marketing project on tvs marketing

by John Lenin on Wednesday 15 December 2010, 10:37 AM | Category: Marketing| View: 2466 views
 
 
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 CHAPTER-I

INTRODUCTION

1.1          INDUSTRY PROFILE

 

Indian Two-Wheeler Industry: A Perspective

Automobile is one of the largest industries in global market. Being the leader in product and process technologies in the manufacturing sector, it has been recognised as one of the drivers of economic growth. During the last decade, well¬-directed efforts have been made to provide a new look to the automobile policy for realising the sector's full potential for the economy. Steps like abolition of licensing, removal of quantitative restrictions and initiatives to bring the policy framework in consonance with WTO requirements have set the industry in a progressive track. Removal of the restrictive environment has helped restructuring, and enabled industry to absorb new technologies, aligning itself with the global development and also to realise its potential in the country. The liberalisation policies have led to continuous increase in competition which has ultimately resulted in modernisation in line with the global standards as well as in substantial cut in prices. Aggressive marketing by the auto finance companies have also played a significant role in boosting automobile demand, especially from the population in the middle income group.


Evolution of Two-wheeler Industry in India

Two-wheeler segment is one of the most important components of the automobile sector that has undergone significant changes due to shift in policy environment. The two-wheeler industry has been in existence in the country since 1955. It consists of three segments viz. scooters, motorcycles and mopeds. According to the figures published by SIAM, the share of two-wheelers in automobile sector in terms of units sold was about 80 per cent during 2003-¬04. This high figure itself is suggestive of the importance of the sector. In the initial years, entry of firms, capacity expansion, choice of products including capacity mix and technology, all critical areas of functioning of an industry, were effectively controlled by the State machinery. The lapses in the system had invited fresh policy options that came into being in late sixties. Amongst these policies, Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices (MRTP) and Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA) were aimed at regulating monopoly and foreign investment respectively. This controlling mechanism over the industry resulted in: (a) several firms operating below minimum scale of efficiency; (b) under-utilisation of capacity; and (c) usage of outdated technology. Recognition of the damaging effects of licensing and fettering policies led to initiation of reforms, which ultimately took a more prominent shape with the introduction of the New Economic Policy (NEP) in 1985.

However, the major set of reforms was launched in the year 1991 in response to the major macroeconomic crisis faced by the economy. The industrial policies shifted from a regime of regulation and tight control to a more liberalised and competitive era. Two major results of policy changes during these years in two-wheeler industry were that the, weaker players died out giving way to the new entrants and superior products and a sizeable increase in number of brands entered the market that compelled the firms to compete on the basis of product attributes. Finally, the two-¬wheeler industry in the country has been able to witness a proliferation of brands with introduction of new technology as well as increase in number of players. However, with various policy measures undertaken in order to increase the competition, though the degree of concentration has been lessened over time, deregulation of the industry has not really resulted in higher level of competition

 

MARKET CHARACTERISTICS

Demand

Segmental Classification and Characteristics

The three main product segments in the two-wheeler category are scooters, motorcycles and mopeds. However, in response to evolving demographics and various other factors, other subsegments emerged, viz. scooterettes, gearless scooters, and 4-stroke scooters. While the first two emerged as a response to demographic changes, the introduction of 4-stroke scooters has followed the imposition of stringent pollution control norms in the early 2000. Besides, these prominent sub-segments, product groups within these sub-segments have gained importance in the recent years. Examples include 125cc motorcycles, 100-125 cc gearless scooters, etc. The characteristics of each of the three broad segments are discussed in Table.

Two-Wheelers: Comparative Characteristics

 

 

Scooter

Motorcycle

Moped

Price*(Rs. as in January 2005)

> 22,000

> 30,000

> 12,000

Stroke

2-stroke, 4-stroke

Mainly 4-stroke

2-stroke

Engine Capacity (cc)

90-150

100, 125, > 125

50, 60

Ignition

Kick/Electronic

Kick/Electronic

Kick/Electronic

Engine Power (bhp)

6.5-9

7-8 and above

2-3

Weight (kg)

90-100

> 100

60-70

Fuel Efficiency (kms per litre)

50-75

50-80+

70-80

Load Carrying

High

Highest

Low

 

 


Segmental Market Share


The Indian two-wheeler industry has undergone a significant change over the past 10 years with the preference changing from scooters and mopeds to motorcycles. The scooters segment was the largest till FY1998, accounting for around 42% of the two-wheeler sales (motorcycles and mopeds accounted for 37% and 21 % of the market respectively, that year). However, the motorcycles segment that had witnessed high growth (since FY1994) became larger than the scooter segment in terms of market share for the first time in FY1999. Between FY1996 and 9MFY2005, the motorcycles segment more than doubled its share of the two-wheeler industry to 79% even as the market shares of scooters and mopeds stood lower at 16% and 5%, respectively.

Trends in Segmental Share in Industry Sales (FY1996-9MFY2005)

 
While scooter sales declined sharply by 28% in FY2001, motorcycle sales reported a healthy growth of 20%, indicating a clear shift in consumer preference. This shift, which continues, has been prompted by two major factors: change in the country's demographic profile, and technological advancements.


Over the past 10-15 years the demographic profile of the typical two-wheeler customer
has changed. The customer is likely to be salaried and in the first job. With a younger audience, the attributes that are sought of a two-wheeler have also changed. Following the opening up of the economy and the increasing exposure levels of this new target audience, power and styling are now as important as comfort and utility.


The marketing pitch of scooters has typically emphasised reliability, price, comfort and utility across various applications. Motorcycles, on the other hand, have been traditionally positioned as vehicles of power and style, which are rugged and more durable. These features have now been complemented by the availability of new designs and technological innovations. Moreover, higher mileage offered by the executive and entry-level models has also attracted interest of two-wheeler customer. Given this market positioning of scooters and motorcycles, it is not surprising that the new set of customers has preferred motorcycles to scooters. With better ground clearance, larger wheels and better suspension offered by motorcycles, they are well positioned to capture the rising demand in rural areas where these characteristics matter most.


Scooters are perceived to be family vehicles, which offer more functional value such as broader seat, bigger storage space and easier ride. However, with the second-hand car market developing, a preference for used cars to new two-wheelers among vehicle buyers cannot be ruled out. Nevertheless, the past few years have witnessed a shift in preference towards gearless scooters (that are popular among women) within the scooters segment. Motorcycles, offer higher fuel efficiency, greater acceleration and more environment-friendliness. Given the declining difference in prices of scooters and motorcycles in the past few years, the preference has shifted towards motorcycles. Besides a change in demographic profile, technology and reduction in the price difference between motorcycles and scooters, another factor that has weighed in favour of motorcycles is the high re-sale value they offer. Thus, the customer is willing to pay an up-front premium while purchasing a motorcycle in exchange for lower maintenance and a relatively higher resale value.

 

 Supply
Manufacturers
As the following graph indicates, the Indian two-wheeler industry is highly concentrated, with three players-Hero Honda Motors Ltd (HHML), Bajaj Auto Ltd (Bajaj Auto) and TVS Motor Company Ltd (TVS) - accounting for over 80% of the industry sales as in 9MFY2005. The other key players in the two-wheeler industry are Kinetic Motor Company Ltd (KMCL), Kinetic Engineering Ltd (KEL), LML Ltd (LML), Yamaha Motors India Ltd (Yamaha), Majestic Auto Ltd (Majestic Auto), Royal Enfield Ltd (REL) and Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India (P) Ltd (HMSI).

Shares of Two-Wheeler Manufacturers in Industry Sales (FY2000-9MFY2005)

 
Although the three players have dominated the market for a relative long period of time, their individual market shares have undergone a major change. Bajaj Auto was the undisputed market leader till FY2000, accounting for 32% of the two-wheeler industry volumes in the country that year. Bajaj Auto dominance arose from its complete hold over the scooter market. However, as the demand started shifting towards motorcycles, the company witnessed a gradual erosion of its market share. HHML, which had concentrated on the motorcycle segment, was the main beneficiary, and almost doubled its market share from 20% in FY2000 to 40% in 9MFY2005 to emerge as the market leader. TVS, on the other hand, witnessed an overall decline in market share from 22% in FY2000 to 18% in 9MFY2005. The share of TVS in industry sales fluctuated on a year on year basis till FY2003 as it changed its product mix but has declined since then.

Technology
Hitherto, technology transfer to the Indian two-wheeler industry took place mainly through: licensing and technical collaboration (as in the case of Bajaj Auto and LML); and joint ventures (HHML).

A third form - that is, the 100% owned subsidiary route - found favour in the early 2000s. A case in point is HMSI, a 100% subsidiary of Honda, Japan. Table 2 details the alliances of some major two-wheeler manufacturers in India.

Technological tie-ups of Select Players

 

Nature of Alliance

Company

Product

Bajaj Auto

Technological tie-up

Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd, Japan

Motorcycles

Technological tie-up

Tokya R&D Co Ltd, Japan

Two-wheelers

Technological tie-up

Kubota Corp, Japan

Diesel Engines

HHML

Joint Venture

Honda Motor Co, Japan

Motorcycles

KEL

Technological tie-up

Hyosung Motors & Machinery Inc

Motorcycles

KEL

Tie up for manufacturing
and distribution

Italjet, Italy

Scooters

LML

Technological tie-up

Daelim Motor Co Ltd

Motorcycles

         

 <

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