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Supply Chain Management of E! Entertainment Television Inc.

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Supply Chain Management of E! Entertainment Television Inc. - December 30th, 2010

E! Entertainment Television, or more simply referred to as E!, is an American basic cable and satellite television network; the network has been wholly owned by Comcast since November 2006. As its name implies, it features programming relating to Hollywood and the entertainment world, though its programming has expanded to include reality series, feature films and some series and specials unrelated to the entertainment industry.

Statistics:
Private Company
Incorporated: 1989
Employees: 330
Sales: $120 million (1996 estimate)
SICs: 4841 Cable Television Services


Company History:

E! Entertainment Television Inc. is one of the fastest growing cable companies in the United States. The company's circulation jumped to 31.2 million subscribers in just a little more than five years, a phenomenal increase in the cable television industry, especially considering the fact that cable TV is already saturated. With an aggressive and youth-oriented programming strategy, E! Entertainment has become widely known for its irreverent talk shows, such as "Talk Soup," "The Gossip Show," and "The Howard Stern Show," with a host whose format and jokes are controversial but who is able to boost the ratings of his parent company. In the mid-1990s, E! Entertainment made a major move into the international arena, snatching up such clients as Sky Channel in the United Kingdom, StarTV in Asia, and Orbit in the Middle East.

E! Entertainment Television Inc. Value Chain

Its worth looking at the forces driving change across the overall value chain - this simple model gives the gist E! Entertainment Television Inc. it.

Media Value Chain (High Level)


From left to right:

Content Creation

The cost per unit E! Entertainment Television Inc. content creation has dropped considerable, due to:
- costs E! Entertainment Television Inc. equipment to capture, process and store content have been reduced considerably over the last few years, so that video programs and digitally rendered content E! Entertainment Television Inc. fairly high quality can be made very cheaply

- cost E! Entertainment Television Inc. finding existing content has also dropped (and more is available) allowing repurposing / mashups / mixes into new formats.

This has meant that more and more people can afford to make content, to the extent that ordinary users are making podcasts, videocasts, machinima, animation - ie User Generated Content

Aggregation and Publishing

This area comprises 5 main functions - collating, editing content, publishing, promoting and billing content. These functions in the pre internet environment were usually combined by publishing houses in any media industry. However, a number E! Entertainment Television Inc. forces are impacting them:
- Search allows end user to collate their own content at very low cost, leading to the "Long Tail" effect where users can find increasingly niche content.

- Social Media, in various forms, is driving collation and editing E! Entertainment Television Inc. content via recommendations from friends, aggregated groups (eg Amazon). Social Media is interesting in that the creators and the users are in effect one and the same, which means

- Online billing and payment (eg paypal etc) has removed much E! Entertainment Television Inc. the the friction E! Entertainment Television Inc. paying for goods - not just financial, but many people appreciate avoiding travel and salesmen.

- Open Source has allowed people to build new aggregation systems at a fraction E! Entertainment Television Inc. the costs E! Entertainment Television Inc. even a few years ago, and the sE! Entertainment Television Inc. tware - in many cases - works better than commercial sE! Entertainment Television Inc. tware.

- A Webservice standard set has allowed these new model, low cost, highly re-usable aggregation systems to distribute content at far lower costs than previous approaches.


One E! Entertainment Television Inc. the impacts E! Entertainment Television Inc. the emergence E! Entertainment Television Inc. these new aggregation approaches has been the shift E! Entertainment Television Inc. advertising to the new aggregators. Google (Search based Aggregation) being a case in point, but the real killer is the death by a million cuts as millions E! Entertainment Television Inc. small new aggregators (including this blog) chip away at user attention, and thus Advertising money.

The net result has been the extreme pressure on traditional aggregators' (Newspapers, Music Companies, TV studios) margins while simultaneously taking away their advertising revenues

Distribution

Probably the major catalyst E! Entertainment Television Inc. the entire Broadband Media value chain was the glut E! Entertainment Television Inc. bandwidth built out in Web 1.0....this has crashed the cost E! Entertainment Television Inc. distributing signals by several orders E! Entertainment Television Inc. magnitude in a decade.

Combined with IP standards, this removed the proprietary nature - and oligarchic nature - E! Entertainment Television Inc. distribution channels that most mass media industries had - TV, Radio (licence), Newsprint (physical supply chain setup cost) - the only oligarchies still left fairly untouched today is the mobile operators' channels

Simultaneously, the costs E! Entertainment Television Inc. hosting has also dropped as the technology moved from cages E! Entertainment Television Inc. machines to racks E! Entertainment Television Inc. machines to blades E! Entertainment Television Inc. motherboards, and the price E! Entertainment Television Inc. memory also dropped by 2 orders E! Entertainment Television Inc. magnitude from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0. At the same time, the sE! Entertainment Television Inc. tware costs for nack-end systems dropped, so hosting today is far more E! Entertainment Television Inc. an intelligent platform (cf Amazon Cloud) than "port, power and ping".

WiFi also has revolutionised distribution, mainly by end-running the mobile operators (and their oligarchy rents) and allowing on-the-move connection to the internet for laptops and increasingly other end devices. WiFi has also allowed a huge number E! Entertainment Television Inc. people to connect multiple devices on home LANS very cheaply

Customer Environment

Anyone who was around in Web 1.0 will tell you that many E! Entertainment Television Inc. the ideas going round in Web 2.0 were thought E! Entertainment Television Inc. a long time ago. The difference is the impact E! Entertainment Television Inc. Moore's Law (devices have got cheaper) and Metcalfe's law ( newtork based services become more useful as more people use them) meant more people want to buy them.

Cheaper devices and better distribution allowed more people to go online, thus driving the pull through (ie customer spend) for more services and content, which made the networks more useful, which persuaded more people online.....increasing penetration even more.

Another trend has been the convergence E! Entertainment Television Inc. services over different devices - PC, mobile, more powerful games machines, PDA's - are increasingly capable E! Entertainment Television Inc. accessing the same service (or a subset), driving not just number E! Entertainment Television Inc. users, but the available time when the services can be used.

The (N)et result has been a combination E! Entertainment Television Inc. cost reduction across the supply chain E! Entertainment Television Inc. several orders E! Entertainment Television Inc. magnitude, allowing new users to come on board, coupled with the previously restricted part - distribution - becoming an open good. Result - major potential pull through.

Furthermore, the reduction E! Entertainment Television Inc. cost across the board means the entire value chain is less capital intensive, so new services to support the pull through can be set up much more cheaply. In Web 1.0 the theoretical ideal structure was the "massless" business, which owned nothing but its ability to connect user to creator. This is a lot easier to execute today.

(Contrast this with Planet Mobile, where distribution is still a costly, closed good, where devices are non standard and non interoperable, and transport speeds are increasing far more slowly)

The strategic implications are prE! Entertainment Television Inc. ound - in general, throughout history, when radical new communications technologies have emerged (radical as in the reduction in the economics E! Entertainment Television Inc. communication, the overall transaction cost E! Entertainment Television Inc. a unit E! Entertainment Television Inc. communication) then the entire socio-economic structure E! Entertainment Television Inc. societies tend to change - market economies, social structures, cultures, settlement patterns (just look at the impact E! Entertainment Television Inc. the motor car).

One E! Entertainment Television Inc. these changes has been the use E! Entertainment Television Inc. this communication medium to restructure the functions in a company. Ronald Coase noted in the 1930's that the size and structure E! Entertainment Television Inc. an enterprise is largely a function E! Entertainment Television Inc. transaction costs. Reduce these costs, and the size E! Entertainment Television Inc. organisations reduces. Change that, and the structure E! Entertainment Television Inc. many E! Entertainment Television Inc. our life patterns (settlement, lifestyle, work pattern) shifts. E! Entertainment Television Inc. fshoring, Outsourcing, the rise E! Entertainment Television Inc. Web Workers are all outcomes E! Entertainment Television Inc. this trend.

Another impact E! Entertainment Television Inc. smaller units is the requirement for 3rd party trust to increase - its just too expensive to have unique contracts and/or deep personal relationships with thousands (millions) E! Entertainment Television Inc. small units. In addition, as no Aggregation or Distribution service has customer lock-in, their unique value is less tangible - thus Trust is thus a critical component in this new model for them as well. In addition, Trust is what makes people willing to spend money online.

Established players really struggle in shifts like this, as typically their entire structure - cost base, business model, company culture - are typically no longer in synch with the new models required, but to shift requires root and branch change from the top, and those turkeys seldom vote for Christmas.


The Mass Economy, the Edge Economy, and the Economy E! Entertainment Television Inc. You

The "Mass Economy" is built around high setup and transaction costs. When setup costs are high then the economics E! Entertainment Television Inc. producing many units, once set up is complete, is rational. Users would prefer more tailored services, but costs are exhorbitant so only the few can afford them, so the majority put up with mass services at more affordable costs. (And as a corollary, they put up with advertising as a further form E! Entertainment Television Inc. subsidy). When transaction costs are high, large organisations emerge to allow lowest cost workflow - hence the rise E! Entertainment Television Inc. the Mainstream Media Aggregators, who could collate, edit, publish and bill for content far more cheaply than smaller structures.

The "Edge Economy" - simply speaking - is the movement E! Entertainment Television Inc. value from the centre to the right and left E! Entertainment Television Inc. the supply chain above, as the costs (and thus surplus) E! Entertainment Television Inc. the Aggregation and Distribution functions reduce. In its simplest form, users want to find content, creators want to find users, and all in between is just friction. Some argue that there are other edges at the top and bottom E! Entertainment Television Inc. the picture - new distribution networks at the bottom, new aggregation services at the top. I personally don't like this view, as it confuses the cause - the economic shifts in aggregation and distribution - with the effect - the shift E! Entertainment Television Inc. value out to the owners E! Entertainment Television Inc. talent (creators) and demand (customers).

However, the "Edge" is a misnomer in many ways - possibly a better way to look at it is actually how the economics E! Entertainment Television Inc. production shift as setup and transaction costs reduce. Here is a standard product / process matrix:

Product - Process Matrix


In the old models, the tradeE! Entertainment Television Inc. f between volume and value was linear - broadcast (and mass newspapers) was a mass production model, pushing a lowest cost - and lowest common denominator - product to the customer. On the other extreme, the "market E! Entertainment Television Inc. one" was extremely expensive to serve with mass media techniques, so was limited to a very small market. In the middle were various attempts at bulk-breaking - Magazines, Pay-TV, Desktop Publishing - in order to serve smaller audiences with higher value choice. In general, advertising was mainly used to reduce the cost E! Entertainment Television Inc. the low choice, mass media.

(In fact part E! Entertainment Television Inc. todays' Advertising Industry's problem stems fom this - after 70 odd years E! Entertainment Television Inc. focus on mass production advertising, its having to get its head around small market advertising - and its a far way away.)

We are now in transition to include 2 other newly possible models - and the old models are being diaggregated (ie losing value) before the newer models have captured it fully.

Firstly, that E! Entertainment Television Inc. low value, low volume production - most User Generated Content falls into this category. It exists because the cost E! Entertainment Television Inc. creating, aggregating and distributing it is very low, and it relies on niche to find its markets - the classic Long Tail strategy

Secondly, that E! Entertainment Television Inc. high value, high volume - this is the holy grail E! Entertainment Television Inc. the "Market E! Entertainment Television Inc. One", the "Daily Me", the "Economy E! Entertainment Television Inc. You" - the creation, collation and distribution E! Entertainment Television Inc. just those service components that I want from a huge mass E! Entertainment Television Inc. reusable components.


In both these new models, lower transaction and setup costs are in evidence - they both rely on the Aggregation / Distribution functions to be lower cost / lower friction than before.

(In this perspective, technologies such as AJAX, widgets etc are second order effects - they exist only insE! Entertainment Television Inc. ar as they reduce friction, and as soon as a better one comes long, it will be adopted instead.)

The online advertising industry desperately wants to interject itself into the high value game, but if history is any guide Ads are typically used to subside low grade (ie UGC) services. InsE! Entertainment Television Inc. ar as Advertising tries to interject itself into the high value end, if it increases friction without sufficient benefit it will (in an open value chain) simply be avoided. In the olde days, it had the unassailable position E! Entertainment Television Inc. being free, but today "Free", "Open" and "Piracy" are competing zero-cost business models without the friction

The strategic problem the Ad industry has (apart from no longer being lowest cost provider) is (i) its not that big - c 2-3% E! Entertainment Television Inc. GDP, ie it cannot fund more than a fraction E! Entertainment Television Inc. the services, so alternatives to it by definition have to evolve, and typically grab the high end, (ii) its a friction, so always risks rejection if there is a choice, and (iii) it is also structurally in transition, so has to complete that process internally before it can really play.

A Worked Example

Take the ecosystem E! Entertainment Television Inc. general purpose Social Networks. These are Aggregators, but as they own neither the content creation (Social networks are a slightly unique case in that one customer's activity creates another customers' content, but the general case remains), nor a controlled channel to the customer, they exist only insE! Entertainment Television Inc. ar as they reduce the friction E! Entertainment Television Inc. allowing content and customer to find each other.

What (most) Social Network aggregators are therefore attempting to do is to enclose users, by creating sufficient aggregation value (ie making it hard to export their networks) so that switching costs are higher than the necessary increase in transaction friction. This is E! Entertainment Television Inc. course a delicate balance...and the problem Aggregators have is that there is actually not a lot E! Entertainment Television Inc. surplus in this game (cf edge effects plus User Generated plays) at a per-transaction level, so they are very keen to take Advertising subsidy. Unfortunately, being low value, the sort E! Entertainment Television Inc. intrusion needed to generate enough revenue increases friction (and typically reduces trust, a key part E! Entertainment Television Inc. a Social Net value proposition), so bringing the service closer to the switching cost.

This game is exacerbated by another property E! Entertainment Television Inc. networked services - they are closed loop. In good times this means a "virtual cycle" occurs, as good news build on itself and rapid growth is possible. Unfortunately, the opposite is true, and that slight shift in friction vs switching cost can also lead to a vicious cycle, where a service can collapse rapidly as well.

(And as anyone who has dealt with such feedback loops can tell you, once they tip they are very hard to turn round quickly - they tend to overshoot and undershoot, and the problem with the latter is they can hit the floor before turning round.).

The brashness of E! Entertainment Television is reflected in the overwhelming and uninhibited confidence of its creator, Lee Masters. Masters had worked for a number of years as the general manager of MTV, cable television's most successful music channel. While at MTV, Masters cleverly guided its programming and music to appeal to the 14-year-old to 20-something crowd, a major accomplishment in itself. Masters was a major influence behind the controversial "Beavis and Butthead" cartoon serial as well as programs such as "The Week in Rock" and "Remote Control." While at MTV, Masters developed the ingenious idea of allowing celebrities more control over the interview process, which translated into more unusual and less predictable entertainment.

In 1989, Masters was lured away from his position at MTV to take control of the Movietime cable channel. Movietime was owned by a consortium of cable television companies, including Time Warner HBO, Continental Cablevision, Comcast Corporation, Cox Cable, and Tele-Communications, Inc. The programming at Movietime, however, was dreadful. Movietime was placed at the higher limits of the cable television dial and played previews of movies over and over again. With only 15,000 subscribers, which some cable television wags described as insomniacs, Movietime was not an exciting channel for viewing. Masters was hired with the understanding that he would have complete authority and control to implement a total reorganization of the cable channel.

Innovative Programming in the Early 1990s

Using the knowledge about cable television, demographics, and celebrity publicity and exposure he gained while working at MTV, Masters began his turnaround of Movietime. The new chief executive officer's first decision was to rename the cable television network E! Entertainment Television Inc. Masters's second move was to change the programming completely. Since Americans are generally in awe of film, radio, and television celebrities, Masters decided to develop programs that would provide those celebrities with significant exposure, but in a way they could control. Thus the audience would get to see celebrities, and celebrities would maintain a certain amount of control over their exposure to the public.

This strategy of "controlled publicity" first took the form of talk shows and entertainment news that was filled with "star-studded" celebrities. Without much money to work with, Masters approached the controversial and provocative radio show host and celebrity Howard Stern and convinced Stern to allow E! Entertainment to install robotic video cameras that taped the radio show and all of Stern's antics while on and off the air. Stern agreed to Masters's proposal, and E! Entertainment got excellent programming material of one and one-half hours per day at the bargain basement rate of $33,000 per episode, plus a cool $1 million in compensation to Stern. Within a few months of its introduction on E! Entertainment, the "Howard Stern Show" was the cable television's hottest and highest rated program.

One of Masters's most successful ideas evolved into the hit show "Talk Soup." Airing six times a day, the show excerpted highlights of mainstream daytime network talk shows, such as those hosted by Jerry Springer, Geraldo Rivera, Richard Bey, Montel Williams, and Oprah Winfrey, and juxtaposed this material with out-of-the-ordinary, quirky skits produced by the show's host and comedian, John Henson. The genius of the show, which reflected the entrepreneurial spirit and creativity of Masters, was that production costs were next to nothing. The network talk shows agreed to give E! Entertainment clips free of charge, in exchange for promoting the next day's programming. With this free material, the cost of a 30-minute production of "Talk Soup" was approximately $10,000, which was $20,000 to $30,000 less than the costs to produce one of the talk show segments featured on "Talk Soup." Moreover, advertisers like Nike and Visa paid approximately $1,000 for a typical 30-second advertising slot on the show. Revenues from advertising, from the time the show went on the air, climbed to nearly $30,000, which left a hefty profit of approximately $20,000 per show. From the beginning of its run, "Talk Soup" aired 260 times per year, resulting in a pretax income of more than $5 million annually.

Perhaps the most successful and most lucrative of all of Masters's cable productions was the creation of "E! News Daily." The show's format was ostensibly that of a newscast, but the news was strictly Hollywood. Masters would send out a total of eight camera and sound crews to record premieres, award shows, and movie productions, and to arrange on-the-spot, impromptu interviews of cinema celebrities on a daily basis. The cost for a 30-minute production of "E! News Daily" ran about $15,000 per show, most of which was recovered through advertising slots during the first time the show was aired. Since the show aired three times per day, commercial revenues began to mount by the end of each month. In addition, Masters reached an agreement with the parent company of NBC, General Electric. In exchange for free videotape from crews working at NBC, Masters would give the mainstream network footage from "E! News Daily" for it to run during the late evening and early morning hours when viewership was at its lowest. According to Masters, everybody won since costs were kept low and yet television entertainment continued.

One of the genuine masters of recycled material, Masters then promoted and sold "E! News Daily" to foreign television outlets and to major international airlines, which used selected footage of the program to show to passengers during lengthy intercontinental flights. One would think this idea would be the limit of Masters's creative entrepreneurism. But it was not. By building a library of tapes that his roving Hollywood crews compiled during the production of "E! News Daily," Masters had amassed a library of more than 200,000 segments, which ranged from long interviews with celebrities to short, quirky out-takes from movies. At no additional expense, Masters arranged for in-house editors and voiceovers to produce 30-minute specials on celebrities such as Robin Williams and Whoopi Goldberg and behind-the-scenes perspectives on the making of a movie. Again, Masters sold these special segments to foreign outlets and major international airlines, but at a relatively low cost. The goodwill he created from selling inexpensive programs to his customers translated into an agreement with his operators to carry E! at a lower channel number, closer to where the mainstream networks are located. Knowing that millions of people around the world who subscribe to cable TV are in the habit of channel surfing, especially during primetime commercials, Masters arranged to run E! Entertainment's commercials at times different from the times chosen by the mainstream broadcasting networks, thereby increasing the chance that people who channel surf will stay tuned to his programs.

When the O.J. Simpson trial was first aired on television, with gavel-to-gavel coverage by CNN and Court TV, E! Entertainment began to notice a significant decline in its viewership. As a result, Masters decided to cover the trial as intensely as the other cable television networks. Of course, E! Entertainment's coverage was not quite the same. For example, one of its reporters began to read faxes on the air from people who commented on the trial, and also began to compare the fashions, hairstyles, and jewelry of the lawyers. Although this unorthodox approach to reporting the trial was controversial and soundly criticized by other members of the media, nonetheless, E! Entertainment's coverage brought back its viewership.

Growth and Expansion in the Mid-1990s

As revenues began to increase and viewership began to climb, E! Entertainment was able to surprise some of the analysts within the cable television industry. One of the most unexpected moves came when Masters decided to purchase the off-network rights to "Melrose Place," the megahit with the 20- and 30-something crowd produced by Fox. Masters agreed to pay the price of $200,000 per episode, for more than 100 installments of the primetime soap opera, to build a loyal following and, at the same time, increase his viewership. In addition, Masters reached an agreement with Brandon Tartikoff, head of New World Entertainment, that allowed for the use of E!'s production facilities as an experimental laboratory, so to speak, for innovative shows. In return, E! Entertainment received new shows that were on the cutting edge of hip-hop programming.

By the mid-1990s, Masters was taking a hard but cautious look at the syndication market. E! Entertainment had received numerous unsolicited queries from syndicators and finally decided to take the plunge by signing a major deal with Columbia TriStar Television Distribution for "E! News Daily." Yet when Warner Brothers decided to produce "Extra--The Entertainment Magazine," Masters thought it wise to step back from the deal and wait to judge the competition. Masters did not hesitate, however, to enter into an agreement with NBC whereby E! Entertainment would give the mainstream network entertainment news for its various affiliates across the United States. Still, Masters remained wary of making new deals since widespread agreements to syndicate E! Entertainment programs would actually take viewers away from his own cable network.

What catapulted E! Entertainment to the top of the cable television industry was its low production costs. The cable TV industry measures costs in terms of household, and E! Entertainment's costs in the mid-1990s were well below any of its competitors, hovering at approximately $221, in comparison with the Comedy Channel and Turner's TNT network where costs per household were reported at $333 and $567, respectively. Masters knew that the only way to keep costs down was to develop inexpensive programming, since both domestic and overseas cable operators were searching for low-cost programs to increase viewership. Acquisition of the "Melrose Place" programs was part of this strategy, as well as a new 30-minute show that reduced and condensed full-length movies to the best parts. The show, called "Cut to the Chase," was scheduled to lead into reruns of "Melrose Place."

Additional cost-cutting agreements became part of Masters's specialty. He negotiated a contract with Westwood One Radio Network so that a daily newsfeed from E! Entertainment would be shown on Westwood's 6,000 international affiliates. In return, Westwood agreed to promote programs on E! Entertainment through its syndicated shows, such as "Casey Kasem's Top 40," "In Concert," and "Country Countdown USA." Masters also acquired more than 500 episodes of "Late Night with David Letterman" and numerous episodes of "The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour." "The Letterman Show," shown seven nights a week in primetime, heightened E! Entertainment's profile in cable television and brought along a legion of diehard Letterman fans.

One of the most important developments for E! Entertainment came in 1995, when the company made a commitment to expanding its international coverage. Masters signed a pact with the Australian commercial cable system, Optus Vision, to show five of its programming series on the airwaves of three start-up channels. In Europe, Masters signed an international distribution agreement with Reservoir Productions, located in Paris, to license "E! Newsfeed" and "E! News Week in Review." Another international distribution deal was arranged with Channel 4 in the United Kingdom to show episodes of "F.Y.E!: For Your Entertainment."

In the mid-1990s, E! Entertainment was on course to increase its viewership to more than 40 million by the year 2000 and, as revenues continued to climb, there was a very good likelihood that the company would achieve its goal. Ten years before, demographic studies indicated that viewers between the ages of 12 and 34 mentioned the three mainstream channels of ABC, NBC, and CBS as their primarily watched networks. By the mid-1990s, however, those statistics changed: the same age group mentioned only one or two of the mainstream channels, along with either cable television's Disney channel, MTV, or E! Entertainment.
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