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MB0038 Management Process and Organizational Behavior

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MB0038 Management Process and Organizational Behavior
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Naman Sharma
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MB0038 Management Process and Organizational Behavior - September 12th, 2014

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MB0038 Management Process and Orgsanizational Behavior
1.What do you mean by Span of Control? Differentiate between narrow span of control and wide span of control. Describe the factors that influence the span of control.
2.Define the term controlling. What are the pre-requisites of effective control?
3.Define the term ‘personality’. Describe Cattell’s Personality Factor Model.
4.Discuss the contemporary theories of motivation.
5.What are the factors that affect group behaviour?
6.Define the term ‘leadership’. Write a brief note on “Contingency Theories of Leadership”
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Re: MB0038 Management Process and Organizational Behavior - September 12th, 2014

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Looking for Answers of MBA assignments

MB0038 Management Process and Orgsanizational Behavior
1.What do you mean by Span of Control? Differentiate between narrow span of control and wide span of control. Describe the factors that influence the span of control.
2.Define the term controlling. What are the pre-requisites of effective control?
3.Define the term ‘personality’. Describe Cattell’s Personality Factor Model.
4.Discuss the contemporary theories of motivation.
5.What are the factors that affect group behaviour?
6.Define the term ‘leadership’. Write a brief note on “Contingency Theories of Leadership”

1.What do you mean by Span of Control? Differentiate between narrow span of control and wide span of control. Describe the factors that influence the span of control.

Meaning of Span of Control : -

Span of control is the term now used more commonly in business management, particularly human resource management. Span of control refers to the number of subordinates a supervisor has.


Differentiate between narrow span of control and wide span of control

wide / Optimum span of control ranges between 3 and 9 depending on the complexity of the work supervised and the need for tight control. Narrow would therefore be 3-5, for example an infantry fire team (3). Wide would be 7-9 as in some business teams. With physical work as opposed to abstract work, such as shop floor work in a factory, span can sometimes be increased to as much as 30 without a productivity loss because outputs are predetermined.Optimum span of control ranges between 3 and 9 depending on the complexity of the work supervised and the need for tight control. Narrow would therefore be 3-5, for example an infantry fire team (3). Wide would be 7-9 as in some business teams. With physical work as opposed to abstract work, such as shop floor work in a factory, span can sometimes be increased to as much as 30 without a productivity loss because outputs are predetermined.Optimum span of control ranges between 3 and 9 depending on the complexity of the work supervised and the need for tight control.

Narrow Span of Control would therefore be 3-5, for example an infantry fire team (3). Wide would be 7-9 as in some business teams. With physical work as opposed to abstract work, such as shop floor work in a factory, span can sometimes be increased to as much as 30 without a productivity loss because outputs are predetermined.Optimum span of control ranges between 3 and 9 depending on the complexity of the work supervised and the need for tight control. Narrow would therefore be 3-5, for example an infantry fire team (3). Wide would be 7-9 as in some business teams. With physical work as opposed to abstract work, such as shop floor work in a factory, span can sometimes be increased to as much as 30 without a productivity loss because outputs are predetermined.Optimum span of control ranges between 3 and 9 depending on the complexity of the work supervised and the need for tight control. Narrow would therefore be 3-5, for example an infantry fire team (3). Wide would be 7-9 as in some business teams. With physical work as opposed to abstract work, such as shop floor work in a factory, span can sometimes be increased to as much as 30 without a productivity loss because outputs are predetermined.Narrow Span Of Control determine as maximum coordination with subordinates. Or we can say a great deal of time spent with subordinates.

The Five (5) Factors Affecting Span of Control in Formal Organization, Are as follow:-
  • Diversity
  • Dispersion
  • Complex
  • Volume
  • Ability to delegate

Diversity: - Diversity is all about dissimilarity of the work being supervised. There must be more effect and attention, a manager must devote to planning, organizing leading and controlling.

Dispersion : - The more widely separated (geographically) the activities being supervised; the more difficult it to plan, organize, lead and control them.

Complex : - The complexity of work being performed will determine the frequency with which new kind of problems arise and the difficulty of handling them. It is more difficult to plan, organize, lead and control complex work because of the breadth of knowledge and information require to do an effective job.

Volume : - The volume of work being performed by those being supervised will influence the manager’s ability to plan, organize, lead and control, the workers.

Ability of Delegate : - If the manager confirms himself largely to managing; that is planning, organizing, leading and controlling he can supervise more people than if he insists on doing much at their work for them

2.Define the term controlling. What are the pre-requisites of effective control?

Controlling is one of the managerial functions like planning, organizing, staffing and directing. It is an important function because it helps to check the errors and to take the corrective action so that deviation from standards are minimized and stated goals of the organization are achieved in a desired manner. According to modern concepts, control is a foreseeing action whereas earlier concept of control was used only when errors were detected. Control in management means setting standards, measuring actual performance and taking corrective action.

3.Define the term ‘personality’. Describe Cattell’s Personality Factor Model.

Personality has to do with individual differences among people in behavior patterns, cognition and emotion. Different personality theorists present their own definitions of the word based on their theoretical positions.

According to Cattell, there is a continuum of personality traits. In other words, each person contains all of these 16 traits to a certain degree, but they might be high in some traits and low in others. The following personality trait list describes some of the descriptive terms used for each of the 16 personality dimensions described by Cattell.
  • Abstractedness: Imaginative versus practical
  • Apprehension: Worried versus confident
  • Dominance: Forceful versus submissive
  • Emotional Stability: Calm versus high strung
  • Liveliness: Spontaneous versus restrained
  • Openness to Change: Flexible versus attached to the familiar
  • Perfectionism: Controlled versus undisciplined
  • Privateness: Discreet versus open
  • Reasoning: Abstract versus concrete
  • Rule Consciousness: Conforming versus non-conforming
  • Self-Reliance: Self-sufficient versus dependent
  • Sensitivity: Tender-hearted versus tough-minded.
  • Social Boldness: Uninhibited versus shy
  • Tension: Impatient versus relaxed
  • Vigilance: Suspicious versus trusting
  • Warmth: Outgoing versus reserved

4.Discuss the contemporary theories of motivation.

Contemporary Theories of Motivation : - First, consider employees’ opportunity, ability and the “purpose” or objectives of the current performance evaluation system in which they work. Then, consider the link between individual effort – individual performance – organizational rewards and personal goals. Each link can be influenced by a variety of factors (i.e. needs, reinforcement, equity)

5.What are the factors that affect group behaviour?

Many factors can affect how well groups and teams perform. Among these are the cohesiveness of the group, the degree to which individual members conform to group standards, the roles and norms the group agrees to adopt and function by, the level and intensity of competition and conflict, and - finally – the style and competence of group leadership. Cohesiveness, Conformity, Competition and Conflict, Leadership

6.Define the term ‘leadership’. Write a brief note on “Contingency Theories of Leadership”

Leadership has been described as "a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task" For example, some understand a leader simply as somebody whom people follow, or as somebody who guides or directs others, while others define leadership as "organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal".

Contingency Theories of Leadership : What makes leadership effective in a group or organization? Scholars have been preoccupied with addressing this key question perhaps since the inception of leadership as a formal field of scientific inquiry. One classic approach that gained prominence during the 1970s and 1980s is contingency theories of leadership. Contingency theories hold that leadership effectiveness is related to the interplay of a leader's traits or behaviors and situational factors. History and Background The contingency approach to leadership was influenced by two earlier research programs endeavoring to pinpoint effective leadership behavior. During the 1950s, researchers at Ohio State University administered extensive questionnaires measuring a range of possible leader behaviors in various organizational contexts. Although multiple sets of leadership behaviors were originally identified based on these questionnaires, twotypes of behaviors proved to be especially typical of effective leaders:
(1) consideration, leader behaviors that include building good rapport and interpersonal relationships and showing support and concern for subordinates and
(2) initiating structure, leader behaviors that provided structure (e.g., role assignment, planning, scheduling) to ensure task completion and goal attainment.
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