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» Western Railway
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Group No. :
Roll No 05. 25. 33. 34. 41. 59. Name Puja Awasthi Manan Dhamecha Ajay Jain Ankita Jain Aakash Kakkad Ruchi Mehta
We are very happy to present this project. We express my profound gratitude and sincere thanks to everybody who by their direct or indirect contact have helped us in converting our thoughts into reality.
First and foremost we are extremely thankful to PROF.MONIKA ARORA for full fledge co-operation and imparting the necessary technical knowledge which led to success of my project.
We would like to thank our beloved colleagues for supporting us in the fabrication of project and their moral support in the course of project.
1.1 Indian Railway Background 1.2 History of Western Railway 1.3 About Mumbai’s Life Line 1.4 Future Life Line 1.5 Research Objectives 1.6 Structure of Study
2.1 Quantitative approach 2.2 Qualitative approach 2.3 Limitations & Problems
3. Research Findings & Analysis
3.1 Quantitative Analysis 3.2 Summary
4.1 Recommendations 4.2 References
1.1 Indian Railway Background
When the first train on the Indian soil made its maiden journey from Boribunder to Thana on the 16th of April 1853, very few might have imagined how strong the bond between the city of Bombay and the railways is going to be. Today the two are inseparable, and therefore, the railways, and more specifically, the Bombay Suburban Railways are rightly called the lifelines of the metropolis. Signs such as 'BO - 06:57 - Slow' or 'N - 08:23 - Fast' are part of the daily life of the metropolis. The suburban railways have played a very prominent role in the development of the city, and it is virtually impossible to imagine Bombay without its 'locals', as the suburban trains are fondly called. So much so, that we could almost take the Suburban Railway system for granted, thinking that it has always been like this. But if we look back and reflect, we would realize all the changes which have been gradually taking place in the suburban railway system, while it has tried to keep pace with the burgeoning demands of the metropolis.
1.2 History of Western Railway The route network
For long, the network consisted of
• • •
The Central railway main lines from Bombay Victoria Terminus (VT), now renamed Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST), to Kasara and Karjat The Central railway Harbour line from CST to Mankhurd, and its extension upto Bandra on the Western railway The Western railway line from Churchgate to Virar
A giant leap (literally too) was taken when the Central railway harbour line was extended across the Thane creek, over an imposing long bridge. This paved the way for the 'locals' to run right upto Panvel, Khandeshwar etc. This single development has made a very impacting change in the life of the residents of New Mumbai, drastically reducing the travel time to (and from) places such as Vashi, CBD-Belapur, Panvel. This has made the travel between the city of Bombay and New Bombay easier and comfortable, and indeed, contributed to the sudden spurt in the popularity of New Bombay. Similarly, electric 'local' train services now operate upto Khopoli, beyond Karjat, thus obviating the need to change at Karjat into another non-electric train, and making commuting to and from the industrial town of Khopoli simpler and faster. Another important step was taken to extend the Harbour line upto Andheri on the Western railway, adding to the convenience of the residents of the western suburbs. With this change, it was possible to operate direct services from Andheri to New Bombay. This additional pair of tracks between Bandra and Andheri also helped greatly in increasing the frequency of Andheri-Churchgate services operated by the Western railway. The opening of another line - from Thane to Belapur - in future, will further help those visiting New Bombay, including the industrial areas of Thane-Belapur road. Spread over 465 route kilometres, 191 rakes (train sets) of 9-car,12-car & 15 car (on Western railway) composition are utilised to run 2342 train services, carrying 6.94 million passengers per day. The route of Mumbai suburban Rail is displayed in map given below as follows:
1.3 About Mumbai’s Life Line:
The suburban trains consist of 9 and 12 coaches. To alleviate the problems of overcrowding, the 9 coach trains are being phased out replacing them with 12 coaches. 15 coach trains were introduced in 2010 however, these are few in number. Broadly the train contains the general compartments, ladies compartments, general first class and ladies first class. Men are not allowed to travel in the ladies compartment. The first class being more expensive and thereby tends to be a less crowded. The first class should not be boarded without a valid ticket since the penalty is high if caught.
Each train contains special coaches to cater to different needs. These are normally referred to as 'Compartments'
The General compartment: Also commonly called as 'Gent's second class' as the majority population in these compartments is men. The compartment is open to women and children as well. The General First Class compartment: Again commonly known as 'Gent's first class' since majority population is men. Women and children can also board this compartment. The coach is designated by red and yellow slant stripes. The location of the same is designated by coloring the platform walls with similar stripes. The Ladies compartment: Commonly known as 'Ladies second class'. This compartment is reserved solely for females, however male children up to the age of 13 can travel in this compartment. Men are not allowed to travel, and may face a penalty. Some of the coaches of ladies compartments are open to general public between 11:15pm – 6:30am. These are indicated by a note near the doors of the compartments. The coach is designated by green and yellow slant stripes. The location of the same is designated by coloring the platform walls with similar stripes. The Ladies First Class compartment: Commonly known as 'Ladies first class'. This compartment is reserved solely for females, however male children up to the age of 13 can travel in this compartment. Men are not allowed to travel, and may face a penalty. Some of the coaches of ladies compartments are open to general public between 11:15pm – 6:30am. These are indicated by a note near the doors of the compartments. The coach is designated by red and yellow slant stripes. The location of the same is designated by coloring the platform walls with similar stripes. This compartment is adjacent to the ladies compartment on the western line. For Handicap and Cancer Patients: For the physically challenged and cancer patients, separate coaches are reserved in each train. On a platform, one can locate these by signs or by following a 'Beep- Beep- Beep' sound indicator for the visually impaired. There is no gender discrimination in these coaches however, one needs a valid certificate of disability (in case it is not apparent) to board the compartment. Failure to do so may result in a penalty.
For Senior Citizens: A special coach is reserved for passengers above the age of 60. No gender discrimination in these coaches. For goods and heavy luggage: Heavy goods and luggage’s can be transported via the suburban trains using the compartments specially designed and reserved for this purpose.
Locating the position of compartments can be difficult for newbie’s and tourists. You can ask the seasoned passengers or always approach the vendors on the food stalls on the platform.
Carrying capacity and frequency
To try and cope up with ever-increasing demand due to the expanding population of the metropolis, the suburban railways have kept on increasing the number of services operated. Both Central and Western railways have over 1000 services daily, and these, together; handle an estimated 5 million, (yes 5,000,000!) commuters, daily. This number is more than the entire population of some countries such as Finland, Norway, New Zealand; or the combined population of Singapore & Mauritius. Western railway, for instance, has a train arriving into Churchgate at a mind-boggling interval of just 90 seconds or so, during the morning peak-hours. At an estimated 4000 people per train, just imagine the mass of humanity being discharged at Churchgate every morning! Since the frequency of trains is already near the saturation point, the carrying capacity per train was boosted by 33% by introducing 12-car locals (before this all the rakes were 9car). Over the last few years, the number of 12-car services has progressively increased, bringing some relief to the commuters staying beyond Borivali. To be able to operate these 12-car services, enormous work has been done on the station platforms, the signalto-signal spacing, and so on.
1.4 Future Life Line:
Mumbai Metro The main objective of the Mumbai Metro is to provide mass rapid transit services to people within an approach distance of between 1 and 2 kilometres, and to serve the areas not connected by the existing Suburban Rail network. The Mumbai Metro is to be built in three phases, at a total cost of 36,000 crore (US$6.84 billion).The eight lines of the system are projected to have a total length of approximately 146 kilometres (91 mi).
Length (km) Opening date
Line 1 Versova
Phase I Line 2 Charkop (2006–2015)
Line 3 Colaba
Line 4 Charkop Phase II (2011–2016) Line 5 Ghatkopar
Line 6 Andheri (E)
Dahisar (E) 18
Phase III Line 7 Hutatma Chowk Ghatkopar 21.8 (2016–2021)
Line 8 Sewri
The Western Railway (WR) has finally begun work to create paths required for the Mumbai Metro Railway trains to pass over its lines at Andheri. It has invited proposals to shift the overhead electric equipment, foot overbridge and other railway paraphernalia to make way for the Metro rail bridge. The phase I of the Mumbai Metro between VersovaAndheri and Ghatkopar intersects WR’s network near Andheri station. While talks are still on between the Mumbai Metro Railway and the WR authorities for provision of traffic blocks for local trains, the latter has begun work on its premises to ensure that there are no further delays. “Among the major works that the railways have planned to take up include dismantling of existing overhead structures and relocating them so that the alignment over which the Metro lines pass will be clear of them,’’ a senior official said. “The other major work involves dismantling, demolition and shifting of the BMC foot overbridge in the north side of the station. The out-to-out bridge will have to be rebuilt at a new location.’’ This work is scheduled to be completed within two to eight months from the time it begins. By the end of the period, it is expected that the logjam between WR and Mumbai Metro will get solved. While the railways are ready to give a block, Metro authorities are seeking more time. The MMRDA has said it has requested the railways to provide for a five-hour block every week. They reportedly want at least 30 such blocks. The railways said it would be difficult to make it five hours as there are more than 32 lakh passengers using the WR network every day for suburban trains.
1.4 Research Objectives
This project is an outcome of an analysis of Western Railways. The main purpose of the project is to find the Public Views and Problems Faced by Commuters of Western Railways. Evaluate the Commuters trends and their perceptions towards the new Mumbai Metro. Identify the factors that may draw Commuters interest and needs while commuting in Western Railway.
1.5 Structure of Study:
Following research will be followed by methodology-section that will establish qualitative and quantitative techniques to gather data. Further, findings and analysis section will present the data and evaluate it. Interpretations form this section will be used to suggest recommendations and come to a conclusion.
For accessibility and availability of information we have chosen to work on the strategies of Western Railways. Most of the information used in this project is from Primary Sources. The main source of information was the Survey. This is followed by methodology-section that will establish qualitative and quantitative techniques to gather data. In addition information was also collected from websites and other reference books.
Quantitative research is used to find statistically significant differences between findings or analysis. This approach involved two steps. Initially, a pilot questionnaire was constructed followed by the final-questionnaire. A questionnaire can be defined as “a method of obtaining specific information about a defined problem so that the data, after analysis and interpretation, results in a better appreciation of the problem”
This was done to test the effectiveness of questionnaires which was determined by using limited samples that further helped to make amendments in context with complexity, difficulty, length, etc. The main aim of pilot is to identify and alter loopholes that might deceive the end-result due to lack of understanding by respondents. This projected if the objectives were being achieved successfully by questionnaire design that would maximise the response rate and minimise errors. During this stage respondents taking part in the survey were carefully observed and their reactions/hesitations were detected. During the re-evaluation of the questionnaire one question was removed and four questions were rephrased.
These minor amendments were followed by the final questionnaire on a sample size of 25 respondents, randomly. To achieve highest and most diverse response rate Western railway route was surveyed.
Respondents were requested to complete questionnaires in and around the station arena. By using such segmentation, variety of data has been collected with different perspective and overview of commuters take on western railway.
To conduct data collection, Probability Sampling method has been used allowing each member of population an equal probability of being selected. To make sure the data collected was completely random, rule of every 2nd person has 10 been followed. This is where every 2nd person who passed-by was given a chance to be a part of the research, if they wished to do so.
Design of questionnaire:
The questionnaire primarily consists of open-ended questions which have been included for respondents to freely express their thoughts. Even though it may be complicated to analyse such question but, “it would provide with rich array of information” which will enhance the significance of data collected.
Few optional close-ended questions were asked, restricting response rate, hence making data easier to analyse and tabulate.
Qualitative-methods have been undertaken in the form of focus groups that help in examining attitudes, feelings and motivations of commuters.
This has allowed, collectively gaining an understanding of commuters and recognizing their perspectives about change to be brought in local trains. The arrangement was highly complex and difficult to achieve, however it was necessary to carry-out these in order to identify the influence of local trains on different commuters.
Our focus group comprised of group specifically include Working men and women, College students. The research conducted was unbiased.
2.3 Limitations & Problems:
The sample used for the study will not represent the whole population. Hence, analysis of about 15 people cannot determine the perspective of 3.02 million passengers.
Respondents may provide invalid answers or may not want to be a part of the research. As Clarke and Critcher (1985) explain that there is often gap between what the respondents say and do. To overcome these problems 25 questionnaires will be conducted. As a result even if a few erroneous samples are removed it would not affect the analysis.
Time was very crucial as the primary research was conducted. This was held on Borivali Station, hence each stage was carefully planned and execution of all focus groups had to be done precisely. Stationary, local transportation costs were also involved in procuring primary-data.
3. RESEARCH FINDINGS & ANALYSIS:
This research involves presentation and analysis of findings from the primary-research conducted. Several data-analysis techniques are assisted by graphs and charts to present these findings and achieve suitable results.
3.1 Quantitative Analysis Primary-research involved a questionnaire survey. 25 respondents were surveyed by questionnaires, however 10 were erroneous. Hence, the analysis will comprise of 15 findings. It is important to identify demographics this sample included which can be demonstrated by the following tables.
GRAPHS and Charts will come here
Our findings & Conclusion on survey will come here
Case Study on Survey of Western railway
Public views on western railway:
There are many problems of Indian Railways Which the administration try's to rectify. The Main and foremost problem is the Traveling public who just as they do at their homes keep the home clean by throwing the dirt on the road or in front of the neighbour’s home. Though the administration employs both private and railway staff to clean the stations and the trains, they dirty it by throwing the skin of fruits and other eatable like groundnuts, then some smoke and throw the butts in the corners and others spit the pan juice in the washbasins, after going to toilet they rarely flush it. Many a time the skin of bananas are thrown on the platform edge where last minute travelerslip. Many a passenger feels that the alarm chain is there for their convenience and pull the chain and stop the train wherever they have to get down. There are many more shortcomings suffice to say if the traveling public treats the trains as they treat their home then it will be tidy and punctual. There are few more problems in western railways which are as follows:
• Frequent delays; • Safety; • Passenger information - insufficient or delayed or absolutely no information about the changed schedules or status of the train; • Old tracks & lines needing frequent repairs & restoration [and poor safety precautions for the workers involved there]; • Improper maintenance & cleanliness of tracks, signals, stations, trains, equipment; • Passenger hygiene & filth - lack of basic civic courtesies towards fellow travelers; • Old trains - not enough upgradation; • Shortage of trains [although' system is already saturated & new trains can be added only after laying tracks & lines]; • Food service & hygiene. Having listed these shortcomings, it is still commendable how well the system works. We tend to remember the delays but not the umpteen times when trains run on time. And many times floods, rains, inaccessible terrain, etc. also contribute towards delay. Moreover there are some high-end express trains that are pretty punctual. There has been a lot of improvement over the decades including computerization, food service, more A/C coaches, new lines, etc. And, despite all the unclean habits or shortage of seating, people have and continue to make lifelong friends on their train journeys
Passenger amenities at Mumbai’s Life Line:
The railways have been regularly, and progressively, doing their bit to improve the passenger amenities. On the trains we have seen introduction of special compartments for the physically challenged. Similarly, 'ladies special' trains, which are operated during the peak hours, are a boon to the working ladies. However, the scheme of providing reserved seats for the Senior Citizens is not as successful as one would like it to be.
One of the biggest changes has come in the ticketing system. Commuters were earlier, often, faced with long serpentine queues for buying journey tickets, particularly on holidays. The introduction of Coupons, which can be purchased in advance, and can be validated at Coupon Validation Machines (CVMs for short) has totally changed the scenario, for the better. This scheme was first started by Western Railway, and the Central Railway has bettered it - atleast with respect to the CVM. The machines installed on Central Railway are of the interactive type, using which the passenger can conveniently find out the fare between any two stations. Railways have done well to have a longer validity of the coupons. Earlier they would lapse on the 31st March of every year, while now they have been valid till 31st March 2005. While the CVMs have helped the casual travelers, there is help for the season ticket holders too. Thanks to computerization, it is now possible to purchase, at a third station, a season ticket between other two stations. For example, at Bandra, one can purchase a computerized season ticket between Andheri & Churchgate. This has indeed given tremendous flexibility to the commuters, while, helping the railways to reduce preprinted stationery.
Another major change one can notice is with regard to the Train Indicator. Not very long ago, the 'Next Train' indicator used to be a clock-face with hands, operated manually, on the platform, by young boys, who seemed to remember the entire schedule by heart. The 'Destination' indicator used to be a triangular wedge-like horizontal piece, with three different destinations written on the three faces. One had to reach near these indicators to get the desired information. Then came the electronic indicators, which offer large and clearer display, thus improving visibility even from a long distance. The use of these Electronic Display Boards has made it possible to display the information simultaneously at multiple locations - station entrance, overbridge, and platforms, and to control/ change the information remotely. In the last few years, a whole lot of new foot overbridges have been added to the suburban stations. These new overbridges are broad, spacious, and airy - and have indeed given a foreign look to some of the stations. Also, they have helped eliminate the rush-hour human traffic jams which could be witnessed frequently, and have made passage hassle free and convenient. To cater to the needs of the ever-increasing populace, the railways have gradually introduced several new originating stations. Thus we now have locals starting from (and terminating at) Dombivali, Goregaon, Malad, Bhayander etc., which has made life a bit less complicated for the residents of these areas. Similarly car sheds have been added at Kandivali (on WR) and Kalwa (CR) for stabling, repair & maintenance of the rakes. The Public address system throughout the network has been immensely improved. Each station can now broadcast its own announcements, or announcements originating from the Central Announcement System. The Central Announcement System has been very useful whenever there is an inordinate delay or disruption of services. It has also been widely used to page for people who get separated from their near and dear ones, or when any emergency information is to be relayed to anyone. The railways have also used this system to inform the passengers about information about main-line trains, such as change in train timings, introduction of new trains, holiday specials, additional halt, delays etc. Similarly, auto-announcements and pre-recorded announcements which we hear now days have improved the clarity of information, and perhaps made the job of the announcers a bit less tiring. Earlier, I always felt, only the local trains themselves could match the speed at which the announcers kept announcing about the train time-platformhalts, and on many occasions it was like Greek to occasional travelers. Another aspect of improvement in passenger convenience has been the total changeover to tube-lights in the coaches, as against the incandescent bulbs used earlier. This has definitely helped the coach look brighter and cleaner, and has been of great help to those who choose to read or work during the journey.
Some time back, Mumbai witnessed several incidents of stone throwing on the locals by miscreants, inflicting injuries on many a passenger. Alarmed at these incidents, the railways have progressively provided window grills on all the rakes for the safety of the passengers. Similarly there was an accident when many ladies, who jumped off their train (which had halted midway between two stations) due to a fire, got injured due to the fall. At least Central Railway has taken steps to provide, yes 'steps' for every ladies compartment of the trains, to facilitate alighting midway if such a need arises. Similarly, many trains have been provided with speakers in passenger compartments, but I have yet not seen these getting used for any public announcement.
Dilemma Faced by People Mumbai Life Line:
In today’s world of over population Trains are undoubtedly proved as the fastest mode of transportation. However the ride earlier which was pleasurable as well as enjoyable is no longer the same. People tend to use it to reach to their workplaces quickly on a routine basis. The Mumbai local trains carry more than 6.94 million commuters on a daily basis. It has the highest passenger density of any urban railway system in the world. Overcrowding is a major problem, especially during peak (office going) hours. People don’t find a footing to stand on in the trains. People struggle, step on others feet, travel on footboards, on rooftops, on the connecting bumpers in between the bogies, hanging on the narrow piping of the windows. Due to its extensive reach across the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, and its intensive use by the local urban population, overcrowding has grown in to a compelling problem (4,700 passengers are packed into a 9-car rake during peak hours, as against the rated carrying capacity of 1,700). The other problem that surfaces while traveling in these local trains is that it is clearly mentioned not to hang from the gateways of the compartments as it is indeed risky and can prove fatal to the life of the commuter. It is dangerous and has often risked lives in the past but commuters even though aware dangle on the gateways due to lack of sitting space and tend to ignore the risk involved in dangling on the doors. Simply it has become a habit of few to dangle on the gateways of the train for lack of proper breeze inside the compartments. It is high time that the concerned officials take notice of the horrendous experience that the commuter has to go through each day to reach their destinations. A proper railway system with a few basic amenities to take care of the prestigious commuters is a must. Let’s hope for a more efficient service for the passengers soon.
The Mumbai Suburban railway is indeed a shining, perhaps unparalleled, example of efficient, punctual, pollution-free, and speedy service, backed up by a desire and commitment to continually improve, whether it relates to passenger convenience, technology, operational efficiency, or anything else. It is, therefore, not without reason, that it is called the 'Life-line of Mumbai'.
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