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Introduction to Business Environment
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Shreya Das
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Introduction to Business Environment - January 31st, 2012

1. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Introduction to Business Environment
2. The formula for business success requires two elements - the individual and the environment. Remove either value and success becomes impossible. Business environment consist of all those factors that have a bearing on the business. The term’ business environment implies those external forces, factors and institutions that are beyond the control of individual business organizations and their management and affect the business enterprise. It implies all external forces within which a business enterprise operates. Business environment influence the functioning of the business system. Thus, business environment may be defined as all those conditions and forces which are external to the business and are beyond the individual business unit, but it operates within it. These forces are customer, creditors, competitors, government, socio-cultural organizations, political parties national and international organizations etc. some of those forces affect the business directly which some others have indirect effect on the business.
3. Features of business environment
4. •Totality of external forces: Business environment is the sum total of all things external to business firms and, as such, is aggregative in nature. •Specific and general forces: Business environment includes both specific andgeneral forces. Specific forces affect individual enterprises directly and immediately in their day-to-day working. General forces have impact on all business enterprises and thus may affect an individual firm only indirectly.
5. Dynamic nature: Business environment is dynamic in that it keeps on changing whether in terms of technological improvement, shifts in consumer preferences or entry of new competition in the market.
6. Uncertainty: Business environment is largely uncertain as it is very difficult to predict future happenings, especially when environment changes are taking place too frequently as in the case of information technology or fashion industries.
7. Relativity: Business environment is a relative concept since it differs from country to country and even region to region. Political conditions in the USA, for instance, differ from those in China or Pakistan. Similarly, demand for sarees may be fairly high in India whereas it may be almost non-existent in France.
8. TYPES OF ENVIRONMENT
9. On the basis of the extent of intimacy with the firm , the environmental factors may be classified into different types-internal and external.
10. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
11. The internal environment is the environment that has a direct impact on the business .Here there are some internal factors which are generally controllable because the company has control over these factors. It can alter or modify such factors as its personnel, physical facilities, and organization and functional means, like marketing, to suit the environment. The important internal factors which have a bearing on the strategy and other decisions of internal organization are discussed below.
12. Value system
13. The value system of the founders and those at the helm of affairs has important bearing on the choice of business, the mission and the objectives of the organization, business policies and practices.
14. Mission and vision and objectives
15. Vision means the ability to think about the future with imagination and wisdom. Vision isan important factor in achieving the objectives of the organization. The mission is themedium through which the objectives are achieved
16. Management structure and nature
17. The structure of the organization also influences the business decisions. Theorganizational structure like the composition of board of directors , influences thedecisions of business as they are internal factors . The structure and style of theorganization may delay a decision making or some other helps in making quick decisions.
18. Internal power relationships
19. The relationship among the three levels of the organization also influences on the business. The mutual co-ordination among those three is a an important need for a business. The relationship among the people working in the three levels of theorganization should be cordial.
20. Human resource
21. The human resource is the important factor for any organization as it contributes to thestrength and weakness of any organization . the human resource in any organization musthave characteristics like skills, quality, high morale, commitment towards the work ,attitude, etc. T he involvement and initiative of the people in an organization at differentlevels may vary from organization to organization. The organizational culture and overallenvironment have bearing on them.
22. Company image and brand equity
23. The image of the company in the outside market has the impact on theinternal environment of the company. It helps in raising the finance , making jointventures , other alliances, expansions and acquisitions , entering sale and purchasecontracts , launching new products, etc. Brand equity also helps the company in same
24. Miscellaneous factors
25. The other factors that contribute to the business success or failure are as follows:•
26. Physical assets and facilities
27. :- facilities like production capacity, technology areamong the factors which influences the competitiveness of the firm. The proper workingof the assets is indeed for free flow of working of the company.•
28. Research and development:
29. - Though R&D department is basically doneexternal environment but it has a direct impact on the organization. This aspect mainlydetermine the company’s ability to innovate and compete.•
30. Marketing resources
31. : - Resources like the organization for marketing, quality of the marketing men, brand equity and distribution network have direct bearing onmarketing efficiency of the company.•
32. Financial factors
33. :- factors like financial policies . financial positions and capitalstructure are also important internal environment affecting business performances ,strategies and decisions.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
39. It refers to the environment that has an indirect influence on the business. The factors areuncontrollable by the business. There are two types of external environment.
40. Micro Environment
41. The micro environment is also known as the task environment and operating environment because the micro environmental forces have a direct bearing on the operations of thefirm

“The micro environment consist of the actors in the company’s immediate environmentthat affect the performance of the company. These include the suppliers, marketingintermediaries, competitors, customers and the public”The micro environmental factors are more intimately linked with the companythan the macro factors. The micro forces need not necessarily affect all the firms ina particular industry in the same way. Some of the micro factors may be particular to a firm. When the competing firms in an industry have the same micro elements, therelative success of the firms depends on their relative effectiveness in dealing with theseelements
Suppliers
An important force in the micro environment of a company is the suppliers, i.e., thosewho supply the inputs like raw materials and components to the company. Theimportance of reliable source/sources of supply to the smooth functioning of the businessis obvious.
Customer
The major task of a business is to create and sustain customers. A business existsonly because of its customers. The choice of customer segments should be made byconsidering a number of factors including the relative profitability, dependability,stability of demand, growth prospects and the extent of competition.Competition not only include the other firms that produce same product but also thosefirms which compete for the income of the consumers the competition here among these products may be said as desire competition as the primary task here is to fulfill the desireof the customers. The competition that satisfies a particular category desire then it iscalled generic competition
Marketing Intermediaries
The marketing intermediaries include middlemen such as agents and merchants that helpthe company find customers or close sales with them. The marketing intermediaries arevital links between the company and the final consumers .
Financiers
The financiers are also important factors of internal environment. Along with financingcapabilities of the company their policies and strategies, attitudes towards risk , ability to provide non-financial assistance etc. are very important.
Public
Public can be said as any group that has an actual or potentialinterest in or on anorganization’s ability to achieve its interest. Public include media and citizens. Growth of consumer public is an important development affecting business.
Macro Environment
Macro environment is also known as General environment and remoteenvironment. Macro factors are generally more uncontrollable than micro environmentfactors. When the macro factors become uncontrollable , the success of company dependsupon its adaptability to the environment. Some of the macro environment factors arediscussed below:
Economic Environment
Economic environment refers to the aggregate of the nature of economic systemof the country, business cycles, the socio-economic infrastructure etc. The successful businessman visualizes the external factors affecting the business, anticipatin

prospective market situations and makes suitable to get the maximum with minimizecost.
Social Environment
The social dimension or environment of a nation determines the value system of the society which, in turn affects the functioning of the business. Sociological factorssuch as costs structure, customs and conventions, mobility of labour etc. have far-reaching impact on the business. These factors determine the work culture and mobilityof labour, work groups etc.
Political Environment
The political environment of a country is influenced by the political organisationssuch as philosophy of political parties, ideology of government or party in power, natureand extent of bureaucracy influence of primary groups etc. . The political environment of the country influences the business to a great extent.
Legal Environment
Legal environment includes flexibility and adaptability of law and other legal rulesgoverning the business. It may include the exact rulings and decision of the courts. Theseaffect the business and its managers to a great extent.
Technical Environment
The business in a country is greatly influenced by the technological development.The technology adopted by the industries determines the type and quality of goods andservices to be produced and the type and quality of plant and equipment to be used.Technological environment influences the business in terms of investment in technology,consistent application of technology and the effects of technology on markets
Environmental technology
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Sustainable urban design and innovation: Photovoltaic ombričre SUDI is an autonomous and mobile station that replenishes energy for electric vehicles using solar energy.
Environmental technology (abbreviated as envirotech) or green technology (abbreviated as greentech) or clean technology (abbreviated as cleantech) is the application of one or more of environmental science, green chemistry, environmental monitoring and electronic devices to monitor, model and conserve the natural environment and resources, and to curb the negative impacts of human involvement.Sustainable development is the core of environmental technologies. The termenvironmental technologies is also used to describe a class of electronic devices that can promote sustainable management of resources.
Water Purification
Water purification: The whole idea/concept of having dirt/germ/pollution free water flowing throughout the environment. Many other phenomena lead from this concept of purification of water. Water pollution is the main enemy of this concept, and various campaigns and activists have been organized around the world to help purify water. Considering the amount of water usage that is under current consumptions, this Concept is of utter Importance.[1]
[edit]Air Purification
Air Purification: basic and common green plants can be grown indoors to keep air fresh because all plants remove CO2 and convert it intooxygen. The best examples are: Dypsis lutescens, Sansevieria trifasciata, and Epipremnum aureum.[2]
[edit]Sewage treatment
Sewage treatment is conceptually similar to water purification. Sewage treatments are very important as they purify water per levels of its pollution. The more polluted water is not used for anything, and the least polluted water is supplied to places where water is used affluently. It may lead to vaious other concepts of environmental protection, sustainability etc.[3]
[edit]Environmental remediation
Environmental remediation is the removal of pollutants or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with environmental monitoring. (encyclopedia of medical concepts)[4]
[edit]Solid waste management
Solid waste management is the purification, consumption, reuse, disposal and treatment of solid waste that undertaken by the milk government or the ruling bodies of a city/town.[5]
[edit]Renewable energy
Renewable energy is energy that can be replenished easily. For years we have been using sources like wood, sun, water, etc. for means for producing energy. Energy that can be produced by natural objects like wood, sun, wind, etc. is considered to be renewable.[6]
[edit]eGain forecasting
Egain forecasting is a method using forecasting technology to predict the future weather's impact on a building.[7] By adjusting the heat based on the weather forecast, the system eliminates redundant use of heat, thus reducing the energy consumption and the emission ofgreenhouse gases.[8]
[edit]Energy Conservation
Energy conservation is the utilization of devices that require smaller amounts of energy in order to reduce the consumption of electricity. Reducing the use of electricity causes less fossil fuels to be burned to provide that electricity.
The demographic environment
by ADMIN on APRIL 28, 2006
THE DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT – SOME INTERESTING STATISTICS FOR CURRENT AND FUTURE MARKETERS
The main demographic force that marketers monitor is population, because people make up markets. Marketers are keenly interested in the size and growth rate of population in cities, regions; and nations; age distribution and ethnic mix; educational levels; household patterns; and regional characteristics and movements.
Demographic trends are highly reliable for the short ad intermediate run. There is little excuse for a company’s being suddenly surprised by demographic development. The singer Company should have known for years that its sewing machines business would be hurt by smaller families and more working wives, yet it was slow in responding..
World wide Population Growth
The world population is showing explosive growth. It totaled 6.1 billion in 2000 and will exceed 7.9 billion by the year 2025. Here is an interesting picture:
If the world were a village of 1,000 people, it would consist of 520 women and 480 men, 330 children, and 60 people over age 65, 10 college graduates and 335 illiterate adults. The village would contain 52 North Americans, 55 Russians, 84 Latin Americans, 95 East and West Europeans, 124 Africans, and 584 Asians. Communication would be difficult because 165 people would speak Mandarin, 86 English, 83 Hindi/Urdu, 64 Spanish, 58 Russian and 37 Arabic, and the rest would speak one of over 200 other languages. There would be 329 Christians, 178 Moslems, 132 Hindus, 62 Buddhists, 3 Jews, 167nonreligious, 45 atheists, and 86 others.
The population explosion has been a source of major concern. Unchecked population growth and consumption could eventually result in insufficient food supply, depletion of key mineral, overcrowding, pollution, and an overall deterioration in the quality of life. Moreover, population growth is highest in countries and communities that can least afford it.
The less developed regions of the world currently account for 76% of the world population and are growing at 2% per year, whereas the population in the more developed countries is growing at only 0.6 % per year. In developing countries, the death rate has been falling as a result of modern medicine, but the birth rate has remained fairly stable. Feeding, clothing, and educating children, while also providing a rising of living, is nearly impossible in these countries.
Explosive population growth has major implications for business. A growing population does not mean growing markets unless these markets have sufficient purchasing power. Nonetheless, companies that carefully analyze their markets can find major opportunities.
In order to curb its skyrocketing population, the Chinese government has passed regulations limiting families to one child. One consequence of these regulations: These children are spoiled and fussed over as never before. Known in China as “little emperors,� Chinese children are being showered with everything from candy to computers as a result of the “six pocket syndrome.� As many as six adults—parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, and aunts and uncles—may be indulging the whims of each child. This trend has encouraged toy companies, such as Japan’s Bandai Company, Denmark’s Lego Group, and the US’s Hasbro and Mattel to aggressively enter the Chinese market.
Population Age Mix:
National Population varies in their age mix. At one extreme is Mexico, a country with a very young population and rapid population growth. At the other extreme is Japan, a country with one of the world’s oldest populations. Milk, diapers, school suppliers, and toys would be important products in Mexico. Japan’s population would consume many more adult products.
There is a global trend toward an aging population. According to a survey in The Economist, more people will grow old in this century than ever before. In 2004 or 2005, the population of people aged 60 or over will surpass the proportion of under fives. There are unlikely to be more toddlers than seniors. It is the start of what the Japanese are calling The Silver Century. The graying of the population is affected by another trend, the widespread fall in fertility rates. In most countries, women are not having enough babies to replace the people who die. The result will be fewer working people to replace those who retire. In a decade’s time, many countries—Japan, the United States, and the European countries, for instance—will face problem of having to support a vastly large population of elderly people.
A population can be subdivided into six age groups:
1. Preschool
2. School-age Children.
3. Teens.
4. Young adults age 25 to 40.
5. Middle-age 40 to 65.
6. The older-adults age 65 and up.
For marketers, the most populous age groups shape the marketing environment. In the United States, the “baby boomers,� the 78 million people born between 1946 and 1964, are one of the most powerful forces shaping the marketplace. Baby boomers are fixated on their youths, not their age.
With many baby boomers well into their fifties and even the last wave turning 40, demand for products to turn back the hands of time has exploded. According to one survey, half of all boomers were depressed that they no longer young and nearly one in five were actively resisting the aging process.
The 40-plus age group will be 60% bigger than the 18to 39 group by 2010, and it now controls three-quarters of the country’s wealth. As they search for the fountain of youth, sales of hair replacement and coloring aids, health club memberships, home gym equipment, skin tightening creams, nutritional supplements, and organic foods have all soared.
Boomers grew up with TV advertising, so they are an easier market to reach than the 45 million born between 1965 and 1976, dubbed Generation X. Generation Xers are typically cynical about hard sell marketing pitches that promise more than they can deliver, but some marketers have been able to break through.
Both baby boomers and Generation-Xers will be passing the torch to the latest demographic group Generation Y or the echo boomers, born between 1977 and 1984. Now numbering 72 million, this group is almost equal in size to baby boomers. One distinguishing characteristics of this age group is their utter fluency and comfort with computer and Internet technology. To them digital technology is no more intimidating than a VCR or a toaster.
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Re: Introduction to Business Environment - August 21st, 2014

Very Well Introduction to Business Environment, Thank you for Sharing..
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Business Education
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Re: Introduction to Business Environment - May 25th, 2015

Internal and external environment both are very important for organization. Internal environment sometimes becomes more important, when in organization,internal communication becomes weak then the whole business is effected. if your employee do not have a sense of belongingness ,then they might not work as per their capability. here are some environment analysis given below especially to know about business environment.

PESTEL Analysis:-

Political factors
Economic factors
Social factors
Technological factors
Legal factors
Environmental factor
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Jitendra Mazee
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Re: Introduction to Business Environment - April 19th, 2016

Quote:
Originally Posted by shreyadas View Post
1. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Introduction to Business Environment
2. The formula for business success requires two elements - the individual and the environment. Remove either value and success becomes impossible. Business environment consist of all those factors that have a bearing on the business. The term’ business environment implies those external forces, factors and institutions that are beyond the control of individual business organizations and their management and affect the business enterprise. It implies all external forces within which a business enterprise operates. Business environment influence the functioning of the business system. Thus, business environment may be defined as all those conditions and forces which are external to the business and are beyond the individual business unit, but it operates within it. These forces are customer, creditors, competitors, government, socio-cultural organizations, political parties national and international organizations etc. some of those forces affect the business directly which some others have indirect effect on the business.
3. Features of business environment
4. •Totality of external forces: Business environment is the sum total of all things external to business firms and, as such, is aggregative in nature. •Specific and general forces: Business environment includes both specific andgeneral forces. Specific forces affect individual enterprises directly and immediately in their day-to-day working. General forces have impact on all business enterprises and thus may affect an individual firm only indirectly.
5. Dynamic nature: Business environment is dynamic in that it keeps on changing whether in terms of technological improvement, shifts in consumer preferences or entry of new competition in the market.
6. Uncertainty: Business environment is largely uncertain as it is very difficult to predict future happenings, especially when environment changes are taking place too frequently as in the case of information technology or fashion industries.
7. Relativity: Business environment is a relative concept since it differs from country to country and even region to region. Political conditions in the USA, for instance, differ from those in China or Pakistan. Similarly, demand for sarees may be fairly high in India whereas it may be almost non-existent in France.
8. TYPES OF ENVIRONMENT
9. On the basis of the extent of intimacy with the firm , the environmental factors may be classified into different types-internal and external.
10. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
11. The internal environment is the environment that has a direct impact on the business .Here there are some internal factors which are generally controllable because the company has control over these factors. It can alter or modify such factors as its personnel, physical facilities, and organization and functional means, like marketing, to suit the environment. The important internal factors which have a bearing on the strategy and other decisions of internal organization are discussed below.
12. Value system
13. The value system of the founders and those at the helm of affairs has important bearing on the choice of business, the mission and the objectives of the organization, business policies and practices.
14. Mission and vision and objectives
15. Vision means the ability to think about the future with imagination and wisdom. Vision isan important factor in achieving the objectives of the organization. The mission is themedium through which the objectives are achieved
16. Management structure and nature
17. The structure of the organization also influences the business decisions. Theorganizational structure like the composition of board of directors , influences thedecisions of business as they are internal factors . The structure and style of theorganization may delay a decision making or some other helps in making quick decisions.
18. Internal power relationships
19. The relationship among the three levels of the organization also influences on the business. The mutual co-ordination among those three is a an important need for a business. The relationship among the people working in the three levels of theorganization should be cordial.
20. Human resource
21. The human resource is the important factor for any organization as it contributes to thestrength and weakness of any organization . the human resource in any organization musthave characteristics like skills, quality, high morale, commitment towards the work ,attitude, etc. T he involvement and initiative of the people in an organization at differentlevels may vary from organization to organization. The organizational culture and overallenvironment have bearing on them.
22. Company image and brand equity
23. The image of the company in the outside market has the impact on theinternal environment of the company. It helps in raising the finance , making jointventures , other alliances, expansions and acquisitions , entering sale and purchasecontracts , launching new products, etc. Brand equity also helps the company in same
24. Miscellaneous factors
25. The other factors that contribute to the business success or failure are as follows:•
26. Physical assets and facilities
27. :- facilities like production capacity, technology areamong the factors which influences the competitiveness of the firm. The proper workingof the assets is indeed for free flow of working of the company.•
28. Research and development:
29. - Though R&D department is basically doneexternal environment but it has a direct impact on the organization. This aspect mainlydetermine the company’s ability to innovate and compete.•
30. Marketing resources
31. : - Resources like the organization for marketing, quality of the marketing men, brand equity and distribution network have direct bearing onmarketing efficiency of the company.•
32. Financial factors
33. :- factors like financial policies . financial positions and capitalstructure are also important internal environment affecting business performances ,strategies and decisions.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
39. It refers to the environment that has an indirect influence on the business. The factors areuncontrollable by the business. There are two types of external environment.
40. Micro Environment
41. The micro environment is also known as the task environment and operating environment because the micro environmental forces have a direct bearing on the operations of thefirm

“The micro environment consist of the actors in the company’s immediate environmentthat affect the performance of the company. These include the suppliers, marketingintermediaries, competitors, customers and the public”The micro environmental factors are more intimately linked with the companythan the macro factors. The micro forces need not necessarily affect all the firms ina particular industry in the same way. Some of the micro factors may be particular to a firm. When the competing firms in an industry have the same micro elements, therelative success of the firms depends on their relative effectiveness in dealing with theseelements
Suppliers
An important force in the micro environment of a company is the suppliers, i.e., thosewho supply the inputs like raw materials and components to the company. Theimportance of reliable source/sources of supply to the smooth functioning of the businessis obvious.
Customer
The major task of a business is to create and sustain customers. A business existsonly because of its customers. The choice of customer segments should be made byconsidering a number of factors including the relative profitability, dependability,stability of demand, growth prospects and the extent of competition.Competition not only include the other firms that produce same product but also thosefirms which compete for the income of the consumers the competition here among these products may be said as desire competition as the primary task here is to fulfill the desireof the customers. The competition that satisfies a particular category desire then it iscalled generic competition
Marketing Intermediaries
The marketing intermediaries include middlemen such as agents and merchants that helpthe company find customers or close sales with them. The marketing intermediaries arevital links between the company and the final consumers .
Financiers
The financiers are also important factors of internal environment. Along with financingcapabilities of the company their policies and strategies, attitudes towards risk , ability to provide non-financial assistance etc. are very important.
Public
Public can be said as any group that has an actual or potentialinterest in or on anorganization’s ability to achieve its interest. Public include media and citizens. Growth of consumer public is an important development affecting business.
Macro Environment
Macro environment is also known as General environment and remoteenvironment. Macro factors are generally more uncontrollable than micro environmentfactors. When the macro factors become uncontrollable , the success of company dependsupon its adaptability to the environment. Some of the macro environment factors arediscussed below:
Economic Environment
Economic environment refers to the aggregate of the nature of economic systemof the country, business cycles, the socio-economic infrastructure etc. The successful businessman visualizes the external factors affecting the business, anticipatin

prospective market situations and makes suitable to get the maximum with minimizecost.
Social Environment
The social dimension or environment of a nation determines the value system of the society which, in turn affects the functioning of the business. Sociological factorssuch as costs structure, customs and conventions, mobility of labour etc. have far-reaching impact on the business. These factors determine the work culture and mobilityof labour, work groups etc.
Political Environment
The political environment of a country is influenced by the political organisationssuch as philosophy of political parties, ideology of government or party in power, natureand extent of bureaucracy influence of primary groups etc. . The political environment of the country influences the business to a great extent.
Legal Environment
Legal environment includes flexibility and adaptability of law and other legal rulesgoverning the business. It may include the exact rulings and decision of the courts. Theseaffect the business and its managers to a great extent.
Technical Environment
The business in a country is greatly influenced by the technological development.The technology adopted by the industries determines the type and quality of goods andservices to be produced and the type and quality of plant and equipment to be used.Technological environment influences the business in terms of investment in technology,consistent application of technology and the effects of technology on markets
Environmental technology
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Sustainable urban design and innovation: Photovoltaic ombričre SUDI is an autonomous and mobile station that replenishes energy for electric vehicles using solar energy.
Environmental technology (abbreviated as envirotech) or green technology (abbreviated as greentech) or clean technology (abbreviated as cleantech) is the application of one or more of environmental science, green chemistry, environmental monitoring and electronic devices to monitor, model and conserve the natural environment and resources, and to curb the negative impacts of human involvement.Sustainable development is the core of environmental technologies. The termenvironmental technologies is also used to describe a class of electronic devices that can promote sustainable management of resources.
Water Purification
Water purification: The whole idea/concept of having dirt/germ/pollution free water flowing throughout the environment. Many other phenomena lead from this concept of purification of water. Water pollution is the main enemy of this concept, and various campaigns and activists have been organized around the world to help purify water. Considering the amount of water usage that is under current consumptions, this Concept is of utter Importance.[1]
[edit]Air Purification
Air Purification: basic and common green plants can be grown indoors to keep air fresh because all plants remove CO2 and convert it intooxygen. The best examples are: Dypsis lutescens, Sansevieria trifasciata, and Epipremnum aureum.[2]
[edit]Sewage treatment
Sewage treatment is conceptually similar to water purification. Sewage treatments are very important as they purify water per levels of its pollution. The more polluted water is not used for anything, and the least polluted water is supplied to places where water is used affluently. It may lead to vaious other concepts of environmental protection, sustainability etc.[3]
[edit]Environmental remediation
Environmental remediation is the removal of pollutants or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with environmental monitoring. (encyclopedia of medical concepts)[4]
[edit]Solid waste management
Solid waste management is the purification, consumption, reuse, disposal and treatment of solid waste that undertaken by the milk government or the ruling bodies of a city/town.[5]
[edit]Renewable energy
Renewable energy is energy that can be replenished easily. For years we have been using sources like wood, sun, water, etc. for means for producing energy. Energy that can be produced by natural objects like wood, sun, wind, etc. is considered to be renewable.[6]
[edit]eGain forecasting
Egain forecasting is a method using forecasting technology to predict the future weather's impact on a building.[7] By adjusting the heat based on the weather forecast, the system eliminates redundant use of heat, thus reducing the energy consumption and the emission ofgreenhouse gases.[8]
[edit]Energy Conservation
Energy conservation is the utilization of devices that require smaller amounts of energy in order to reduce the consumption of electricity. Reducing the use of electricity causes less fossil fuels to be burned to provide that electricity.
The demographic environment
by ADMIN on APRIL 28, 2006
THE DEMOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT – SOME INTERESTING STATISTICS FOR CURRENT AND FUTURE MARKETERS
The main demographic force that marketers monitor is population, because people make up markets. Marketers are keenly interested in the size and growth rate of population in cities, regions; and nations; age distribution and ethnic mix; educational levels; household patterns; and regional characteristics and movements.
Demographic trends are highly reliable for the short ad intermediate run. There is little excuse for a company’s being suddenly surprised by demographic development. The singer Company should have known for years that its sewing machines business would be hurt by smaller families and more working wives, yet it was slow in responding..
World wide Population Growth
The world population is showing explosive growth. It totaled 6.1 billion in 2000 and will exceed 7.9 billion by the year 2025. Here is an interesting picture:
If the world were a village of 1,000 people, it would consist of 520 women and 480 men, 330 children, and 60 people over age 65, 10 college graduates and 335 illiterate adults. The village would contain 52 North Americans, 55 Russians, 84 Latin Americans, 95 East and West Europeans, 124 Africans, and 584 Asians. Communication would be difficult because 165 people would speak Mandarin, 86 English, 83 Hindi/Urdu, 64 Spanish, 58 Russian and 37 Arabic, and the rest would speak one of over 200 other languages. There would be 329 Christians, 178 Moslems, 132 Hindus, 62 Buddhists, 3 Jews, 167nonreligious, 45 atheists, and 86 others.
The population explosion has been a source of major concern. Unchecked population growth and consumption could eventually result in insufficient food supply, depletion of key mineral, overcrowding, pollution, and an overall deterioration in the quality of life. Moreover, population growth is highest in countries and communities that can least afford it.
The less developed regions of the world currently account for 76% of the world population and are growing at 2% per year, whereas the population in the more developed countries is growing at only 0.6 % per year. In developing countries, the death rate has been falling as a result of modern medicine, but the birth rate has remained fairly stable. Feeding, clothing, and educating children, while also providing a rising of living, is nearly impossible in these countries.
Explosive population growth has major implications for business. A growing population does not mean growing markets unless these markets have sufficient purchasing power. Nonetheless, companies that carefully analyze their markets can find major opportunities.
In order to curb its skyrocketing population, the Chinese government has passed regulations limiting families to one child. One consequence of these regulations: These children are spoiled and fussed over as never before. Known in China as “little emperors,� Chinese children are being showered with everything from candy to computers as a result of the “six pocket syndrome.� As many as six adults—parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, and aunts and uncles—may be indulging the whims of each child. This trend has encouraged toy companies, such as Japan’s Bandai Company, Denmark’s Lego Group, and the US’s Hasbro and Mattel to aggressively enter the Chinese market.
Population Age Mix:
National Population varies in their age mix. At one extreme is Mexico, a country with a very young population and rapid population growth. At the other extreme is Japan, a country with one of the world’s oldest populations. Milk, diapers, school suppliers, and toys would be important products in Mexico. Japan’s population would consume many more adult products.
There is a global trend toward an aging population. According to a survey in The Economist, more people will grow old in this century than ever before. In 2004 or 2005, the population of people aged 60 or over will surpass the proportion of under fives. There are unlikely to be more toddlers than seniors. It is the start of what the Japanese are calling The Silver Century. The graying of the population is affected by another trend, the widespread fall in fertility rates. In most countries, women are not having enough babies to replace the people who die. The result will be fewer working people to replace those who retire. In a decade’s time, many countries—Japan, the United States, and the European countries, for instance—will face problem of having to support a vastly large population of elderly people.
A population can be subdivided into six age groups:
1. Preschool
2. School-age Children.
3. Teens.
4. Young adults age 25 to 40.
5. Middle-age 40 to 65.
6. The older-adults age 65 and up.
For marketers, the most populous age groups shape the marketing environment. In the United States, the “baby boomers,� the 78 million people born between 1946 and 1964, are one of the most powerful forces shaping the marketplace. Baby boomers are fixated on their youths, not their age.
With many baby boomers well into their fifties and even the last wave turning 40, demand for products to turn back the hands of time has exploded. According to one survey, half of all boomers were depressed that they no longer young and nearly one in five were actively resisting the aging process.
The 40-plus age group will be 60% bigger than the 18to 39 group by 2010, and it now controls three-quarters of the country’s wealth. As they search for the fountain of youth, sales of hair replacement and coloring aids, health club memberships, home gym equipment, skin tightening creams, nutritional supplements, and organic foods have all soared.
Boomers grew up with TV advertising, so they are an easier market to reach than the 45 million born between 1965 and 1976, dubbed Generation X. Generation Xers are typically cynical about hard sell marketing pitches that promise more than they can deliver, but some marketers have been able to break through.
Both baby boomers and Generation-Xers will be passing the torch to the latest demographic group Generation Y or the echo boomers, born between 1977 and 1984. Now numbering 72 million, this group is almost equal in size to baby boomers. One distinguishing characteristics of this age group is their utter fluency and comfort with computer and Internet technology. To them digital technology is no more intimidating than a VCR or a toaster.
Hey shreya, thanks for sharing the information o business environment. Well, as we know that business environment is the sum total of all exterior and inner factors which impact the growth, performance and result of a business. For more detailed information, please download my presentation.
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