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Biljana Dimovska | Monday 2 December 2013 ( 0 Comment)

Anyone with an interest in purchasing jewellery should have a basic knowledge of the metals related to it, so here is a mini guide on the basic types used in today's jewellery and a glossary for the purchaser to have an understanding on the terms regularly encountered on the subject.
First, we could classify metals as: ferrous or non-ferrous- in jewellery, we will use non-ferrous ones as they will never rust. Base or noble- as base metals will corrode easily; we will always choose noble ones for jewels. Precious or non precious- the difference is one of rarity or value, gold, silver, platinum… Today jewels are made using a limited number of metals, of which the most popular are these three:

Gold- it is the most easily worked thanks to a softness that is ranged according to its purity. But pure gold being too soft for jewellery, it's mixed with alloy metals (copper or zinc). Depending on the percentage of pure gold in each karat weight it is classified as 24 karat (99,9% pure gold), 18 karat (75%), 12 karat (50%) and so on. Other forms of gold to take into consideration when we are trying to purchase a jewel include combinations with alloy or white metals: Gold Vermeil- it uses sterling silver that has been gold plated. Gold-Filled- it employs a method in which gold is bonded to a metal alloy (nickel, brass…). Gold Plated- Gold electroplated to a base metal (steel, brass…) though the gold layer is thin, it will wear off more easily than when gold-filled. White Gold- A mixture of pure gold with white metals (nickel, zinc, silver…) Rose Gold- an alloy of gold with copper. The result is a red hued golden.

Silver- one of the most popular for jewellery, here is all you have to know: pure Silver, soft and easily damaged, it is usually mixed for a better durability. Copper is the metal most generally mixed with it, and there are levels of purity of the amount of pure Silver contained: Sterling Silver at least 92% pure Silver; It is taken as a standard among silvers; it is strong for jewellery and fine for bracelets, necklaces or rings. But other purity levels include 958 or 999 Sterling Silver. Here are some types: Fine Silver- 999 of purity, it is the well known pure Silver but it is not good for jewels as it bends and does not last. Silver Plate- a layer of Fine Silver is set over metal, though the cost is great, it is very thin and easily degraded.

Platinum- It is a very rare white metal and it is commonly considered even more precious than gold! It is quite more costly too, but it is also among the heavier metals in jewellery, becoming more and more popular in engagement rings. It is commonly used with other metals, but be warned that a piece of jewellery will just be labelled as "platinum" provided it has at least 95% pure platinum in it.



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Biljana Dimovska | Thursday 26 September 2013 ( 0 Comment)

One of the most important things in the world is the source of energy. Naturally, the sun is the biggest source of energy. Unfortunately, people have not been able to do enough to tap into its potential. Most of the technologies that exist which harness energy from the sun are expensive to a big number of the world's population. Therefore, people have had to resort to using other means to ensure that they sustain their needs. There are those who use firewood and charcoal to cook and heat. However, there are those who have managed to tap into using coal as a source of energy. 

Why Coal?

Most people prefer coal for the reason that it has high carbon content and it therefore very good with heating. It is also the biggest source of energy for generating electricity all over the world. It is evident that a big percentage rely on this mineral. However, apart from its positive sides, there are various issues related to coal. 

There are very many industries that lead to the creation of coal dust, which is very detrimental to the health of people round the world. Some of these industries are mentioned below. 

Industrial diamond

Diamond is one of the most precious jewels in the world. However, the making of diamond requires various ingredients. One of those ingredients is coal dust. Much as coal dust is just one of the ingredients, it can never be controlled to the point that some of the dust does not escape into the environment. 

When coal dust gets into the atmosphere, it results into various environmental issues which will be explained later. 

China's Coal Industry

China is undoubtedly one of the biggest producers of coal in the world. In fact, China has held the title of being the top coal producer in the world since 1983. In 2011 alone, China produced 3,520 million tones of coal, which is 49.5% of the world’s coal. Producing coal means mining it. Mining this resource produces a substance called coal dust which has several health effects. 

Port of Brisbane and Coal

This is a one of the bussiest ports in the word according to its trade statistics, that handles different types of cargo daily. However, one of the commodities that is handled on this port is coal. During handling, this coal produces so much coal dust that could compromise the air quality of the port. 

The port land has come up with various ways to mitigate the effects of coal dust including other bulk cargo that could produce dust. Some of the measures include storing, loading and unloading cargo while they are enclosed. Most of the cargo especially those containing coal are monitored for moisture content. It means that they are not allowed to dry too much. Workers are also protected from the dust by using protective gear. 

Health effects of coal

There are very many other industries that produce coal in the world. The United States of America, Germany, India and many other nations rely on coal mining. Too much exposure to coal dust leads to black lung disease. When the dust builds up in the lungs, it leads to conditions like fibrosis and inflammation. However, in worst cases, it could cause necrosis. 


Author Bio:

Biljana is an online writer and a blogger and a mother of two, that is very concern about the legacy we leave our children with. She is deeply concerned about the environment and the impact that the air pollution and the earth contamination has over the kids health causing allergies, and other diseases.



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