile, to
serve others, to make the world a better place – ed.) Manager's
mental health Sound mental health is the very goal of any human
activity - more so management. Sound mental health is that state of
mind which can maintain a calm, positive poise, or regain it when
unsettled, in the midst of all the external vagaries of work life and
social existence. Internal constancy and peace are the pre-requisites
for a healthy stress-free mind. Some of the impediments to sound
mental health are: · Greed - for power, position, prestige and money.
· Envy - regarding others' achievements, success, rewards. · Egotism -
about one's own accomplishments. · Suspicion, anger and frustration.
· Anguish through comparisons. The driving forces in today's
businesses are speed and competition.

There is a distinct danger that these forces cause erosion of the
moral fibre, that in seeking the end, one permits oneself immoral
means - tax evasion, illegitimate financial holdings,
being "economical with the truth", deliberate oversight in the audit,
too-clever financial reporting and so on. This phenomenon may be
called as "yayati syndrome". In the book, the Mahabharata, we come
across a king by the name of Yayati who, in order to revel in the
endless enjoyment of flesh exchanged his old age with the youth of
his obliging youngest son for a thousand years. However, he found the
pursuit of sensual enjoyments ultimately unsatisfying and came back
to his son pleading him to take back his youth. This "yayati
syndrome" shows the conflict between externally directed acquisitions
(extrinsic motivation) and inner value and conscience (intrinsic
motivation.) Management needs those who practise what they
preach "Whatever the excellent and best ones do, the commoners
follow," says Sri Krishna in the Gita. The visionary leader must be a
missionary, extremely practical, intensively dynamic and capable of
translating dreams into reality.

This dynamism and strength of a true leader flows from an inspired
and spontaneous motivation to help others. "I am the strength of
those who are devoid of personal desire and attachment. O Arjuna, I
am the legitimate desire in those, who are not opposed to
righteousness," says Sri Krishna in the 10th Chapter of the Gita. In
conclusion The despondency of Arjuna in the first chapter of the Gita
is typically human. Sri Krishna, by sheer power of his inspiring
words, changes Arjuna's mind from a state of inertia to one of
righteous action, from the state of what the French philosophers
call "anomie" or even alienation, to a state of self-confidence in
the ultimate victory of "dharma" (ethical action.) When Arjuna got
over his despondency and stood ready to fight, Sri Krishna reminded
him of the purpose of his new-found spirit of intense action - not
for his own benefit, not for satisfying his own greed and desire, but
for the good of many, with faith in the ultimate victory of ethics
over unethical actions and of truth over untruth. Sri Krishna's
advice with regard to temporary failures is, "No doer of good ever
ends in misery."

Every action should produce results. Good action produces good
results and evil begets nothing but evil. Therefore, always act well
and be rewarded. My purport is not to suggest discarding of the
Western model of efficiency, dynamism and striving for excellence but
to tune these ideals to India's holistic attitude of "lokasangraha" -
for the welfare of many, for the good of many. There is indeed a
moral dimension to business life. What we do in business is no
different, in this regard, to what we do in our personal lives. The
means do not justify the ends. Pursuit of results for their own sake,
is ultimately self-defeating. ("Profit," said Matsushita-san in
another tradition, "is the reward of correct behaviour." – ed.) A
note on the word "yoga". Yoga has two different meanings - a general
meaning and a technical meaning. The general meaning is the joining
together or union of any two or more things. The technical meaning
is "a state of stability and peace and the means or practices which
lead to that state." The Bhagavad Gita uses the word with both
meanings.

M.P.Bhattathiri.

Let us go through what scholars say about Holy Gita. "No work in all
Indian literature is more quoted, because none is better loved, in
the West, than the Bhagavad-gita. Translation of such a work demands
not only knowledge of Sanskrit, but an inward sympathy with the theme
and a verbal artistry. For the poem is a symphony in which God is
seen in all things. . . . The Swami does a real service for students
by investing the beloved Indian epic with fresh meaning. Whatever our
outlook may be, we should all be grateful for the labor that has lead
to this illuminating work." Dr. Geddes MacGregor, Emeritus
Distinguished Professor of Philosophy University of Southern
California "The Gita can be seen as the main literary support for the
great religious civilization of India, the oldest surviving culture
in the world. The present translation and commentary is another
manifestation of the permanent living importance of the Gita."

Thomas Merton, Theologian "I am most impressed with A.C.
Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada's scholarly and authoritative edition
of Bhagavad-gita. It is a most valuable work for the scholar as well
as the layman and is of great utility as a reference book as well as
a textbook. I promptly recommend this edition to my students. It is a
beautifully done book." Dr. Samuel D. Atkins Professor of Sanskrit,
Princeton University "As a successor in direct line from Caitanya,
the author of Bhagavad-gita As It Is is entitled, according to Indian
custom, to the majestic title of His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta
Swami Prabhupada. The great interest that his reading of the Bhagavad-
gita holds for us is that it offers us an authorized interpretation
according to the principles of the Caitanya tradition."

Olivier Lacombe Professor of Sanskrit and Indology, Sorbonne
University, Paris "I have had the opportunity of examining several
volumes published by the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust and have found them
to be of excellent quality and of great value for use in college
classes on Indian religions. This is particularly true of the BBT
edition and translation of the Bhagavad-gita." Dr. Frederick B.
Underwood Professor of Religion, Columbia University "If truth is
what works, as Pierce and the pragmatists insist, there must be a
kind of truth in the Bhagavad-gita As It Is, since those who follow
its teachings display a joyous serenity usually missing in the bleak
and strident lives of contemporary people." Dr. Elwin H. Powell
Professor of Sociology State University of New York, Buffalo "There
is little question that this edition is one of the best books
available on the Gita and devotion. Prabhupada's translation is an
ideal blend of literal accuracy and religious insight."

Dr. Thomas J. Hopkins Professor of Religion, Franklin and Marshall
College "The Bhagavad-gita, one of the great spiritual texts, is not
as yet a common part of our cultural milieu. This is probably less
because it is alien per se than because we have lacked just the kind
of close interpretative commentary upon it that Swami Bhaktivedanta
has here provided, a commentary written from not only a scholar's but
a practitioner's, a dedicated lifelong devotee's point of view."
Denise Levertov, Poet "The increasing numbers of Western readers
interested in classical Vedic thought have been done a service by
Swami Bhaktivedanta. By bringing us a new and living interpretation
of a text already known to many, he has increased our understanding
manyfold." Dr. Edward C Dimock, Jr. Department of South Asian
Languages and Civilization University of Chicago "The scholarly world
is again indebted to A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Although
Bhagavad-gita has been translated many times, Prabhupada adds a
translation of singular importance with his commentary."

Dr. J. Stillson Judah, Professor of the History of Religions and
Director of Libraries Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley,
California "Srila Prabhupada's edition thus fills a sensitive gap in
France, where many hope to become familiar with traditional Indian
thought, beyond the commercial East-West hodgepodge that has arisen
since the time Europeans first penetrated India. "Whether the reader
be an adept of Indian spiritualism or not, a reading of the Bhagavad-
gita As It Is will be extremely profitable. For many this will be the
first contact with the true India, the ancient India, the eternal
India." Francois Chenique, Professor of Religious Sciences Institute
of Political Studies, Paris, France "It was as if an empire spoke to
us, nothing small or unworthy, but large, serene, consistent, the
voice of an old intelligence which in another age and climate had
pondered and thus disposed of the same questions which exercise us"
Emerson's reaction to the Gita "As a native of India now living in
the West, it has given me much grief to see so many of my fellow
countrymen coming to the West in the role of gurus and spiritual
leaders. For this reason, I am very excited to see the publication of
Bhagavad-gita As It Is by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. It
will help to stop the terrible cheating of false and
unauthorized 'gurus' and 'yogis' and will give an opportunity to all
people to understand the actual meaning of Oriental culture." Dr.
Kailash Vajpeye, Director of Indian Studies Center for Oriental
Studies, The University of Mexico "The Gita is one of the clearest
and most comprehensive one, of the summaries and systematic spiritual
statements of the perennial philosophy ever to have been done"

Adous Huxley "It is a deeply felt, powerfully conceived and
beautifully explained work. I don't know whether to praise more this
translation of the Bhagavad-gita, its daring method of explanation,
or the endless fertility of its ideas. I have never seen any other
work on the Gita with such an important voice and style. . . . It
will occupy a significant place in the intellectual and ethical life
of modern man for a long time to come." Dr. Shaligram Shukla
Professor of Linguistics, Georgetown University "I can say that in
the Bhagavad-gita As It Is I have found explanations and answers to
questions I had always posed regarding the interpretations of this
sacred work, whose spiritual discipline I greatly admire. If the
aesceticism and ideal of the apostles which form the message of the
Bhagavad-gita As It Is were more widespread and more respected, the
world in which we live would be transformed into a better, more
fraternal place." Dr. Paul Lesourd, Author Professeur Honoraire,
Catholic University of Paris "When I read the Bhagavad-Gita and
reflect about how God created this universe everything else seems so
superfluous." Albert Einstein "When doubts haunt me, when
disappointments stare me in the face, and I see not one ray of hope
on the horizon, I turn to Bhagavad-gita and find a verse to comfort
me; and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming
sorrow. Those who meditate on the Gita will derive fresh joy and new
meanings from it every day.

Mahatma Gandhi "In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous
and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagavad-gita, in comparison with
which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial."
Henry David Thoreau "The Bhagavad-Gita has a profound influence on
the spirit of mankind by its devotion to God which is manifested by
actions." Dr. Albert Schweitzer "The Bhagavad-Gita is a true
scripture of the human race a living creation rather than a book,
with a new message for every age and a new meaning for every
civilization." Sri Aurobindo "The idea that man is like unto an
inverted tree seems to have been current in by gone ages. The link
with Vedic conceptions is provided by Plato in his Timaeus in which
it states 'behold we are not an earthly but a heavenly plant.' This
correlation can be discerned by what Krishna expresses in chapter 15
of Bhagavad-Gita." Carl Jung "The Bhagavad-Gita deals essentially
with the spiritual foundation of human existence. It is a call of
action to meet the obligations and duties of life; yet keeping in
view the spiritual nature and grander purpose of the universe." Prime
Minister Nehru "The marvel of the Bhagavad-Gita is its truly
beautiful revelation of life's wisdom which enables philosophy to
blossom into religion." Herman Hesse "I owed a magnificent day to the
Bhagavad-gita.

It was the first of books; it was as if an empire spoke to us,
nothing small or unworthy, but large, serene, consistent, the voice
of an old intelligence which in another age and climate had pondered
and thus disposed of the same questions which exercise us." Ralph
Waldo Emerson "In order to approach a creation as sublime as the
Bhagavad-Gita with full understanding it is necessary to attune our
soul to it." Rudolph Steiner "From a clear knowledge of the Bhagavad-
Gita all the goals of human existence become fulfilled. Bhagavad-Gita
is the manifest quintessence of all the teachings of the Vedic
scriptures." Adi Shankara "The Bhagavad-Gita is the most systematic
statement of spiritual evolution of endowing value to mankind. It is
one of the most clear and comprehensive summaries of perennial
philosophy ever revealed; hence its enduring value is subject not
only to India but to all of humanity." Aldous Huxley "The Bhagavad-
Gita was spoken by Lord Krishna to reveal the science of devotion to
God which is the essence of all spiritual knowledge. The Supreme Lord
Krishna's primary purpose for descending and incarnating is relieve
the world of any demoniac and negative, undesirable influences that
are opposed to spiritual development, yet simultaneously it is His
incomparable intention to be perpetually within reach of all
humanity." Ramanuja The Bhagavad-Gita is not seperate from the
Vaishnava philosophy and the Srimad Bhagavatam fully reveals the true
import of this doctrine which is transmigation of the soul. On
perusal of the first chapter of Bhagavad-Gita one may think that they
are advised to engage in warfare. When the second chapter has been
read it can be clearly understood that knowledge and the soul is the
ultimate goal to be attained.

On studying the third chapter it is apparent that acts of
righteousness are also of high priority. If we continue and patiently
take the time to complete the Bhagavad-Gita and try to ascertain the
truth of its closing chapter we can see that the ultimate conclusion
is to relinquish all the conceptualized ideas of religion which we
possess and fully surrender directly unto the Supreme Lord.
Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati "The Mahabharata has all the essential
ingredients necessary to evolve and protect humanity and that within
it the Bhagavad-Gita is the epitome of the Mahabharata just as ghee
is the essence of milk and pollen is the essence of flowers."
Madhvacarya Yoga has two different meanings - a general meaning and a
technical meaning. The general meaning is the joining together or
union of any two or more things. The technical meaning is "a state of
stability and peace and the means or practices which lead to that
state." The Bhagavad Gita uses the word with both meanings. Lord
Krishna is real Yogi who can maintain a peaceful mind in the midst of
any crisis." Mata Amritanandamayi Devi. Prajnanam Brahma
Consciousness is Brahman (Aitareya Upanishad 3.3, of Rg Veda) Other
Translations: Brahman is pure consciousness; Brahman is knowing;
Brahman is intelligence In the sentence, `Prajnanam Brahma' or
Consciousness is Brahman, a definition of Reality is given.

The best definition of Brahman would be to give expression to its
supra-essential essence, and not to describe it with reference to
accidental attributes, such as creatorship etc. That which is
ultimately responsible for all our sensory activities, as seeing,
hearing, etc., is Consciousness. Though Consciousness does not
directly see or hear, it is impossible to have these sensory
operations without it. Hence it should be considered as the final
meaning of our mental and physical activities. Brahman is that which
is Absolute, fills all space, is complete in itself, to which there
is no second, and which is continuously present in everything, from
the creator down to the lowest of matter. It, being everywhere, is
also in each and every individual. This is the meaning of Prajnanam
Brahma occurring in the Aitareya Upanishad.** Ayam Atma Brahma This
Self is Brahman (Mandukya Upanishad 1.2, of Atharva Veda) Other
Translations: Brahman is this Self; This Self is Brahma The
Mahavakya, `Ayam Atma Brahma' or `This Self is Brahman,' occurs in
the Mandukya Upanishad. `Ayam' means `this,' and here `thisness'
refers to the self-luminous and non-mediate nature of the Self, which
is internal to everything, from the Ahamkara or ego down to the
physical body. This Self is Brahman, which is the substance out of
which all things are really made. That which is everywhere, is also
within us, and what is within us is everywhere. This is
called `Brahman,' because it is plenum, fills all space, expands into
all existence, and is vast beyond all measure of perception or
knowledge. On account of self-luminosity, non-relativity and
universality, Atman and Brahman are the same.

This identification of the Self with Absolute is not any act of
bringing together two differing natures, but is an affirmation that
absoluteness or universality includes everything, and there is
nothing outside it.** Tat Tvam Asi Thou art that (Chandogya Upanishad
6.8.7, of Sama Veda, Kaivalya Upanishad) Other Translations: That is
how you are; That art thou In the Chandogya Upanishad occurs the
Mahavakya, `Tat Tvam Asi' or `That thou art.' Sage Uddalaka mentions
this nine times, while instructing his disciple Svetaketu in the
nature of Reality. That which is one alone without a second, without
name and form, and which existed before creation, as well as after
creation, as pure Existence alone, is what is referred to as Tat or
That, in this sentence. The term Tvam stands for that which is in the
innermost recesses of the student or the aspirant, but which is
transcendent to the intellect, mind, senses, etc., and is the
real 'I' of the student addressed in the teaching.

The union of Tat and Tvam is by the term Asi or are. That Reality is
remote is a misconception, which is removed by the instruction that
it is within one's own self. The erroneous notion that the Self is
limited is dispelled by the instruction that it is the same as
Reality.** Aham Brahmasmi I am Brahman. (Brhadaranyaka Upanishad
1.4.10, of Yajur Veda, Mahanarayana Upanishad) In the sentence, `Aham
Brahmasmi,' or I am Brahman, the `I' is that which is the One
Witnessing Consciousness, standing apart form even the intellect,
different from the ego-principle, and shining through every act of
thinking, feeling, etc. This Witness-Consciousness, being the same in
all, is universal, and cannot be distinguished from Brahman, which is
the Absolute. Hence the essential `I' which is full, super-rational
and resplendent, should be the same as Brahman. This is not the
identification of the limited individual `I' with Brahman, but it is
the Universal Substratum of individuality that is asserted to be what
it is. The copula `am' does not signify any empirical relation
between two entities, but affirms the non-duality of essence. This
dictum is from the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad.** Karma, Bhakti, and
Jnana are but three paths to this end. And common to all the three is
renunciation. Renounce the desires, even of going to heaven, for
every desire related with body and mind creates bondage.

Our focus of action is neither to save the humanity nor to engage in
social reforms, not to seek personal gains, but to realize the
indwelling Self itself. Swami Vivekananda (England, London; 1895-
96 ) "Science describes the structures and processess; philosophy
attempts at their explaination.----- When such a perfect combination
of both science and philosophy is sung to perfection that Krishna
was, we have in this piece of work an appeal both to the head annd
heart. " ____________Swamy Chinmayanand on Gita I seek that Divine
Knowledge by knowing which nothing remains to be known!' For such a
person knowledge and ignorance has only one meaning: Have you
knowledge of God? If yes, you a Jnani! If not, you are ignorant.As
said in the Gita, chapter XIII/11, knowledge of Self, observing
everywhere the object of true Knowledge i.e. God, all this is
declared to be true Knowledge (wisdom); what is contrary to this is
ignorance." Sri Ramakrishna . Maharishi calls the Bhagavad-Gita the
essence of Vedic Literature and a complete guide to practical life.
It provides "all that is needed to raise the consciousness of man to
the highest possible level." Maharishi reveals the deep, universal
truths of life that speak to the needs and aspirations of everyone.
Maharshi Mahesh Yogi The Gita was preached as a preparatory lesson
for living worldly life with an eye to Release, Nirvana.

My last prayer to everyone, therefore, is that one should not fail to
thoroughly understand this ancient science of worldly life as early
as possible in one's life. --- Lokmanya Tilak I believe that in all
the living languages of the world, there is no book so full of true
knowledge, and yet so handy. It teaches self-control, austerity, non-
violence, compassion, obedience to the call of duty for the sake of
duty, and putting up a fight against unrighteousness (Adharma). To my
knowledge, there is no book in the whole range of the world's
literature so high above as the Bhagavad-Gita, which is the treasure-
house of Dharma nor only for the Hindus but foe all mankind
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nehasharmabms
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Re: management lessons from the mahabharata - July 30th, 2006

ki gal hai ! very good man keep up the good job its really good


lll


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If everything is lost and if nothing is left to be lost dont lose faith because future still remains and tomorrow is yet to be born
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Re: management lessons from the mahabharata - July 30th, 2006

hey bond really to god yaar........

well maharana.........is u need a more detailed thnig....thn try to get novel
"MRUTUNJAY" - BY SHIVAJI SAWANT........

its marathi novel and very well written......its on life of KARNA........but u wuld get a thorugh knowledge abt happenegins of MAHABHARTA


whisky, beer and cigarettes are the man's worst enemies.....arent they...????
but, the man who runs away fron his enemies is a coward.....


so face ur enemies and finish thm off....
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Re: management lessons from the mahabharata - August 11th, 2006

[REfer Human Values and management By:- Swami Dr. Pathasarathy
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Re: management lessons from the mahabharata - August 13th, 2006

I guess there is a Ebook Also Avaible in the Ebook Section...



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